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direction of a single board. North Carolina has unified control of the State university, the agricultural college, and the women's college.
Into the future lead at least three paths other than the two roads recently taken by the four States listed above.
One is in the direction of dividing between the universities and the colleges the tasks of higher education. Many educators and citizens believe that a university should confine itself to junior, senior, and graduate work, leaving to the other institutions of the State the liberal arts and science courses of freshmen and sophomore years. But practice has not caught up to theory. Johns Hopkins University and Stanford University put the plan on paper, where, in the main, it still is. American University in Washington, D. C., started out as a graduate school only, but found it necessary to add undergraduate courses. So this path, although well surveyed by public opinion, is overgrown by weeds of disuse.
The second path is regional apportionment of specialized graduate work. The reduction of the number of medical schools in the United States from 107 in 1913 to 76 in 1932 is a recognition that training of doctors is so expensive and so specialized that it must be concentrated in fewer institutions. Twelve States 3 are already letting other States train the doctors they need. In the future, perhaps, the States of one region, the Northwest, for example, may agree on an educational cartel for specialized training of students for the professions, Oregon taking all the medical students, Washington taking responsibility for engineering, Idaho for advanced agriculture, etc.
The third path, open, but also almost untrodden, is national agreement that when one or two universities concentrate on a certain specialty other institutions will keep off. Universities and colleges will, for example, send students who want very advanced work in Italian to the University of California; very advanced work in Mexican culture to the University of Texas; very advanced work in tropical medicine to Tulane University, and so on. The enormous
expense of specialized research may hasten this trend. When the California Institute of Technology spends $3,000,000 on a single piece of equipment for advanced physics, it becomes plain that not many institutions can stay in the race to build up the best physics department in any American university. The United States Department of Agri
M. CHAMBERS, editor of Educational Law and Administration Magazine,
reports that 35 States have consolidated the control of two or more insti
tutions of higher education. He classifies them as to extent and kinds of consolidation schemes as follows:
A. All institutions plus supervision of lower
school system, plus other noneducational 1. N. Dak.' institutions of the State.
2. Fla.? I. All institutions of B. All institutions plus supervision of lower) 3. Idaho.? higher educa- school system of the State.
4. Mont. tion governed or
5. N. Y.3 controlled by C. All institutions plus the institutions of special one board.
6. Iowa.? education for the blind and deaf.
8. Kans. D. All institutions of higher education, exclu
9. Oreg.? sively.
10. S. Dak.. E. All institutions, except the university, plus 12. Tenn.?
(11. La. supervision of lower schools.
13. W. Va. 14. Ala.? 15. Calif.? 16. Conn.2
17. Md.2 P. All separate institutions for the education of
18. Mass.: teachers, plus supervision of the lower
19. N. H.2 school system of the State.
20. N. J.2 II. Part, but not all,
21. R. I.? institutions of
22. Vt.2 higher educa
23. Va.? tion governed) G. Principal institutions, only, not including
24. Miss.8 by one board. separate institutions exclusively for the
25. N. C.. education of teachers.
26. Colo.5 27. Ill.5 28. Ind.5
29. Me.5 H. All separate institutions for education of) 30. Mich.? teachers only.
31. Minn.5 32. Nebr.5 33. Okla.5 34. Tex.5 35. Wis.5
1 State Board of Administration.
State Board of Education. 3 Regents of the University of State of New York. * State secondary schools in Georgia are not governed by the board of regents of the university system.
A teachers college or normal school board, having no other duties. State Board of Regents. 7 State Board of Higher Education. * Board of trustees of the Universities and Colleges of Mississippi. • Newly created board of trustees of University of North Carolina to govern the three principal institutions.
culture has already recognized the need of creation of the University of the State of concentrating advanced research. Its New York under the control of a board of Office of Experiment Stations now limits regents. The University of the State of projects in the land-grant colleges and New York has no students and no universities according to a national plan faculty, but it has exercised its wide which assigns specific tasks to specific powers in coordinating all education in institutions thus eliminating duplication. the Empire State. The step that New
Coordination of higher education in the York took in 1784 is practically the same United States began in January, 1784, two step which three States took within the months after the British sailed away from last three years.
Georgia has, indeed, New York City. Gov. George Clinton called her reorganization, the Board of called upon the legislature to revive Regents of the University System of and encourage “seminaries of learning.” Georgia. In North Carolina three instituHis message and the petitions for the tions are now termed by law the Univerreorganization of King's College (now sity of North Carolina.-William Dow Columbia University) resulted in the BOUTWELL, Editor.
: Arizona, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wyoming.
Toward International Peace
Issued MONTHLY, Except JULY AND AUGUST
William Dow BOUTWELL
MARGARET F. Ryan
John H. LLOYD Terms: Subscription, 50 cents per year, in advance; to foreign countries in which the mailing frank of the United States is not recognized, 85 cents. Club rate: Fifty copies or more will be sent in bulk to one address within the United States at the rate of 35 cents a year each. Remittance should be made to the SUPERIN TENDENT OP DOCUMENTS, Government Printing Office,
'T SEEMS that the only effective way to bring about a peaceful settlement
of international disputes, and this now seems more than ever important to
us, is that we teach the Paris pact in the American high schools. At the present time this can be done entirely voluntarily. This may be accomplished by the rudimentary study of international relations in history and other social science classes, the annual essay contest on some aspect of the Paris peace pact being a helpful optional feature. I urge each State superintendent to offer this work to his students.
SCHOOL LIFE is indexed in Readers' Guide to
Periodical Literature, Education Index, and is recommended in the American Library Associa. tion's "Periodicals for the Small Library."
BIENNIAL REVIEWS NOW
COLLEGE "HONORS” COURSES
ON INCREASE School LIFE offers another new service chosen for study is less; the time devoted
“Honors' COURSES are now being offered to its readers. Beginning with this issue, to the thesis investigation may be greater; to students in more than 100 colleges in biennial reviews of various phases of the thesis must be “a contribution to
the United States, according to Prof. education will appear each month in this knowledge, the result of independent George A. Works, University of Chicago journal. The first article, reporting prog- work”; and an age limit for candidates
dean of students. Fifty-three of these ress in physical education since 1930, was for the Ph. D degree is imposed. In colleges are using the comprehensive exprepared by Marie M. Ready, specialist difficulty of attainment, the degrees of
amination. Other forms of individualizain physical education. Reviews of health Ph. D and Ed. D are not especially tion are the tutorial system, the reading education, tests and measurements, and different; it is the type of difficulty that is period, in which several weeks are set other fields of education will appear in different.
aside exclusively for reading, and the subsequent issues.
house plan in which resident heads of Publication of biennial survey facts in
THE FINANCE SURVEY
student halls offer informal instruction. SCHOOL LIFE will provide first-hand,
FACTS AND STATISTICS from every State authentic information gathered by Office
on apportionment of the school-tax dollar of Education specialists to teachers and
AUTUMN have been collected in the National Surschool administrators without delay.
vey of School Finance launched by the Heretofore these reviews waited for pub
TUTUMN is extravagant, FO lication as chapters of the Biennial and continued since July 1 of this year
Flinging far and free Survey of Education.
by funds of the General Education Board. Fine golden pennies Watch for the review of that phase of
This information, now being intereducation in which
From the poplar tree.
most authentic report on State apportion: Autumn is a spendthrift, DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN DEGREES
ment systems ever prepared. The report
will go to the printer sometime after Largess left and right, BECAUSE THERE IS A LACK of agreement on November 1 and will be ready for distri- Doubloons from the beeches the dividing line between Ed. D and Ph. bution to school administrators and State D, readers of School Life may be inter- legislators early in 1933.
Every windy night. ested in the difference as defined by El- Thirty-four States have been visited by wood P. Cubberley, eminent dean of survey staff members who collected treas- Autumn's keyless coffers, Stanford's school of education. Dean urer and auditor reports, school laws, and Bronze and gold and red, Cubberley is retiring in 1933 after 35 years other official records. State superintendof notable service to American education. ents and other State department of edu- A beggar's for the choosing: He draws the line between Ed. D and cation representatives were interviewed. Beauty is the bread. Ph. D at Stanford as follows:
Reports from States not visited have been The general procedure and requirements furnished. Splendid cooperation has been
-Harry I. MILLER, Jr. for the general university degree of doctor offered by each State. The visiting staff
St. Mark's School, Southboro, Mass. of philosophy are not essentially different included Dr. Paul R. Mort, associate sur
"To escape the boredom of study hour, Harry Miller from those for the degree of doctor of vey director; Timon Covert, Office of
writes poetry only incidentally. He likes to read good education.
Education school finance specialist; Eu- poetry, but in prose prefers 'trash,' largely detective The differences between the two degrees gene Lawler, school finance specialist;
He expects to enter Princeton, but beyond
that he is undecided about his career. He tried work lie chiefly in that a reading knowledge A. E. Joyal and David Sutton, survey
ing in a steel mill, with the result that he knows that of French and German always is required staff specialists; and Cecil W. Scott,
he does not wish to go into the steel business.”— for the Ph. D degree; a teaching major Teachers College, Columbia University. NELLIE B.SERGENT's Younger Poets, D. Appleton & Co.
Parent Education in California
By GEORGE C. BUSH
Superintendent of Schools, South Pasadena, Calif. ARENT EDUCATION in Cali- The greatest handicap to a rapid ex- night meetings to discuss leisure hours fornia is yielding wonderful re- tension of parent education classes is of boys and girls, movie attendance and its sults. The movement is about scarcity of trained teachers and leaders. effect on scholarship, home school work,
10 years old. To-day parent In California two types of classes are con- social needs of boys and girls, and kindred education is active branch of
subjects, I strongly suspect that the parentthe State department of adult education.
education statistical reports should be Development was slow, however, starting CALIFORNIA, proud of its pioneer set
revised. Especially is this true in view of with small groups of selected, serious- tlers, is creating a new generation of pioneers the philosophy which governs the proceminded and enthusiastic mothers.
in education. Nowhere have these pioneers dure in parent-education classes-particiWhen the division of adult education
advanced their outposts farther into America pation by members in a discussion under a in California was four years old, the de- of the future than in the parent education
leader rather than an address on the subpartment of parent education was inau
sector. School Life is pleased to print ject in hand is the method pursued in gurated through a grant of $8,000 from Superintendent Bush's concise account of these gatherings. the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial parent education's rise in his State.
It seems to be a well-defined policy of Foundation. Dr. Herbert Stolz was made (EDITOR.)
the bureau of parent education in my the director, and is still its guiding officer.
State to develop lay leadership which will Parent education in the State was also
carry out the philosophy that members of ducted: (1) Classes conducted by certifpromoted by the Laura Spelman Rockeicated leaders, either teachers or lay- work out their own problems; that it is
parent-education classes must learn to feller Memorial's gift of $50,000 annually for child welfare research. As a result, leaders with special certificates to do this
beyond the province of the leader or the Institute of Child Welfare was estabtype of work, and (2) study circles which
teacher to prescribe a remedy or cure for choose leaders from among their group. lished at the University of California with
the many parent-child problems. Doctor Stolz as director. His appointed
The State board of education has set up
rather liberal requirements for securing Informed parents-better schools assistants were Dr. Gertrude Laws for
a certificate to direct parent-education southern California and John Dale
Something is happening in California to classes, stressing the need of peculiar fitfor northern California. These assist
stimulate fathers' recognition of parental ness for directing parent discussions, responsibility. Fathers in increasingly ants carry on a very active and effective
rather than scholastic training. campaign in the various parent-teacher
Appli- large numbers are attending evening • organizations. Their salaries are
cants must be acceptable to groups they meetings and taking part in the discus
are to direct. borne by the State.
sions. “Dad's clubs" are being successCalifornia apportions for this type of fully operated, and at present 10 per cent Parents and teachers help class (with enrollments of from 25 to 30)
of the members of the California Congress $80 per unit of average daily attendance of Parents and Teachers are men. Very A great step forward was made when up to 10 units; $60 per unit for the next 10; significant, also, is the fact that there are attendance upon parent education classes $40 per unit for the next 10; and $30 per
more than 8,000 subscribers in California was recognized in the distribution of unit for all others. This enables the dis
to Child Welfare magazine, official journal State school funds. That marked the trict to divide the cost of such classes
of the National Congress of Parents and acceptance of parent education as a State with the State.
Teachers, which emphasizes parent educafunction. To-day a district may con- Last year there were in the State 359
tion. The California Parent-Teacher magduct parent education classes with the parent education classes under certificated
azine is also widely read. assurance that a substantial part of the paid leaders; 396 study circles; and 41 pre
There is no question of doubt as to the financial burden will be borne by the school circles. Two cities engaged paid benefit of well-directed parent-teacher State. The greatest single factor in pro- directors of parent education. Several
associations and parent-education classes moting parent education, however, has groups of “Listening Mothers" heard
to the program of education in a commubeen the work of the State Congress of radio talks given by Doctor Stolz and
nity. Betters schools are bound to result. Parents and Teachers and its individual other leaders. Approximately 17,000 were The best schools will naturally be found organizations.
enrolled in the parent-education classes. where parents are informed, where they Under the leadership of Mrs. H. R.
give thought to the curriculum, and where Archbald and Mrs. Robert E. Pierce, the
they understand and appreciate what State congress has developed an unusually One of the most positive and beneficial proper school training should be. An strong department of parent education. effects of the parent-education movement enlightened public will provide good Each district, each council, and most of
in California has been its influence upon schools for its children. Parent education the individual parent-teacher associations programs of parent-teacher-association is constantly raising the ideals of fathers have a chairman of parent education. units. Parent-teacher programs are tak- and mothers for the education of their The State convention features the work. ing on a more definite purpose, frequently children. Classes are held during the convention carrying one theme through the entire I have great faith in the ultimate success under the leadership of the chief of the year. When a junior high school parent- and widespread acceptance of parent State department, Doctor Stolz, and his teacher association will repeatedly draw, education as a phase of public-school assistants. District conventions also hold as I have seen it do in my home city, endeavor. I see tremendous possibilities classes. several hundred fathers and mothers to in it.
By MARIE M. READY
Associate Specialist in Physical Education RINCIPLE NO. 1 of the familiar diamonds, 57 cement tennis courts, 3 were used. In Kansas City, Mo., the seven cardinal principles of edu- children's wading pools, 10 lighted base- board of education cooperated in the cation is: Health.
ball diamonds, 7 lighted tennis centers, establishment of an all-year camp school "To physical education and 1 flycasting pool, 1 life-guard station, 1 for boys whose parents are employed and health instruction are assigned the task aquarium, the Olympic Swimming Sta- who do not wish to leave their children at of putting this principle into action. dium, 10 playgrounds, improved beaches home alone after school hours. Teachers
Following is a brief, condensed review and new features for 26 established and school equipment are furnished by of trends in physical education' during playgrounds.
the board of education. Boys of the the last two years. It brings up to date Interest in interscholastic and inter- fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades are the pattern of progress in physical educa- collegiate contests has been gradually eligible. The movement for summer tion heretofore printed in the Biennial decreasing; interest in intramural and camps for teachers has gained practical Survey of the Federal Office of Education. intrascholastic had been increasing. Car- recognition. In Utah, during the summer Major trends negie Foundation's fourth bulletin in this
of 1930, a group of more than 200 rural field, Bulletin No. 26, 1931, calls attention teachers from four districts camped in Widespread unemployment has imposed
to the decline in college athletic gate Zion National Park while holding an new duties on physical education directors receipts and predicts the return of a more educational conference. to extend their program to aid the un
sincere appreciation of the values of sport employed in keeping bodily and mentally and sportsmanship.
Outstanding events fit during enforced leisure. In many
It is evident that games are not suffi- The Winter Olympics at Lake Placid cities the ill wind of the crisis has provi
cient to meet the recreational needs of all and the brilliant spectacle of the summer dentially served to increase play facilities.
pupils. Other recreational activities com- games at Los Angeles developed popular Communities used and are using unem
ing swiftly to the front are music, art, and interest in many sports to which America ployment relief funds to build more parks, plays.
has given little attention. The Olympics more swimming pools, more playgrounds.
School authorities are showing a greater will undoubtedly change the emphasis in Davenport, Iowa, spent $100,000 con
interest in the educational possibilities of sports in the United States during the verting its river front into a recreation field. Dayton, Ohio, built summer camps. In Harrisburg, Ill., “it is
next few years. a public
possible for every boy in town to spend The White House Conference on Child swimming pool. Los Angeles allotted
several weeks in camp if his parents are Health and Protection: The White House $1,000,000 to its playground and recrea
willing to have him go,” and “he needs to Conference, called by President Hoover, tion department with which the following
pay only the actual cost of his food while assembled in Washington, November 19 projects for providing work for unem
there.” A 60-acre camp nearby is loaned to 22, 1930. More than 3,000 men and ployed men were carried on: 17 commuby the owner to the board of education for
women, leaders in the medical, educanity clubhouses, 5 gymnasiums, 6 swim
use in connection with its summer recrea- tional, and social fields attended. A reming pools, 3 bathhouses, 10 baseball
tion program for school children. In port of that conference, including addresses 1 A review of the last two years in health education
Lakewood, Ohio, the board of education and abstracts of various committee reports, will appear in a later issue of SCHOOL LIFE.
and the department of public recreation was published in 1931. Especially inter· Hygiene and Physical Education 1928–1930, Bulle
cooperated in providing day camping esting to teachers of physical education tin 1931 No. 20, Vol. I, Chap. 10. Price 5 cents. School
excursions for children whose parents were are abstracts of committee reports on Health Work, 1926–1928, Bulletin 1929 No. 8. Price 5 cents. Hygiene and Physical Education 1924-1926, financially unable to send them to regular recreation and physical education, youth Bulletin 1927 No. 3.
summer camps. County school busses outside of the home, and the school child.
Price 5 cents.
Teacher-training curricula: "A curri- salary tabulations,” published by the Progress of physical education as re
culum for the professional preparation of National Education Association, Washcorded in print falls into two classifica
physical-education teachers for secondary ington, D. C., 1931, includes a list of the tions-guides to teachers published by
schools, 1930,” Bulletin E-1, of the divi- salaries paid to directors or assistant State departments and city school sys
sions of health and physical education, directors of physical education in city tems; second, research studies and investi
public schools in the 78 largest cities. gations.
“Athletic coaches in junior and senior The variety of material presented in the last two years constitutes an
Physical Education Facts high schools," Circular No. 55, 1932,
Office of Education, Department of the up-to-date library of reference in physical education. Notable recent State and city
In 173 cities, boards of education cooper- Interior, presents detailed information guides are:
ate in promoting recreational programs. regarding 92 junior high school coaches For elementary schools:"Physical edu
employed in 30 States and 682 senior high
More than 2,500,000 children attend cation and health series-grades 4, 5, and
school coaches employed in 46 States. camps annually.
Research studies regarding the organ6, 1931," published by the Connecticut Board of Education, Hartford; and “Self- There are about 100,000 camp counselors
ized camp show that the camping move
ment is pointing the way toward more testing activities and contests—grades 5 in the United States.
outdoor work throughout the entire school to 8, 1931,” published by the division of
In 1931, bond issues for recreation in 27 physical and health education of the New
year. Camping in higher education has cities totaled $4,191,887.
shown unusual growth. Jersey Department of Public Instruction,
Sixty-two cole Trenton.
There are 25,509 employed recreation leges and universities now offer profesFor junior and senior high schools: “A workers in the United States.
sional courses for camp counselors. score card for evaluating physical-educa
In view of the numerous inquiries retion programs for high-school boys, 1931,"
The median salary of all ranks of physical garding camping which have been received Bulletin No. E-2, and “A score card for
education teachers in land-grant colleges and recently, “Going campward this sumevaluating physical-education programs
universities, male and female, is $3,078. mer?” was published in June, 1932, for high-school girls, 1931,” Bulletin
SCHOOL LIFE. The article gives sources
Salaries of directors of physical and No. E-3, division of health and physical health education in city public schools in
of summer-camp information. “Camping education, California Department of Ed- 78 large cities range from $1,800 to $9,000. bibliography, Circular No. 57, 1932, in
and education,” mimeographed annotated ucation, Sacramento; “Four-year highschool health program for girls, 1930," by
In 1991, the American National Red cluding a list of recent research studies and Harriet L. Fleming, published by the board Cross issued 62,693 life-saving certificates. publications regarding camping, was also of trustees, Chaffey Union High School and
published by the Office of Education.
There has been no increase in the number Junior College, Ontario, Calif.; "Tenta
Two investigations in the field of physiof drownings during the past 10 years. tive course of study in health and physical
cal education were made during the past education-Grades 7 to 12, 1931,” Bul- Grade teacher certification requirements year by the National Recreation Associaletin No. 100 F-4, division of elementary in 14 States include some training in physi- tion. One study shows that city school and high-school inspection, Indiana De- cal education.
superintendents in a large number of secpartment of Public Instruction, Indianap
ondary schools in 20 States allow physical olis; “Tentative course of study in
education to be scheduled first on the stuphysical education for boys and girls in and teacher training and certification, Cali
dent's program. The other study shows junior high schools, 1930,” Public Schools, fornia Department of Education, Sacra
that 22 institutions of higher education Baltimore, Md.; and “Physical education mento.
allow one-half or 1 unit of entrance for junior and senior high schools, July,
Gymnasium and equipment: “Gym- credit for physical education carried on in 1930,” Bulletin No. 116, by Clifford E. nasium planning and construction,” 1931,
secondary schools. Horton, published by the Illinois State
by the division of physical and health A brief summary of an experimental Normal University, Normal, III.
education, New Jersey Department of program of physical education carried on Programs for girls: “Girls' athletics' Public Instruction, Trenton.
at Letchworth Village, Thiells, N. Y., a series of questions and answers, 1930,”
Playgrounds: "Staff guide for public- appeared in the October, 1931, issue of second edition, prepared in conjunction school playgrounds”—for use by recrea
the Training School Bulletin under the with the State committee of the women's tion directors and instructors at summer title, “Physical training of dull custodial division of the National Amateur Athletic
playgrounds. Public School Messenger, patients.” Movies illustrating the develFederation, issued by the State depart
No. 6, Department of Instruction, St. opment of this class are available for loan ment of education, Columbus, Ohio; and Louis Public Schools, St. Louis, Mo. to responsible persons interested in this "A physical-education program for girls
phase of education. and women (suitable for smaller schools Recent surveys and investigations
The Wingate Memorial Foundation, and colleges), October, 1931, No. 8, by
“Physical education and health educa- through the cooperation of the Columbia Elsa Sameth and Mae B. Simas, published
tion as a part of all general teacher-training Broadcasting system, presented a series of quarterly by the University of Nevada,
curricula,” Bulletin 1932, No. 10, Office of lectures by recognized leaders in the field Reno.
Education, Department of the Interior. of physical education and athletics. MimRural schools: "The play and recreation (Order from Superintendent of Docu- eographed copies of the various talks may of children and youth in selected areas of ments. Price, 10 cents. This is an ex- be secured from the Wingate Memorial South Carolina,” Bulletin No. 275, 1931, tensive investigation of 895 institutions, Foundation, New York City. While these prepared by Mary E. Fraser, South showing that too little attention has been lectures were prepared primarily for teachCarolina Agricultural College, Clemson given to the preparation of the regular ers of physical education and athletics in College, S. C.; and “Play for rural child- grade teacher for teaching physical educa- New York City, they should be helpful to ren,” 1930, compiled by the health and tion in the elementary grades and calling directors and supervisors of physical eduphysical-education division, University of attention to a few institutions giving cation and athletics in other educational the State of New York Press, Albany. special attention to this problem; “Special institutions throughout the country.