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Higher Education's Budget

How It Will Be Balanced This Year

By HENRY G. BADGER
Assistant Statistician, Office of Education

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EDUCED instructional salaries, them. No change in tuition rate is tions are considered as a group, a general

suspended building programs, planned by any of the normal schools, nor cut of not more than about 5 per cent is curtailment of activities not by more than about 10 per cent of all the probably a safe prediction.

absolutely essential, these are institutions of higher education included the response of higher education to the in this preliminary survey.

Salaries challenge of the present economic situation. Approximately 550 universities, col- How cuts will be made

A slight decrease in teaching staff leges, and professional schools were re

salaries is apparently in store. While in quested on July 1 to report their budgets

Expenditures for all purposes will be some institutions there will be increases, for 1931-32 and tentative budgets for

cut close to 5 per cent by public universi- it is apparent that a general reduction of

ties and colleges as a class, about 5 per cent 4 to 5 per cent may be expected. Deans 1932–33. The first 200 replies received were studied as a group in an effort to

by teachers colleges and normal schools, and professors will, as a rule, take heavier

and from 5 to 10 per cent by public junior cuts than associate professors, assistant determine the trend. These institutions are scattered over the entire Nation, colleges and private institutions. While professors, or instructors, although in

some institutions expect sizable increases some individual schools the salary cut every State being represented. They

in their expenditures and others plan on burden will fall on lower ranking teachers. include 43 publicly controlled universities

As a general thing, however, salary reducand colleges, 1 private and 68 public sharp cuts, probably a general cut of about teachers colleges, 15 State normal schools,

5 per cent from the 1932 budget can be tions for persons below the grade of full 15 public junior colleges, and 58 privately anticipated for the coming year for the professor will not run more than 2 to 4 controlled universities and colleges. entire field of higher education.

per cent. This saving is to be accomplished in

It appears that salaries will remain Decreasing revenues

various ways. Several institutions report most nearly stationary in teachers col

that their building program is to be re- leges and normal schools and that they Revenues of practically all higher edu- duced or entirely suspended for the year. will be reduced most sharply in institucational institutions are expected to be Others expect to make great reductions in lower in 1932–33 than in the year just their extension and correspondence work, Here they will in some cases go down as

tions supported by private foundations. closed. While some few institutions of or will eliminate them altogether. In

much as 30 per cent, with 5 to 10 per cent every type expect increased income, in- some schools, appropriations for scientific

reductions fairly common. A fairly concluding one school which expects to double research are reduced or dispensed with.

sistent reduction of 4 to 5 per cent for all its 1931-32 income in 1932–33, there is But few deep cuts are to be made in noticeable a downward trend of approxi- expenditures for core activities: adminis- tutions seems also to be expected.

teaching positions in State and city instimately 5 to 7 per cent. This trend is trative overhead, resident instruction, fairly uniform for the public and private libraries, and operation and maintenance

Some institutions report that they will universities, colleges, and teachers col

neither cut salaries in the different grades of the plant. The deepest cut reported leges, but it is not so pronounced amo

nor decrease the total number of persons is 50 per cent, in a denominational college. junior colleges and normal schools. In Among the institutions under public con

on their teaching staff. It appears, howother words, degree-granting institutions trol the greatest cut expected is 35 per

ever, that in many instances savings will the country over appear to face a slightly cent. A few increases in this group of

be effected by filling vacancies at reduced heavier loss of income than those schools

rankings—in other words, at reduced items are expected, but when all instituwhich do not grant degrees.

salaries; that is, in some schools the In isolated instances the expected

number of professors and associate prorevenue for the coming year is 60, 55, and

fessors is to be reduced and that of in

Good References Free in one case 32 per cent of that for the year

structors increased, while the total numjust closed.

Goon REFERENCE bibliographies pre- ber of teaching positions remains the This decrease in revenue is due in rge pared by Office of Education staff spemeasure to an expected reduction in re

cialists are available upon request to the Great changes in the total number of ceipts from public funds, although private Commissioner of Education, Office of faculty members will be rare. The most institutions are also facing reductions in Education, Department of the Interior, outstanding changes will take place among income from tuition charges and earnings Washington, D. C. The series, with publicly supported institutions, one city of invested funds. Direct gifts to colleges others to follow, includes: No. 1, Teachers college expecting to add 24 to its staff and are also expected to decrease in number

of Rural Schools: Status and Preparation; one State university planning to drop 27. and size. The expected decrease in inNo. 2, Vocational Guidance; No. 3,

Among the private institutions one univer

in come from these sources averages about 5 Supervision of Instruction Rural sity will increase its teaching staff by 7, to 7 per cent, although among the normal

Schools; No. 4, The Education of Women; which is about a 3 per cent increase; a schools it does not seem to average much

No. 5, Nursery Education; No. 6, Educa- private college will cut its faculty from more than 2 per cent. tion by Radio; No. 7, The Home Eco

63 to 54. The general trend, however, is Very little change is expected in the gen

nomics Curriculum; No. 8, Indigenous to hold the faculty intact in public instieral level of tuition rates and fees per stu- Peoples of Mexico; and No. 9, Junior tutions and to reduce it by only about 1 dent. Some few schools expect to in(High) Business Education.

or 2 per cent in private universities and crease these charges; still fewer will cut

colleges.

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SEPTEMBER, 1932

15

Iowa's Preschool Education Plan

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By GEORGE D. STODDARD *

Director, Iowa Child Welfare Research Station
POWA, which has set a pace for other invariably necessitates methods and mate- The plan may be divided into four sec-

States in dental and medical hygiene, rials different from those of the primary tions as follows:
literacy, extension service, higher ed- grades.

1: State supervision of nursery schools.ucation and research in child welfare, 5. Special attention should be paid to It is proposed that the State department has made definite plans for the education the educational needs of rural children of public instruction appoint a committee of preschool children. Ten recommenda- in the hope of coming closer to a realiza- of experts to prepare a report entitled tions and a 4-part plan of action offered tion of the aim of equal opportunity for “Standards for Nursery Schools in Iowa." by the Iowa White House Conference farm and city children.

This report should describe with respect to housing, materials, staff, methods, and aims not only minimum standards, but standards designated good and excellent. National groups have already issued preliminary reports of this nature. It is further proposed that the department of public instruction utilize these standards in the supervision and rating of existing nursery schools. It is believed that these schools would welcome impartial inspection at a professional level.

II: Temporary State aid to demonstration nursery schools.—In order to bridge the gap between nursery schools or preschools established for research and training purposes and nursery schools as a part of public-school systems, it is proposed that the State give partial and temporary aid to a limited number of demonstration nursery schools. Expense of such ventures may well be shared equally by the parents of children enrolled, the local school system, and the State during a fixed period of demonstration and experi

ment. At the end of this period these Iowa promotes parent education for mothers of infants and preschool children.

nursery schools would be completely supCommittee on the Infant and Preschool 6. The establishment of mental hygiene ported by the parents and the local schools. Child which should be helpful to other and guidance clinics should be encouraged. III: A survey of the extent and nature of States, are:

7. Parent education for mothers of kindergarten education in Iowa, to be ac

infants and preschool children should be companied by appropriate recommendaTen recommendations

promoted especially, since so many factors tions.-Schools which simply permit 51. The principle of research on normal of health and behavior are paramount year-olds to mingle with older children in children should be maintained and when

during the earliest years of childhood. the first grade should not be credited with feasible expanded.

8. Public and corporate institutions kindergarten facilities. National associa

(such as parks, hotels, and railways) 2. Nursery schools organized in State

tions have provided adequate materials should be aided in securing better areducation institutions in order to prepare rangements for the temporary care and

for standards here. Such a survey, with students for later activities in home or

an ensuing report indicating how Iowa supervision of children. school should be maintained at the highest

may more closely approach national stand

9. Active cooperation of many State ards in kindergarten education, should professional level.

and local bodies should be enlisted on be undertaken by the State department of 3. Organization of nursery schools, the problems of the infant and preschool public instruction. when sponsored professionally and with child viewed as a whole. Coordination of IV: A special study of the home condidue attention to standards should be

the hygiene, medical, educational, psy- tions and needs of the infant and preschool encouraged, whether the auspices be chological, psychiatric, and legal aspects child on the farm.-Consolidated schools private or public.

of child welfare appears essential to steady offer practically as good opportunities for 4. Every effort should be made, consis- progress.

nursery and kindergarten groups as do tent with the maintenance of good edu- 10. Teachers of young children should schools in small towns, but this can not cational standards, to extend public be made increasingly familiar with the be said of Iowa's 9,000 1-room rural schools downward to include the kinder- principles of child development and schools. Obviously the educational needs garten age. Such downward extension behavior while in training institutions, and of a large proportion of Iowa's preschool

schools should be urged to give more *Chairman, Committee on Education and Training

children for many years to come must be of the Infant and Preschool Child, lowa White House weight to this factor in the selection of met entirely in their own homes. ThereConference on Child Health and Protection. their teaching staff.

(Continued on page 18.)

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Courtesy National Child Research Center

HAVE YOU READ?

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Notice DUE TO A REDUCTION in printing funds for the Office of Education in the present fiscal year, publication of the Record of Current Educational Publications will be suspended. The last number of the series

covered the period of January to March, Drawing by Erwin H. Austin, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y.

inclusive.
By SABRA W. VOUGHT
Librarian, Office of Education

20 pictures for the physical sciences, EVERAL new educational quarterlies fessor of the teaching of English, New social sciences, biological sciences, and the have appeared in the past few York University, in “The thinness-fatness humanities. The University of Chicago

months, each of them making a val- of English teachers” reviews an Almost- Magazine for June tells the plan in “The uable contribution to its special field: any University publication. He works out university extends itself.” ( A charm

Teaching in Practice published by the mathematical formulæ showing the rela- ing essay by Leon H. Vincent appears in teachers and supervisors of Division V of

tion between avoirdupois, bottles of ink, Peabody Journal of Education for July. New York City (Public School 109, red pencils, and theme correction. He has discovered a little book entitled Queens Village, N. Y.) will be a clearing (Pres. H. W. Wriston, of Lawrence “A plan for the conduct of female educahouse for information about successful College, in the Bulletin of the Association tion in boarding schools” written by experiments and projects tried in the of American Colleges for May, reports the Erasmus Darwin in 1797. ( An encourclassrooms. (The International Quar- results of a study which he made recently aging account of how the Indian problem terly of Adult Education is the official among the members of his own faculty. is being solved is given by Ray Lyman organ of the World Association for adult “Objective indices of faculty scholarship Wilbur, Secretary of the Interior, in education (16 Russell Square, London, obtainable through the library” gives the The Indian Problem Approaches SoluEngland) and takes the place of the bulle- procedure followed and the conclusions tion, which appears in the Missionary tin of that association. The articles are in drawn from data furnished by the li- Review of the World for July-August. English and German with each abstracted brarian concerning the number and kind We are glad of the assurance that in the other language. ( Educational of books drawn from the college library are being read by our contempoTrends, a journal of research and inter- by members of the faculty. ( Always a raries. Practical Home Economics for pretation, is issued by the School of pioneer, the University of Chicago is em- August has a new section headed Have Education of Northwestern University. barking on a new venture, “talking mo. You Read? which lists with brief com( Yeshiva College, New York City, is tion pictures as an integral part of its ment several articles appearing in curpublishing "Scripta Mathematica, de- new general courses for freshmen and rent periodicals and dealing with home voted to the philosophy, history and ex

sophomores.” Work is to begin at once on economics problems. pository treatment of mathematics." An outstanding first-issue article, by David Eugene Smith, is Thomas Jefferson Questions They Ask at Chicago U. and Mathematics. ( A revealing bit of history comes to light in a series of letters in Columbia University Quarterly for June. George Washington's selection of a NIVERSITY of Chicago's plan of devoting the freshman and sophomore college for his stepson John Parke Custis is the subject of the correspondence which

I mission of the University, SchooL LIFE will present monthly some of the

years to general survey courses has attracted national attention. By pergives a picture of King's College and sev- questions asked in Chicago examinations. School Life readers, nearly all of whom eral other contemporary institutions. are college graduates will, no doubt, be able to answer the questions with ease, but

Several friends and many admirers they may like to try them on their friends.-EDITOR. write of Vachel Lindsay in the Elementary English Review for May. It is a memorial

Place the number of the term before the descriptive statement to which it applies. number and the list of contributors car

There are more terms than statements. ries several distinguished names. A vivid 1. Exogamy.

In the Hawaiian Islands there formerly existed a form of picture of Lindsay is presented from the

marriage wherein a group of brothers were married to a time when he was a “tow-headed pupil” 2. POLYGAMY,

group of sisters, each sister being the wife of all the brothers, until the days when he delighted in read- 3. POLYGYNY,

and each brother the husband of all the sisters. ing his wonderful poems to thousands of 4. ENDOGAMY.

In Eastern and Southeastern Asia, particularly in Tibet, school children. Portraits of Lindsay and

3a

it is common practice for brothers to take the same wife. his family make the sketches still more 5. MONOGAMY.

In New Caledonia, chiefs have from 5 to 30 wives and vivid. The dignified American Scholar

their wealth and authority varies with this ownership. has in its May number a humorous bur. 6. POLYANDRY.

Among certain of the American Indian tribes, each clan is lesque of the present tendency in sta

distinguished by a totem and two persons of the same tistical research. Walter Barnes, pro

totem can not marry.

SEPTEMBER, 1932

17

Waves of Speech

The Herald's Horn

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By CLINE M. KOON ISS FLORENCE HALE wel- Bogan's speech, especially the latter part Specialist in Education by Radio comed to Atlantic City, the week explaining Chicago's plight.

THE COMMITTEE on Civic Educabefore the 4th of July, approxi- An acute analysis of our gains and our mately 6,000 members of the National shortcomings was made by State Superin- the National Advisory Council on Radio

tion by Radio, formed last winter by Education Association, where they had, tendent Butterfield. Very humorous was

in Education, is again sponsoring the radio due to the depression, almost exclusive Lucy Mason Holt's address on class size.

series entitled, “You and Your Governuse of 6 miles of beach, 6 miles of board

Garry Cleveland Myers delivered a walk, and 60 first-class hotels.

ment,” every Tuesday evening, from 8 speech of practical value to the class

to 8.30 eastern daylight saving time (beThe convention program, one of the

room teacher on building personality in ginning September 27, 8 to 8.30 eastern strongest for a National Education Associ

the classroom. Dr. Fred J. Kelly, pre- standard time). This series will be conation summer meeting in recent years, was sented before the National Council on Ed

tinued weekly at the same hour over a organized to deal with a number of press

ucation, a most definite series of proposals nation-wide network of the National ing problems: (1) The implications of the for finding a way out of our dilemma.

Broadcasting Co. economic collapse for education generally; (2) reports of the effects of the depression

There will be a preelection series of

A charter for education on education in various localities; (3) the

nine broadcasts, on the general theme of debating program dealing with contro

Government in a Depression, to be fol

The National Education Association versial problems; (4) a review of recent

lowed immediately after election with Resolutions for 1932, which are really 90

another series of seven on Constructive events in education; (5) descriptions of per cent platform and 10 per cent resolumodern methods in teaching; (6) a forecast tions, deserve more attention than they Economy in State and Local Govern

ment. There will be addresses, debates, of forward-looking movements; and (7) are likely to receive, because almost no one the problems of professionalizing teaching. reads resolutions.

interviews, and round-table discussions.

A person who devotes In addition to leaders in every field of

The sole purpose of this series is to present time to the document adopted will find education, convention speakers included

nonpartisan, impartial, and authoritative that the new platform is one of the best well-known persons in other fields of

information to the American people. charters for education in the United States endeavor; authors and economists, prison that has yet been prepared.

Teachers in the field of social science wardens and ministers, who presented

will find these broadcasts can supply &

Approximately 40 National Education their views and challenges to America's

wealth of source material to be used by Association departments and allied organischool family.

their students. zations also held meetings in Atlantic City

The University of ChiA guide to speeches during the week of the convention.

cago Press can supply further information, WILLIAM Dow BOUTWELL.

including a schedule of the programs, Words which flowed white hot from the

Listener's Handbooks, copies of the lips of principal speakers can be found

broadcasts, etc.

United States Maps solidified in the cool, dignified pages of N. E. A. Proceedings by the time this

for 600 New York Schools Have you been reading “Coming on the chronicle reaches SchooL LIFE readers.

Air,” in the Journal of Education? This SETS OF 50 CONTOUR MAPS ($3 a set) for Because of space limitation, brief men

is a weekly schedule of nation-wide educause in geography classes in about 600 tion can be made of only a few convention

tional broadcasts. schools in New York State have been addresses included in this collection.

ordered from the Geological Survey, Many thousands of teachers welcomed A far-reaching speech educationally was that of Dr. William Carr, which punched D. C., by the visual instruction division

Department of the Interior, Washington, the good news that the American School holes in many current ideas that bigger of the New York State Department of

of the Air and the NBC musical apprecia

tion broadcasts are being continued durclasses are also better.

Education. This State is making inten- ing the current school year. Of extreme interest was the debate of

sive use of Government maps, and those McGaughey against Mort on ability

on ability of the Geological Survey were selected Both the Ohio State Department of grouping.

as best representing geographic types in Education and radio station WMAQ, ChiHendrik Willem Van Loon's speech left

that particular State. Sets of contour cago, broadcast “Summer Schools of the hearers with an acute feeling of being in

maps for other States are also available Air” during the past summer. Through the midst of a social revolution.

for school use from the Geological Survey. the cooperation of the Chicago Public The address by Warden Lewis E. Lawes

School system, radio textbooks were preon Prevention of Crime Through Educa

Nursery Circular Free pared to be used by the pupils of Chicago tion was widely discussed. It attracted

in connection with the broadcast lessons. much attention in the newspapers and was OF 203 NURSERY SCHOOLS in the Cnited reprinted in the magazine section of the States, 73 are privately supported, 74 Students of astronomy should hear the New York Times, Sunday, July 31. are supported by colleges and univer- three radio broadcasts by Sir Arthur

William T. Foster, in his argument for sities, 43 by welfare and philanthropic Eddington, noted astronomer, over larger support for education, gave a new organizations, and 13 by public school nation-wide hookup of the National economic reasonableness for ample expend- systems. Office of Education Circular Broadcasting Co. on September 8, 15, and itures for education.

No. 47 lists these nursery schools lo- 22, from 9 to 9.30 p. m. E. D. S. T. The Probably the most interesting discussion cated in 121 cities, 35 States, the District National Advisory Council on Radio in of a local situation was Supt. William J. of Columbia, and Hawaii.

Education is sponsoring the broadcasts.

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IOWA'S PLAN

For Health's Sake (Continued from pago 16)

Information Wanted THE FIRST health education institute to be fore, the finest cooperation of medicul,

conducted by the public health education dental, public health, psychological, edu- UPERINTENDENTS, how are your

section of the American Public Health ontional, and social forces must be brought schools aiding the unemployed? How

Association will be held at the Hotel to bear on this great problem. A special are postgraduate unemployed persons

Willard, Washington, D. C., October Nudly under the general direction of the being helped by the schools? What, in 22, 23, and 24, immediately preceding the department of public instruction, but en- detail, is your school plan to help in the annual association meeting which opens listing the activity of other State and pri- prosent emergency? Your suggestions October 24. Instruction in the content vate organisations, would bring out the sent to the Editorial Division, Office of and methodology of health education neede peculiar to those children, and, Education, will be appreciated and will be will be provided at the institute to a most important of all, would focus atten- passed on to others through Scuool Life. limited number of persons actively ention on practical wave of assisting farm The Office of Education also welcomes gaged in health education. parente information giving examples of school

Agriculture Films Available According to the general recommenda

systems inviting or naming of citizens to tions of the White House Conference hold curriculum construction committees - Films FOR SCHOOL USE on such subjects as

Evitor. in Wasdungton, "ventures in nursery

farm crops, dairying, farm animals, farm

forestry, plant and animal diseases and sohool education should be encouraged,

pests, farm economics, farm engineering, and it is hoped that out of the social era

home economics, and adult and junior perimentation new sing forward there will alive a more adequate realisation of

ertension work, are available again this l'seful Lists for Reference

year from the Office of Cooperative the prical, mental and social neexis of

CIRCULAR Lists of Government publica- Extension Work, V. S. Department of ung children,"

tions useful to teachers of various sub- Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Prices

jerts are available fier from the Office for film strips range from 14 to 85 cents GUARDING CHILDREN

or Education, D.purtment of the Interior, each, the majority selling for 28 or 35 Ritimitettu /M ም

Washington, D. C. as follows: No. 28, cents each. A complete list of available

Geography; No. 48 Science; No. 52, film strips and instructions how to naruto in * film new used by the

Home Economies; No. 51, Health; No. purchase them may be obtained from the American Automobile Isolation to illus

38, 4rt Education; and No. 54, Parent Cooperative Extension Office, Washing. true classnitt levar Education

ton, D. C. In his cits new kring salers dan mantients in the shouls the her in work is the nucleus for cities include moiements. High waist attentes parent

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