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The Status of the States
PER CENT 35 40 45
Public School No. 76, then, as the center of community interest, must stand high among the influences that have contributed to the wholesome development of the boys and girls of whom in 1914 uttle
TOTAL KINDERGARTEN en- tricts of each of 39 States enrolled in was expected. Socially minded principal
rollment of 725,000 children is kindergartens is as follows: 52 per cent and teachers, their kindly interest in the
reported by the several States in Michigan; 40 to 50 per cent in the lives of their patrons, their counsel and
for 1930. With 40,000 more District of Columbia and California; 30 their help have brought from the people in private kindergartens, a third of the to 40 per cent in New Jersey and Conwhom they serve an answering loyalty 4- and 5-year-old children living in cities necticut; 25 to 30 per cent in Maine, and a determination to make the most of are attending kindergarten. Practically Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and themselves and of their children.
all public-school kindergartens are located Illinois; 20 to 25 per cent in Rhode IsAdd to this the coordination of effort in cities, and most of the major cities have land, Nevada, New York, and Iowa; 15 that has existed among all the educational made the kindergartens an integral part of to 20 per cent in Colorado, Massachusetts, and social agencies operating within the their school programs, according to Mary Arizona, Ohio, and Kansas; 10 to 15 per community, and one can understand why Dabney Davis, Office of Education spe- cent in New Hampshire, Missouri, and many of these children have gone far cialist in Nursery-Kindergarten-Primary Indiana; 5 to 10 per cent in Maryland, beyond expectations. The utilization of Education.
Pennsylvania, Wyoming, Washington, the city park as a school and community In Nebraska the kindergarten enroll- Oklahoma, and South Dakota; less than 5 playground affords recreation that keeps ment reported constitutes 80 per cent of per cent in Kentucky, Georgia, Texas, old and young together. Supervision by the 4- and 5-year-old city population. Montana, Delaware, Vermont, Virginia, the Labor Bureau of those who secure Michigan, Maine, California, Nevada, North Dakota, Utah, North Carolina, and work permits serves to keep industry in Iowa, Arizona, Minnesota, and Wisconsin South Carolina. Alabama and Idaho retouch with the school. Activities of the have more than 50 per cent of their city port no kindergarten enrollment. ComFamily Welfare Association are intimately children attending kindergartens regularly. plete data are not available for eight related to the social work of the school. The proportion of all the 4- and 5-year- States. Cooperation which the police and the old children in both city and rural disjuvenile court give is clearly indicated in the story of the broken windows. All these agencies working together con
PER CENT OF 4 AND 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN LIVING IN CITIES sistently and persistently should be powerful
(POPULATION 2,500 OR OVER) stabilizing influences in the life of any com
ENROLLED IN KINDERGARTENS, 1930. munity. There is no scientific proof that they have been so in Locust Point. We have only the evidence of a group of children who in 1914 “were expected to be shiftless, alcoholic, of low wage-earning capacity, and dependent on charitable organizations for support" developing in an unusually constructive environment into men and women evincing a somewhat remarkable degree of stability.
It is so easy to cover our failure to provide for the subnormal child with the excuse, “He'll never amount to anything anyway.” It is so easy, too, to explain the delinquency of the feeble-minded with the statement, “Well, you couldn't expect anything different from a feebleminded person.” If the experience at Locust Point holds true, if similar experiences that have taken place in colonies for the mentally deficient and in socially directed school systems hold true, then both of these statements are utterly false and utterly unworthy of anyone who presumes to be an educator of youth.
The subnormal in our schools can be salvaged, they can become respectable, self-supporting citizens, they can make a contribution in their own way to the community. Whether they will do so or not depends upon those who have it in their power to mold a constructive environment for them or to disregard their environmental needs; to help them fight the battles of life or to make them victims
12.3 NORTH DAKOTA ILO VERMONT... 10.2 VIRGINIA
7. 1 DELAWARE
3.4 NO. CAROLINA 2.0 SO. CAROLINA . 0.4
Helps For Teachers
By ROWNA HANSEN *
OSTERS, pictures, charts, pam
phlets, books, records, study out-
Name of organization or agency
St., NW., Washington, D.C...
Speech to the Deaf, 1537 35th St., NW., Washing
ton, D. C...
Ave., New York, N. Y
C C tions has been compiled by the Office of American Federation of Organizations for Hard of Education.
Hearing, Inc., 1537 35th St., NW., Washington, D.C..
American Forestry Association, '1727 K St., NW.,
American Geographical Society, Broadway at 156th
American Home Economics Association, 620 Mills
Bldg., Washington, D. C.....
American Library Association, 520 N. Michigan Ave.,
с с с
Washington, D. C..
American Social Hygiene Association, 450 Seventh
American Tree Association, 1214 16th St., NW.,
Association for Childhood Education, 1201 16th St.,
NW., Washington, D. C.
Better Homes in America, 1635 Pennsylvania Ave.,'
NW., Washington, D. C.
Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y..
Camp Fire Girls, 41 Union Square, New York, N. Y..
Child Study Association of America, 221 W.57th St., of the office.
New York, N. Y.
Child Welfare Committee of America, Inc., 1 E, 104th
Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 130 E. 220
St., New York, N. Y
Elizabeth McCormick Memorial, 848 X. Dearborn
Knights of King Arthur, Lock Box 169, Boston, Mass.
с с с
National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 450 Seventh
Ave., New York, N. Y
National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1201 16th
National Education Association, 1201 16th St., Wash-
Ave., New York, N. Y
New York, N. Y
New York, N. Y...
National Safety Council, One Park Ave., New York, causes failure of many first-grade chil- N. Y.
National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, 450
Pathfinders of America, Inc., 314 Lincoln Building,
Progressive Education Association, 10 Jackson Place,
Washington, D. C....
Wild Flower Preservation Society, Inc., 3740 Oliver
Rain Checks On Diplomas Jobless, the Graduates Return to High School;
What Can Principals Do?
"ITHOUT JOBS and with- rank of pupil and help them keep their in adult education. (Superintendent of out money, thousands of self-respect.
Documents, 10 cents.) high-school graduates A number of superintendents in their Fewer public school enrollments of post
have returned to school. replies to the Office of Education stressed graduates have been reported in cities The army of unemployed graduates knock- the point that post-graduates enrolled in which have junior colleges. This fact ing at the high-school door numbers, it is their schools have done splendid work. raises the question: "Are public high estimated, 100,000.
L. N. McWhorter, assistant superin- schools becoming junior colleges?” Since What can a principal do when the boy tendent of schools in Minneapolis, where this type of college is the next step above he launched on life last spring turns up 505 graduate students were enrolled last the secondary school on the educational this fall with a hard luck tale? How can semester, wrote that they worked "with ladder, many would probably answer yes. the high schools help? determination and purpose.”
Post-graduates are calling upon high The urgency of the post-graduate “The most notable achievement of the schools to give "junior college” service problem was disclosed by answers to a local high school,” according to Superin- where there is no junior college. The letter from United States Commissioner of tendent Weiss of Bethlehem, Pa., “was junior college at Norfolk, Nebr., operated education William John Cooper, asking the work done by the unemployed men by public schools, has taken care of what schools were doing to help the un- and women students."
many post-graduates. At Parsons, Kans., employed. Many cities reported three to
Lessons by mail
Superintendent Hughes says “the most four times as many post-graduates as there
effective work done in his community by were a few years ago.
Since most post-graduate students re-
schools for relief of unemployment has turn for a definite purpose, principals been through the junior college and the post-graduates in high school has increased 800 per cent in the last 10 years. with experience in handling them rec
upper units of the high school.” The last ommend that thay be allowed as much Two ways of receiving old students
graduating class from the junior college in freedom as possible. The school that back to high school prevail. Some schools
the latter city was twice as large as it was simply let them take their places with helps them to work "under their own
the year before. Other junior college ensteam” toward their objectives renders other pupils in the classes. Finding
rollments have shown decided increases in themselves out of step with the march of them the largest service. The counseling
recent years. undergraduate life, many post-graduates service of a school will probably prove of more assistance to the jobless post-grad- enrollments of post-graduates to attend
A number of cities are allowing overflow in such schools soon drop out.
uates eager for help, than to the regular night schools. From Huntington, W. Va., Assets pupils.
comes the statement that “we are taking
Use of correspondence courses has been The other way is to make the post- found helpful. Benton Harbor, Michigan,
care of 2,100 pupils in our high school that graduate welcome, adapt the school pro- has enrolled a number of former high- forced to operate double sessions.” Day
was designed for 1,200. We have been gram to the new problem of his presence, school graduates in correspondence courses, sessions became so crowded in Parkersand help him save himself from becoming Superintendent Mitchell reports. Other a wandering, disheartened, jobless dere- cities are relying on this type of learning established last semester.
burg, W. Va., that night schools were lict.
whereby several courses may be taken To the school administrator who hesi- by students under the supervision of one
Placement tates to take on any additional duties in teacher. The selection of studies can be this time of retrenchment it can be said
more varied in a school using correspond- Provision for placement of post-gradthat many schools are finding it possible ence than in one that does not.
uate students in positions is of first imto make the jobless post-graduate an asset
Since practically every State has well- portance. A number of cities have estabrather than a liability to their budgets. prepared extension courses, superintend- lished very successful student placement Where schools are under-staffed the post- ents will do well to look into the possi- bureaus, although this practice is not as graduates have been pressed into service bility of calling upon State universities to yet widespread and could be provided in as secretaries, as assistants to teachers provide extension work locally. Exten
many more instances. struggling with large classes, as assistant sion courses generally blend with college Very timely and useful to those seeking coaches, and as helpers in janitorial or work, and should be especially popular for help on the problem of the high school lunch-room service. Since post-graduates post-graduates anticipating college or post-graduate is “Educational Opportuare usually eager ambitious boys and girls, university attendance. At Gary, Ind., nities Provided for Post-Graduate Stuthey are frequently glad to render a return
the extension department of the Univer- dents in Public High Schools,” by Dr. in this way for the privilege of receiving sity of Indiana occupying local school Einar W. Jacobsen, Contributions to more education. In Minneapolis many buildings has proved a great boon to high- Education No. 523, available from the post-graduates help in the school lunch
school graduates who want more training Bureau of Publications, Teachers College,
but can not afford to go away from home Columbia University. Dr. Jacobsen very Splendid workers
for it. A helpful guide to extension clearly defines the post-graduate problem,
courses offered by 443 colleges and uni- the provisions made by public high schools Not only do post-graduates in this way versities is “College and University Exten- for post-graduate students, the needs of help out the principal, but they also fit sion Helps in Adult Education 1928–29," post-graduate students and ways of meetbetter into the school world. Larger re- Bulletin 1930 No. 10, by L. R. Alderman, ing the needs of the former graduates. sponsibilities give them a status above the Federal Office of Education specialist
-John H. LLOYD.
Issued MONTHLY, EXCEPT JULY AND AUGUST
William Dow BOUTWELL
MARGARET F. RYAN
John H. LLOYD
should be made to the SUPERIN TENDENT OP DOCUMENTS, Government Printing Office,
T SIMPLY IS NOT the scientific, social, and educational services of the Nation that create the real tax burden that bends the American back, and yet, throughout the Nation, we are trying to balance budgets by cutting the heart out of the only things that make government a creative social agency in this complicated world. We slash scientific bureaus. We trim down our support of social services and regulatory bureaus. We squeeze education. We fire visiting nurses. We starve libraries. We drastically reduce hospital staffs. And we call this ECONOMY, and actually think we are intelligent in calling it that.”
SCHOOL Life is indexed in Readers' Guide to
Periodical Literature, Education Index, and is
PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
Wisconsin Journal of Education, September, 1932.
the Prospect Union Educational Exchange I must
AMERICAN EDUCATION constantly progresses. One hundred and fifty years ago
Office of Education's Record of Current only reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, Educational Publications which was sus
ROADS AND SCHOOLS and the Bible were taught in our schools. pended this year due to a reduction in "EVERY ACCELERATION in road construcTo-day one city announces that its 150 printing funds. Twenty annotated bibli- tion is marked by a corresponding decrease schools offer 3,000 courses in approxi- ographies will appear throughout this in the number of one-room schools," mately 600 subjects.
year in the two journals, references to be according to a comparative analysis of Probably one does not fully appreciate selected and annotated by leaders in the school and highway data recently made the exceptional educational opportunities fields represented.
by the American Road Builders' Assooffered in most of our cities. A glance at
ciation and reported in New Mexico's the guidebook “Educational Opportunities of Greater Boston," a publication of
state highway department magazine. Idyll
North Carolina, had 1,714 miles of which lists the 600 or more courses men
improved highway and 2,989 one-room
schools in 1924. By 1930 the State had tioned above, shows the result of educa- From this urban bedlam.
increased its first-class highway mileage tional progress since the time of the three R's. I want to loiter
to 4,025, and decreased single room schools
Indiana, in 1924 had 3,452 one-room courses as Americanization, arts, crafts,
schools and only 911 miles of first class civil-service preparation, commerce and At evening
highways. In 1930 the number of such finance, engineering, expression, home
schools had dropped to 2,050, while good making, languages and literature, law, Beside a brindle bossy cow.
road mileage had increased to 3,137. library science, physical education, recre- I want a stalk
In Virginia, Alabama and South Caroation, science and mathematics, social
lina, the three other States surveyed, sciences, textiles, trades, and preparatory Of wild wheat
there was a gain of 2,726 miles in imcourses. Subjects range from automobile To chew
proved highways, a decrease of 1,876 in driving to watchmaking-from argumen
the number of one-room schools. tation to wrestling.
I want to go barefoot
DO CHILDREN FAIL?
“TÆERE WILL BE LITTLE juvenile delining, is typical of our endeavor through
quency if we give boys and girls a chance. education to prepare ourselves for more
No young person I ever met wanted to go complete living in an ever changing world.
Polytechnic High School,
wrong. What they wanted were chances
Long Beach, Calif.
to succeed. But we fail them in our public
MAURICE ATKINSON was outstanding in high school
schools, and exclude them from school, oratorical championship, in 1932, in a world problem and then wonder why they go wrong. I tically every phase of education will be
contest. His other interests are literature, economics, published regularly in Elementary School
am bold to say that boys and girls do not and political science. In the “Scholastic" contest Journal and the School Review beginning this year he was awarded second prize in book reviews. fail; the home, the church, the school and with the January issues, it has been an
He is now attending Long Beach Junior College. Idyll society fail, and juvenile crime follows as a
is reprinted from "Acacia," the literary publication of
-FRANCIS W. KIRKHAM.
Trends in Tests
EDUC. CHRON SCHOOL
GEOG - PHYSIOL. ARITHMETIC
-19-2 • 18-1
HE USE of objective tests has
By DAVID SEGEL *
tests to particular grades for children who become an established practice
have been exposed to about the same in the schools of our country.
amount of schooling. Such tests are now considered This QUICK JOURNEY along the new hori
Diagnosis as tools of the educational process along zons of tests and measurements is the second with books, maps, and the like. In gen- tour of educational trends with expert guides In the achievement test field there are eral, testing advocates may look with some presented by School Life. Others scheduled several rather outstanding developments satisfaction upon the present condition soon are Homemaking Education, Health taking place. One is the growth of the of testing. Nevertheless, there are some Education, and School Buildings.
construction of diagnostic tests and in elements in this complacency about "having
making test scores in different subjects arrived” which are
comparable so that a dangerous for the
diagnosis as between TEST TTTEST 2 TEST 3 TESTA TEST 5 TEST 6 TEST 7 TEST 8 TEST DI TESTIO TOTAL best future develop
be ment of the move
made. This sort of ment. It is well to 1198
diagnosis is repreconsider briefly these 2 100
sented graphically undesirable trends 3 76
by the figure which before discussing the 4185 g
illustrates the test recent advances in 5 81
results for a seventh the use of tests. 690
grade boy. . An inIn the early days 7195
spectional diagnosis of testing much time 886
of the boy'sstrengths and energy were ex9.80
and weaknesses may pended in perfecting
be made. Diagnosis tests. The result was
within a subject may that the majority is
be similarly made. sued were fairly good
There has been a judged by the stand
rapid advance in this ards of test construc
use of achievement tion known at the
tests. Many diagtime. This excellent
nostic tests, good, beginning of testing
bad, and indifferent, work brought about
have been produced. a feeling that any
The use of diagnostic published test was a
tests seems to be of good one. This feel
particular value in ing still persists at
individual instructhe present time.
Illustration of how a diagnosis is made of a pupil's strengths and weaknesses in various school subjects.** tion programs and Unluckily, the com
activity programs. mercial success of some tests, and the rapid any kind is growing rapidly, new develop- The recent work of Brueckner and Melby extension of a superficial knowledge of ments whether good or bad are seized refers to many of these tests and discusses testing has caused a great increase in the upon and made the most of; but when a means of diagnosis within subjects. number constructed. Many tests have been movement has established itself these new There has been much interest mani. hastily thrown together and should not be developments must wait for a particularly fested very recently in the construction of considered in the same category with others favorable time before they can become a batteries of tests covering the whole range more carefully constructed. Due to the factor in it. There are signs that the of subject matter in certain grades or careless acceptance of any test as good testing of subject matter has reached this schools. Among batteries developed for because of the past reputation of tests in cross road. Of course, many lines of test- the elementary school subjects are the general, the testing movement will suffer. ing are too new to be subject to this following: Metropolitan Achievement Tests should be scrutinized carefully before criticism.
Tests, Modern School Achievement Tests, being used regularly.
After displaying these danger signals we New Stanford Achievement Tests, Public
shall feel free to dwell on advancements in School Achievement Tests, and the Unit Refinements
testing which have been taking place in Another danger in the present stage of the last few years.
1 Brueckner, Leo J., and Melby, Ernest 0. Diag. testing lies in the perpetuation in a certain
The trends in general scholastic ability nostic and remedial teaching. Houghton Mimin Co., use of tests without making further appli- testing are following the lines set down at
: A battery of tests constructed on the basis of the cation of refinements which are discovered the beginning of the construction of such
new New York City course of study. Published by from time to time. When a movement of
tests. One line is the search for test items the World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y.
• Published by the Bureau of Publications, Teachers • Specialist in Tests and Measurements, U. 8. Office
College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. such as can be used in individual testing of Education.
4 Published by the World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y. and the testing of children having irregu** From "Guide for Interpreting the New Stanford
• Published by the Public School Publishing Co., Achievement Test, World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y. lar schooling. Another line is to adapt Bloomington, Ill.