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A Long Time Program in Collecting National Statistics
on Education T
lege and university, current expense,
per school day per child in public elementary school, 39 cents; ? in high school, 80.9 cents. Cost per hour per child in public elementary school, 7.8 cents; in high school, 16 cents. Cost per hour per class (average of 39 elementary pupils), $3.04; (average of 25 high-school pupils), $4.
HIS YEAR the Office of EduOf these costs 75 per cent are for pro
cation starts on a new program
Studies Planned viding instruction by trained teachers and
in collecting and reporting AMONG THE SPECIAL STUDIES planned supervisors.
statistics. Since its beginning
for this year are: Economic Outlook in 1867, one of the most important tasks
in Higher Education; Effect of the How we spend our money of the office has been the collection of
Depression on Rural Schools; Edustatistics of education on a national scale. cation in Foreign Countries During Discussions of the cost of education During the years this load has increased, the Depression; Grade Enrollments always raise the question of how America until last year that part of the office's
in City School Systems; Statistics of spends its income. It is interesting to work alone involved the tabulation of more
Small Cities; Per Capita Costs in note that: than 60,000 inquiry forms for 25 statistical
City Schools; Special Schools and The average annual expenditure for reports, resulting in more than a thousand
Classes in City Schools; Statistics of operating a small pleasure car is approxi- pages of print.
Rural Schools in Selected Counties; mately $700. Efforts to improve these statistical re
Negro Education, 1928–1932; Cost of The average annual expenditure for ports are continuous. In the first place, Textbooks; and Expenditures in educating a child in public elementary securing truly national statistics is a diffi Liberal Arts Colleges. schools is less than a tenth of the cost of cult matter, and one of slow, painstaking running a car.
development, since the reports from States, elementary children for whom only mea--William Dow BOUTWELL. cities, and individual institutions are ger information has so far been available. voluntary, except for those from land
Since many of the statistical reports EDUCATION WEEK HELPS grant institutions. However, every year have been issued as parts of the Biennial
shows a gain toward completeness. For Survey of Education, the statistical load THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
example, 300 more private high schools has tended to become top-heavy in the which cooperates each year with the and academies reported for this past bien
The new program arFederal Office of Education and the nium than for the previous one. Also, all
ranges the statistical studies in rotation, American Legion in sponsoring American
but two of the institutions existing pri- evening up the load, making it possible to Education Week has prepared “helps” marily for the training of teachers were for teachers and school administrators.
publish reports more promptly, and leaving present in this report. Other fields time for more studies of special problems. A complete set of “helps" is included showed similar gains.
We have now classified our statistical in specially prepared dollar packets as
Another effort toward completeness is studies follows:
of three types: (1) Those that of securing statistics of educational which will be issued biennially, (2) those
agencies and institutions and activities to be issued less often than every two 1 American Education Week Hand
which heretofore have not been reported years, but nevertheless regularly; and (3) book, 1932. 32 pages.... $0. 25
on a national scale. For example, this special and occasional studies which will 1 set of 15 posters and cartoons... . 25
past year reports were received from more be undertaken as the situation demands. 2 colored announcement posters, 11
than 6,000 private elementary schools, fur The following table shows the plan as x 17 inches
nishing information concerning the educa mapped out through 1937–38. 5 copies Message to Parents. 16 tional provisions for more than 1,800,000
-Bess GOODYKOONTZ. pages 5 copies Children First. 4-page
Ten year program of Collection of Statistics leaflet.com 1 copy Your Child and Its School. 4-page leaflet.--
. 05 1 copy School Home of Your Child.
Special studies ** 4-page leaflet.
high schools Public
Order direct from the National Education Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. Lower prices for large orders. “Helps,” may be ordered separately, if desired.
• For this report the complete forms will be sent out, but only certain of the most important data will be
See others listed below.
Lest We Forget A True Drama of the Rise of American Education
in Five Acts
arithmetic might do one or two sums in only things taught, and these very ina day, if they could do them without the differently-not wholly from the stupidity
master's assistance; he gave me one sum of the teacher, but because he had forty Dest we foRGET.” in the single rule of three, which I could scholars, and the custom of the age reThis is the keynote set for American not resolve for two or three days; after quired no more than he performed.Education Week, November 7th to 13th. requesting him a number of times to in- SAMUEL G. GOODRICH. From “Old Time
Lest we in the darkness of depression form me, he would reply he had no time, Schools and School Books" by Clifton forget the story of our forefathers' struggle and I must study the answer.-From Johnson. to give their children adequate education, “Cape Cod-Its People and Their Hisschools are urged to tell the story once tory," by HENRY C. KITTREDGE.
Act III : Georgia—1832 again.
THE SCHOOLMASTERS The words of the following drama of
Act II : Connecticut-1800 the rise of education in America are not
To an aged middle Georgian the oldfiction. They are the eye-witness ac- I was about six years old when I first field schoolmaster of his childhood, as he counts. Each vivid word picture lifts
went to school. My teacher was “Aunt now recalls him, seems to have been the curtain on education in some period
Delight,” a maiden lady of fifty, short and somewhat of a myth, or at least a relic during the last 170 years. The quotations bent, of sallow complexion and solemn of a long past decedent race, never existmay be of use in connection with the
aspect. We were all seated upon benches ing except in a few individuals unlike any preparation of addresses. They may sug
made of slabs—boards having the exterior others of human mold, appearing during gest ideas for the planning of pageants or or rounded part of the log on one side. periods in rural communities, bringing in programs devoted to the rise of education
As they were useless for other purposes, a red-spotted bandanna handkerchief his in the United States.
they were converted into school benches, household goods, and in his tall, whitish
the rounded part down. They had each furred, long-experienced hat a sheet of Act I : Cape Cod—1760 four supports, consisting of straddling foolscap, on which was set down what he The Deacon left an illuminating acwooden legs set into auger holes.
called his "school articles.” A rather count of his experiences as a pupil in
The children were called up one by one reticent man was he to begin with, generthe pre-Revolutionary schools of Yar
to Aunt Delight, who sat on a low chair, ally serious, sometimes even sad looking, mouth. He says that the teacher "was
and required each, as a preliminary,
a preliminary, as if he had been a seeker of things occult generally placed in a great chair, at
"to make his manners,” which consisted and was not content with the results of a large table before a large fireplace.
of a small, sudden nod. She then placed his quest. Within some months, seldom
the spelling-book before the pupil, and completing the year, with the same banWhen he entered, every scholar must
with a pen-knife pointed, one by one, to danna and hat, noiseless as he had come, make a bow. The master would make a
the letters of the alphabet, saying “What's he went his way. Generally he was short prayer. The Bible class was then that?”
unmarried, or, what was not so very far called out to read one chapter, standing I believe I achieved the alphabet that different, followed by a wife unique lookin a half circle behind the master. He summer. Two years later I went to the ing as himself, if possible some nearer a would meantime be employed making winter school at the same place kept by blank, who had never had the heart to pens, etc., while each scholar would men
Lewis Olmstead-a man who made a increase the family any further. After tion the number and read one verse, while
business of ploughing, mowing, carting his departure came on another, who might some might be playing pins and others
manure, etc., in the summer, and of be larger and might be smaller, who might matching coppers.
teaching school in the winter. He was be fairer and might be browner, who might Then the Psalter
a celebrity in ciphering, and Squire Sey- be more pronounced in manner and speech class read in the same
mour declared that he was the greatest and might be less, but who had the disThe master would be writing copies, set
"arithmeticker” in Fairfield County. tinctive marks that were worn by no other ting sums, making and mending pens, etc., There was not a grammar, a geography, or people under the sun. while nearly all the scholars would be a history of any kind in the school. Now the idea that a native-born citizen playing or idle. The most forward in Reading, writing, and arithmetic were the competent to instruct children would have
been content to undertake such a work was to the most assured high-school senior, not entertained. Somehow, keeping a
Act V : New York-1932 the general routine is much the same. school was regarded as at the bottom on Bells divide the day into periods. For Is this a schoolhouse, this great, sunlit the list of vocations. the 6-year-olds the periods are short (15 to home? These cheerful
rooms-walls 25 minutes) and varied; in some they colorful with children's paintings, floors THE SCHOOLHOUSE
leave their seats, play games, and act out spotted with bright rugs, light, movable A place was selected on the edge of a make-believe stores, although in "recita- tables, and comfortable chairs—are these wood and in a field turned out to fallow, tion periods" all movement is prohibited. classrooms? Groups of children engaged sufficiently central, hard by a spring of As they grow older the taboo upon physi in animated conversation-are these purest fresh water, a loghouse was put cal activity becomes stricter, until by the classes? Is this the assembly room of a up, say 30 by 25 feet, with one door and third or fourth year practically all move school, or is it a children's theater? a couple of windows and shelves, with ment is forbidden except the marching The new school is different-different benches along the unceiled walls, and the from one set of seats to another between in atmosphere, housing, furniture; differsession began. Most families breakfasted periods, a brief interval of prescribed ex ent in its basic philosophy and psychology; about sunrise, and brisk walk of three- ercise daily, and periods of manual train different in the rôle that it assigns to pupil quarters of an hour brought even re ing or home economics once or twice a and teacher initiative. motest dwellers to the early opening. week. There are “study-periods” in For the new school is a child's world in
which children learn "lessons” from child's-size environment. Here he STUDYING ALOUD
"textbooks” prescribed by the State and lives in a democracy of youth. His needs, The fashion of studying aloud in "recitation periods” in which they tell an his interests, as well as adult insight schools, now so curious to recall, did not adult teacher what the book has said; one concerning his future life, determine what produce the confusion which those not
hears children reciting the battles of the goes on in this school. accustomed to it would suppose. Besides Civil War in one recitation period, the Picture, then, children who can not get the natural desire to avoid punishment, rivers of Africa in another, the “parts of to school early enough, and who linger rivalries were often very active, particu- speech" in a third; the method is much about the shops, laboratories, yards, and larly among girls, and during the time the same.
libraries until dusk or urgent parents drag devoted wholly to study, there were few With high school come some differ- them homeward. Observe these busy who did not make reasonable effort to
ences; more "vocation” and “labora- and hard-working youngsters who seem to prepare for recitation. Spellers, readers, tory” work varies the periods. But here play all day, who do not seem to have geographers, grammarians, getters-by- again the lesson-textbook-recitation meth- lessons and recitations, yet who do not heart, all except cipherers, each in his or od is the chief characteristic of education. wait for teachers to make assign. her own tongue and tone, raised to height For nearly an hour a teacher asks ques- ments. sufficient to be clearly distinguished from tions and pupils answer, then a bell rings,
Here is a group of 6 and 7 year olds. others by individual ears, filled the room on the instant books bang, powder and They dance; they sing; they play house and several square rods of circumambient mirrors come out, there is a buzz of talk and build villages; they keep store and space outside. In this while the master, and laughter as all the urgent business of
take care of pets; they model in clay and deaf to the various multitudinous sounds, living resumes, momentarily for the chil- sand; they draw and paint, read and write, sat in his chair, sometimes watching for a
dren, notes and "dates” are exchanged, make up stories and dramatize them; they silent tongue, at others, with lack-luster five minutes pass, another bell, gradual work in the garden; they churn, and eyes gazing through the door into the sliding into seats, a final giggle, a last vanity
weave, and cook. world beyond, perhaps musing when and
case snapped shut, “In our last lesson In another building we come across a where, if ever in this life, this toiling, fight
we had just finished”-and another class is shop where one is wiring a doll house for ing, migratory, isolated, and about friend- begun.- From "Middletown," by ROBERT electric lights and another is making less career would find respite. S. LYND and HELEN MERRELL LYND. rough-and-ready reflectoscopes. Over all
the walls are blueprints, maps, and Act IV : Middletown--1925
posters, and models of things made and in The school, like the factory, is a thor
the making-ships, steam engines, cars, oughly regimented world. Immovable
airplanes, submarines, sets for scenes, and seats in orderly rows fix the sphere of activ
even the swords and bucklers of medieval ity of each child. For all, from the timid
Child-Centered 6-year-old entering for the first time
School,” by HAROLD O. Rugg and ANN
Lorin Thompson, jr. Carnegie Institute of Technology
None Without Hope The Story of 122 Children Salvaged for Society
by a Friendly School
EVENTEEN YEARS in the life By ELISE H. MARTENS * help of the staff of the Henry Phipps of any person may bring about
Psychiatric Clinic of Johns Hopkins changes that are little dreamed
THIS ARTICLE is based upon a report made University. As part of a pioneer moveof. What they have brought to a group of 122 children of subnormal
by Dr. Ruth E. Fairbank of the Henry ment to protect the mental health of the
Phipps Psychiatric Clinic of Johns Hop- community a survey was made of the mentality, tucked away in a corner of an
kins University. eastern city, is a challenging testimony to
The original survey in mentality of the school population of the : the possibilities for development that lie
1914 was made under the direction of Dr.
district. Of the 1,281 children attending C. Macfie Campbell and was part of a
school, 166 “were found to be sufficiently hidden within the natures of those who have come into this world with minds that program of district surveys outlined by Dr.
subnormal to indicate a need of special Adolf Meyer. The follow-up study in 1930
requirements.” are poorly endowed. and 1931 was made at the suggestion of Dr.
These 166 pupils were divided into three In 1914 these children were considered rather hopeless in their possibilities for
Meyer and Miss Persis Miller, Principal groups according to the degree of handiof Locust Point School. It is by courtesy
cap. The first group of 22 children showed self-supporting, self-controlled citizenship. of all these individuals that this article ap
an average intelligence quotient of 61 and In 1931 three-fourths of them pears here. All quotations are from Dr.
an average chronological age of 12 years. economically independent. The story of
All but five of them "were in the ungraded their development is the story of the
Fairbank's manuscript. Her complete reschool and of the social environment in
classes in the public school, and most of port will appear in an early issue of Mental Hygiene.”
them had a family history of feeblewhich they grew up. It is a story that
mindedness, alcoholism, or immorality. challenges the statement that the mentally deficient are unemployable. It is a story,
1920 not only serves as a school house; Many had special physical handicaps, it also includes work shops, a gymnasium,
were unable to read or write or do an too, that challenges the attention of the a public library, and a dispensary to
errand, or had delinquency traits.” school superintendent and the school board member who are face to face with
which parents as well as children have Prospects of such a group for self-support the responsibility of securing value reaccess. Here community social gatherings
were poor indeed.
The second are held, motion pictures are shown,
group, numbering. 78 ceived for every expenditure made in the educational program of their community.
night classes are open to all who will children, had an average intelligence quocome, library privileges are for old and
tient of 72 and an average chronological young alike, and mothers are invited to
age of 11 years. The third group of 66 Locust Point bring their offspring to the baby clinic.
children showed the same general level Locust Point is one of the school
Other constructive forces are also at
of intelligence, but they exhibited other
traits which seemed to justify the expecdistricts of the city of Baltimore. Geowork. The church, the Family Welfare
tation of somewhat greater achievement graphically it is an isolated community, Association, the Labor Bureau, the Social its inhabitants being bound together by Service Exchange, the Juvenile Court,
from them than from those in group two. common industrial interests that are the Police Court all have their part to
Yet for all of them the prognosis for eco
nomic efficiency was none too good. centered in its factories, its railroad play. The active cooperation of each
What has become of these children? shops, and its ship yards. The population
one of these agencies with every other is predominantly foreign. Public School one and with the school has been one of A follow-up study was completed in 1931. No. 76 is the public educational center, the potent factors in the lives of the
Of the 166 subnormal boys and girls stud
ied in 1914, 65 still lived on Locust Point, but-more than this—it has also become parents and children of Locust Point.
and 57 were found in other parts of the a community center for the Point. The modern building which was erected in
city. The remaining 44 of the original A pioneer study
group had moved away, had died, or had • Senior specialist in Education of Exceptional Chil.
Away back in 1914 the principal of disappeared. Each of the 122 individuals
Public School No. 76 sought scientific located was visited. There were 50 women dren, U.S. Office of Education.
and 72 men. An investigation was made What of the 22 children who had the Association. Jane continues to be unof social status, work record, economic lowest average IQ of 61? Have they also stable under difficulties, and has made status, home conditions, court record, reli- become self-supporting? One might rea several impulsive suicidal attempts which gious affiliations, and recreational interests. sonably expect a larger amount of depend required a recent temporary commitment
ency among them than in the other two to a State hospital.” Marriage and employment groups. Yet even here it is gratifying to
find that, of the 17 of this group who were School and the police First of all, we find that 48 of the 50 located in 1931, “8 men are supporting girls, and 48 of the 72 boys have married, themselves and that 4 women have mar All three groups show other examples and that 75 of these 96 have 173 children. ried economically adequate husbands. The of instability, of delinquency, of alcoholThe problem of destiny has thus been other 5 are being helped by their families ism, or illegitimacy and prostitution. doubled and tripled. The responsibility and by community funds."
Such examples are found in every stratum for one life has become a responsibility for The story of John is one example. of society, and are supposed to be par2 or 3 or 4 lives. Social and economic In 1914 John showed many delinquent ticularly frequent among the feebleefficiency becomes an increasingly crucial traits. There was a family history of minded. Their occurrence among these matter.
feeble-mindedness, insanity, and immoral 122 young people has been so much less Three-fourths of the group seem to have ity. He spent 4 years in the first grade, frequent than one might expect that the been equal to the challenge, for "45 of but fortunately, after 6 months in the situation is noteworthy. No doubt one the men are self-supporting, and in 9 second grade he was assigned to the reason why so few cases from the whole other cases the wife also contributes to ungraded class. Here he remained for district find their way into juvenile court the family budget, making a total of 54 342 years under the guidance of an under lies in the fact that many misdemeanors economically independent men. Thirty standing and skillful teacher. At 14 are settled out of court-by parents, powomen are supported by their husbands John secured a work permit and for licemen, and industrial concerns through and 5 others are also working to increase almost 10 years he has been working the medium of the school. the income-a total of 35 women not de- steadily and successfully as a responsible There was the case of broken windows pendent on social aid. This makes 89 out inspector with a salary of $30 a week. in an industrial plant over the week end. of 122 who are financially independent. He is proud of the fact that the company On Monday morning the head of the firm Fourteen other men and the husbands of sent for him while he was at home for a called at Public School No. 76 and stated 9 women only partially support them- few days on sick leave, because several the facts. The policeman selves, due largely to the present business hundred dollars' worth of material was moned. "A call for the leaders of the conditions. Four men and the husbands spoiled during his absence. “I was no gang was broadcast throughout the school. of two women have never had a steady good in school,” he says, “but when I got They appeared and told of a stone fight job. The two unmarried women have married I knew I'd got to work and that had resulted in the damage. They regular work but live with their parents, I went right at it. I knew I'd got to dragged forth the younger children who and two women are supported by widows' dig out. There has been no further had taken part in the fun. Fathers and pensions." This is certainly not a picture delinquency, but he does infrequently mothers were sent for and the afternoon of destitution or of social dependence. indulge in a spree. Through his interest was given up to an informal inquiry into When one adds to it the facts that 17 men in athletics he has learned to read the the facts. The owner of the factory was and 20 women own or are buying their newspapers, but he can write only his asked to get an estimate of the cost of homes, and that 15 other men and 4
replacement from a local hardware firm. women have savings accounts, many of
Mary was one of the girls in this group. He did so and a bill was submitted to us will find it necessary to revise earlier Her family background was one of im each boy. The windows were replaced, ideas regarding the capabilities of the morality and there seemed to be every the fathers took their respective bills intellectually subnormal children of our probability that Mary would follow in and settled them, and after that they great educational family.
her mother's footsteps. She, too, was a probably settled with their sons. There
member of the ungraded class for several was no court action but a general agreeTypes of employment
years. After she left school to go to ment among parents that they did not
work, she kept in touch with her teacher, want the name of Locust Point and “About one-half of the men get their whose influence was no doubt one of the School No. 76 dragged into court.” livelihood in factories, in railroad yards most wholesome factors in her develop This attitude on the part of the parents and shops, and in the shipyards. Among ment. She has married a rather thrifty is a matter of pride to them. They were these a few have attained positions some factory worker. They own their home. the ones who persistently demanded a what superior to that of the usual worker. She is a good mother to their three children, new building for School No. 76. They For example, 3 are tally-keepers, 1 is an is interested in club, in the parent-teacher were the ones who asked that the new inspector of insulators and supervises association, and is deeply religious. building contain shops in which their a small gang of men, 1 is a ship's rigger, It would be too much to expect that all children could be trained to get better another an electric welder, and 2 others our young hopefuls--considered almost jobs and a gymnasium that could be used are sheet-metal workers. Among the hopeless in 1914—would turn out so well. by the grown-ups at night as well as be men with other occupations, 8 have some There is Jane who in 1914 was reported as the children during the day. They were what superior work: 2 own and manage "restless, untruthful, unable to read or the ones who asked why their children their own stores, 4 are clerks, 1 is a barber, write or do errands, but very industrious were being trained only to go to high and I was a prohibition agent until do and neat. She was later given an oppor school when many of them must go to mestic trouble forced him to resign. tunity to work as a maid in a hospital work as soon as they finished the grades.
“Of the 50 women only 12 are working dispensary where she proved to be a good And this interest of theirs came only as at present, but an analysis of their work cleaner but somewhat of a liability be a result of years of effort on the part of records shows that 26 have worked in cause of her hysterical tantrums and the principal of the school to build up a factories, 8 worked as domestics, 12 helped petty thievery. Since her husband, a community educational enterprise. They at home until marriage, I was a filing moron, lost his job as a baker early in 1930, have learned that it is their school, and clerk, 1 has a beauty shop, 1 runs a print- they and their 4 children have been con they are proud to be identified with it and ing press, and 1 works in the market.” stantly supported by the Family Welfare to keep its record bright.