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The Status of the States




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PER CENT 35 40 45








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Public School No. 76, then, as the center of community interest, must stand high among the influences that have contributed to the wholesome development of the boys and girls of whom in 1914 uttle

TOTAL KINDERGARTEN en- tricts of each of 39 States enrolled in was expected. Socially minded principal

rollment of 725,000 children is kindergartens is as follows: 52 per cent and teachers, their kindly interest in the

reported by the several States in Michigan; 40 to 50 per cent in the lives of their patrons, their counsel and

for 1930. With 40,000 more District of Columbia and California; 30 their help have brought from the people in private kindergartens, a third of the to 40 per cent in New Jersey and Conwhom they serve an answering loyalty 4- and 5-year-old children living in cities necticut; 25 to 30 per cent in Maine, and a determination to make the most of are attending kindergarten. Practically Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and themselves and of their children.

all public-school kindergartens are located Illinois; 20 to 25 per cent in Rhode IsAdd to this the coordination of effort in cities, and most of the major cities have land, Nevada, New York, and Iowa; 15 that has existed among all the educational made the kindergartens an integral part of to 20 per cent in Colorado, Massachusetts, and social agencies operating within the their school programs, according to Mary Arizona, Ohio, and Kansas; 10 to 15 per community, and one can understand why Dabney Davis, Office of Education spe- cent in New Hampshire, Missouri, and many of these children have gone far cialist in Nursery-Kindergarten-Primary Indiana; 5 to 10 per cent in Maryland, beyond expectations. The utilization of Education.

Pennsylvania, Wyoming, Washington, the city park as a school and community In Nebraska the kindergarten enroll- Oklahoma, and South Dakota; less than 5 playground affords recreation that keeps ment reported constitutes 80 per cent of per cent in Kentucky, Georgia, Texas, old and young together. Supervision by the 4- and 5-year-old city population. Montana, Delaware, Vermont, Virginia, the Labor Bureau of those who secure Michigan, Maine, California, Nevada, North Dakota, Utah, North Carolina, and work permits serves to keep industry in Iowa, Arizona, Minnesota, and Wisconsin South Carolina. Alabama and Idaho retouch with the school. Activities of the have more than 50 per cent of their city port no kindergarten enrollment. ComFamily Welfare Association are intimately children attending kindergartens regularly. plete data are not available for eight related to the social work of the school. The proportion of all the 4- and 5-year- States. Cooperation which the police and the old children in both city and rural disjuvenile court give is clearly indicated in the story of the broken windows. All these agencies working together con

PER CENT OF 4 AND 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN LIVING IN CITIES sistently and persistently should be powerful

(POPULATION 2,500 OR OVER) stabilizing influences in the life of any com

ENROLLED IN KINDERGARTENS, 1930. munity. There is no scientific proof that they have been so in Locust Point. We have only the evidence of a group of children who in 1914 “were expected to be shiftless, alcoholic, of low wage-earning capacity, and dependent on charitable organizations for support" developing in an unusually constructive environment into men and women evincing a somewhat remarkable degree of stability.

It is so easy to cover our failure to provide for the subnormal child with the excuse, “He'll never amount to anything anyway.” It is so easy, too, to explain the delinquency of the feeble-minded with the statement, “Well, you couldn't expect anything different from a feebleminded person.” If the experience at Locust Point holds true, if similar experiences that have taken place in colonies for the mentally deficient and in socially directed school systems hold true, then both of these statements are utterly false and utterly unworthy of anyone who presumes to be an educator of youth.

The subnormal in our schools can be salvaged, they can become respectable, self-supporting citizens, they can make a contribution in their own way to the community. Whether they will do so or not depends upon those who have it in their power to mold a constructive environment for them or to disregard their environmental needs; to help them fight the battles of life or to make them victims

MICHIGAN..... 78.0
MAINE. ... 70.0



DIST. OF COL. 46.7

ILLINOIS.... 35.3



OKLAHOMA ....19.2

MARYLAND .....16.0



6.5 UTAH


M. Kirby.

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Helps For Teachers
Pictures, posters, charts, and other materials



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OSTERS, pictures, charts, pam

phlets, books, records, study out-
lines, and other materials for
classroom use, for the school bul-

Name of organization or agency
letin board, for exhibits, for teachers'
meetings and institutes, and for work with
parents, are available from a number of
organizations. That classroom teachers
and supervisors may know where to secure American Association of University Women, 1634 Eye

St., NW., Washington, D.C...
these reference and supplementary teach- American Association to Promote the Teaching of
ing materials, this directory of materials

Speech to the Deaf, 1537 35th St., NW., Washing

ton, D. C...
available from noncommercial organiza- American Child Health Association, 450 Seventh

Ave., New York, N. Y

C C tions has been compiled by the Office of American Federation of Organizations for Hard of Education.

Hearing, Inc., 1537 35th St., NW., Washington, D.C..

American Forestry Association, '1727 K St., NW.,
Complete lists of publications may be
Washington, D. C.

с F
American Foundation For the Blind, 125 E. 46th St.,
obtained by applying directly to the New York, N. Y.

American Geographical Society, Broadway at 156th
organizations. The materials range from St., New York City..
publications on handicraft from the Boy

American Home Economics Association, 620 Mills

Bldg., Washington, D. C.....
Scouts of America and design plates of American Humane Education Society, 180 Longwood
Ave., Boston, Mass.

Indian symbols, bead work, basketry, and

American Library Association, 520 N. Michigan Ave.,
so forth, from the Woodcraft League American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St.,
of America to suggestions for handling Chicago, m..

с с с
American National Red Cross, American Red Cross,
behavior problems of school children

Washington, D. C..
from the National Committee for Mental American Nature Association, 1214 16th St., NW.,
Washington, D. C...

Hygiene. It includes color plates of American Posture League, 1 Madison Ave., New
York, N. Y.

с с
birds from the American Nature Asso-

American Social Hygiene Association, 450 Seventh
ciation and the National Audubon So- Ave., New York, N. Y.

American Tree Association, 1214 16th St., NW.,
cieties; and graded lists of children's books Washington, D. C....
from the American Library Association.

Association for Childhood Education, 1201 16th St.,

NW., Washington, D. C.
The Federal Office of Education and

Better Homes in America, 1635 Pennsylvania Ave.,'

NW., Washington, D. C.
other Government agencies publish useful Big Brother and Big Sister Federation, Inc., 425

Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y..
school material which is listed each month Boy Scouts of America, 2 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. с

in SCHOOL LIFE, official monthly journal

Camp Fire Girls, 41 Union Square, New York, N. Y..

Child Study Association of America, 221 W.57th St., of the office.

New York, N. Y.

Child Welfare Committee of America, Inc., 1 E, 104th
Material obtainable free of charge is St., New York, N. Y.
designated by F; that which there is

Child Welfare League of America, Inc., 130 E. 220

St., New York, N. Y
a charge, by C. Additional copies of this

Elizabeth McCormick Memorial, 848 X. Dearborn
St., Chicago, Ill..

chart are available free from the Office of Junior Red Cross Association, American National

Red Cross, Washington, D. C.

Knights of King Arthur, Lock Box 169, Boston, Mass.
National Association of Audubon Societies, 1775
Broadway, New York, N. Y

National Child Welfare Association, 70 Fifth Ave.,
New York, N. Y..

с с с
Why Kindergartens?

National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 450 Seventh

Ave., New York, N. Y

National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1201 16th
EXPERIMENT8 show that children St., Washington, D. C.

National Education Association, 1201 16th St., Wash-
with kindergarten experience have
ington, D. C....

higher achievement records and a National Federation of Day Nurseries, 244 Madison

Ave., New York, N. Y
greater "educational agethan children National Geographic Society, 16th & M Sts., NW.
without it.
Washington, D. C...

National Organization for Public Health Nursing, 450
Seventh Ave., New York, N. Y

Kindergarten children have less ten- National Probation Association, 450 Seventh Ave.,

New York, N. Y
dency to reversals in reading, a common National Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Ave.,
obstacle in learning to read, which

New York, N. Y...

National Safety Council, One Park Ave., New York, causes failure of many first-grade chil- N. Y.

dren who do not have kindergarten

National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, 450
Seventh Ave., New York, N. Y.


Pathfinders of America, Inc., 314 Lincoln Building,

Detroit, Mich.
For the child speaking a foreign lan-

Progressive Education Association, 10 Jackson Place,

Washington, D. C....
guage at home, the kindergarten is The Woodcraft League of America, Inc., 1043 Grand
Central Terminal Building, New York, NY.

especially helpful.

Wild Flower Preservation Society, Inc., 3740 Oliver
St., NW., Washington, D. C..

F&C|F&C с

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Rain Checks On Diplomas Jobless, the Graduates Return to High School;

What Can Principals Do?



"ITHOUT JOBS and with- rank of pupil and help them keep their in adult education. (Superintendent of out money, thousands of self-respect.

Documents, 10 cents.) high-school graduates A number of superintendents in their Fewer public school enrollments of post

have returned to school. replies to the Office of Education stressed graduates have been reported in cities The army of unemployed graduates knock- the point that post-graduates enrolled in which have junior colleges. This fact ing at the high-school door numbers, it is their schools have done splendid work. raises the question: "Are public high estimated, 100,000.

L. N. McWhorter, assistant superin- schools becoming junior colleges?” Since What can a principal do when the boy tendent of schools in Minneapolis, where this type of college is the next step above he launched on life last spring turns up 505 graduate students were enrolled last the secondary school on the educational this fall with a hard luck tale? How can semester, wrote that they worked "with ladder, many would probably answer yes. the high schools help? determination and purpose.”

Post-graduates are calling upon high The urgency of the post-graduate “The most notable achievement of the schools to give "junior college” service problem was disclosed by answers to a local high school,” according to Superin- where there is no junior college. The letter from United States Commissioner of tendent Weiss of Bethlehem, Pa., “was junior college at Norfolk, Nebr., operated education William John Cooper, asking the work done by the unemployed men by public schools, has taken care of what schools were doing to help the un- and women students."

many post-graduates. At Parsons, Kans., employed. Many cities reported three to

Lessons by mail

Superintendent Hughes says “the most four times as many post-graduates as there

effective work done in his community by were a few years ago.

Since most post-graduate students re-
The number of

schools for relief of unemployment has turn for a definite purpose, principals been through the junior college and the post-graduates in high school has increased 800 per cent in the last 10 years. with experience in handling them rec

upper units of the high school.” The last ommend that thay be allowed as much Two ways of receiving old students

graduating class from the junior college in freedom as possible. The school that back to high school prevail. Some schools

the latter city was twice as large as it was simply let them take their places with helps them to work "under their own

the year before. Other junior college ensteam” toward their objectives renders other pupils in the classes. Finding

rollments have shown decided increases in themselves out of step with the march of them the largest service. The counseling

recent years. undergraduate life, many post-graduates service of a school will probably prove of more assistance to the jobless post-grad- enrollments of post-graduates to attend

A number of cities are allowing overflow in such schools soon drop out.

uates eager for help, than to the regular night schools. From Huntington, W. Va., Assets pupils.

comes the statement that “we are taking

Use of correspondence courses has been The other way is to make the post- found helpful. Benton Harbor, Michigan,

care of 2,100 pupils in our high school that graduate welcome, adapt the school pro- has enrolled a number of former high- forced to operate double sessions.” Day

was designed for 1,200. We have been gram to the new problem of his presence, school graduates in correspondence courses, sessions became so crowded in Parkersand help him save himself from becoming Superintendent Mitchell reports. Other a wandering, disheartened, jobless dere- cities are relying on this type of learning established last semester.

burg, W. Va., that night schools were lict.

whereby several courses may be taken To the school administrator who hesi- by students under the supervision of one

Placement tates to take on any additional duties in teacher. The selection of studies can be this time of retrenchment it can be said

more varied in a school using correspond- Provision for placement of post-gradthat many schools are finding it possible ence than in one that does not.

uate students in positions is of first imto make the jobless post-graduate an asset

Since practically every State has well- portance. A number of cities have estabrather than a liability to their budgets. prepared extension courses, superintend- lished very successful student placement Where schools are under-staffed the post- ents will do well to look into the possi- bureaus, although this practice is not as graduates have been pressed into service bility of calling upon State universities to yet widespread and could be provided in as secretaries, as assistants to teachers provide extension work locally. Exten

many more instances. struggling with large classes, as assistant sion courses generally blend with college Very timely and useful to those seeking coaches, and as helpers in janitorial or work, and should be especially popular for help on the problem of the high school lunch-room service. Since post-graduates post-graduates anticipating college or post-graduate is “Educational Opportuare usually eager ambitious boys and girls, university attendance. At Gary, Ind., nities Provided for Post-Graduate Stuthey are frequently glad to render a return

the extension department of the Univer- dents in Public High Schools,” by Dr. in this way for the privilege of receiving sity of Indiana occupying local school Einar W. Jacobsen, Contributions to more education. In Minneapolis many buildings has proved a great boon to high- Education No. 523, available from the post-graduates help in the school lunch

school graduates who want more training Bureau of Publications, Teachers College,

but can not afford to go away from home Columbia University. Dr. Jacobsen very Splendid workers

for it. A helpful guide to extension clearly defines the post-graduate problem,

courses offered by 443 colleges and uni- the provisions made by public high schools Not only do post-graduates in this way versities is “College and University Exten- for post-graduate students, the needs of help out the principal, but they also fit sion Helps in Adult Education 1928–29," post-graduate students and ways of meetbetter into the school world. Larger re- Bulletin 1930 No. 10, by L. R. Alderman, ing the needs of the former graduates. sponsibilities give them a status above the Federal Office of Education specialist

-John H. LLOYD.



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William Dow BOUTWELL

Assistant Editors

Terms: Subscription, 50 cents per year, in advance; to foreign
countries in which the mailing frank of the United States is not
recognized, 85 cents. Club rate: Fifty copies or more will be sent
in bulk to one address within the United States at the rate of 35
cents a year each. Remittance

should be made to the SUPERIN TENDENT OP DOCUMENTS, Government Printing Office,

Washington, D.C.


T SIMPLY IS NOT the scientific, social, and educational services of the Nation that create the real tax burden that bends the American back, and yet, throughout the Nation, we are trying to balance budgets by cutting the heart out of the only things that make government a creative social agency in this complicated world. We slash scientific bureaus. We trim down our support of social services and regulatory bureaus. We squeeze education. We fire visiting nurses. We starve libraries. We drastically reduce hospital staffs. And we call this ECONOMY, and actually think we are intelligent in calling it that.

SCHOOL Life is indexed in Readers' Guide to

Periodical Literature, Education Index, and is
recommended in the American Library Associa.
tion's "Periodicals for the Small Library."




Wisconsin Journal of Education, September, 1932.




the Prospect Union Educational Exchange I must


AMERICAN EDUCATION constantly progresses. One hundred and fifty years ago

Office of Education's Record of Current only reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, Educational Publications which was sus

ROADS AND SCHOOLS and the Bible were taught in our schools. pended this year due to a reduction in "EVERY ACCELERATION in road construcTo-day one city announces that its 150 printing funds. Twenty annotated bibli- tion is marked by a corresponding decrease schools offer 3,000 courses in approxi- ographies will appear throughout this in the number of one-room schools," mately 600 subjects.

year in the two journals, references to be according to a comparative analysis of Probably one does not fully appreciate selected and annotated by leaders in the school and highway data recently made the exceptional educational opportunities fields represented.

by the American Road Builders' Assooffered in most of our cities. A glance at

ciation and reported in New Mexico's the guidebook “Educational Opportunities of Greater Boston," a publication of

state highway department magazine. Idyll

North Carolina, had 1,714 miles of which lists the 600 or more courses men

MUST flee

improved highway and 2,989 one-room

schools in 1924. By 1930 the State had tioned above, shows the result of educa- From this urban bedlam.

increased its first-class highway mileage tional progress since the time of the three R's. I want to loiter

to 4,025, and decreased single room schools

to 1,400.
Boston's educational
Baedeker lists Down a country lane

Indiana, in 1924 had 3,452 one-room courses as Americanization, arts, crafts,

schools and only 911 miles of first class civil-service preparation, commerce and At evening

highways. In 1930 the number of such finance, engineering, expression, home

schools had dropped to 2,050, while good making, languages and literature, law, Beside a brindle bossy cow.

road mileage had increased to 3,137. library science, physical education, recre- I want a stalk

In Virginia, Alabama and South Caroation, science and mathematics, social

lina, the three other States surveyed, sciences, textiles, trades, and preparatory Of wild wheat

there was a gain of 2,726 miles in imcourses. Subjects range from automobile To chew

proved highways, a decrease of 1,876 in driving to watchmaking-from argumen

the number of one-room schools. tation to wrestling.

I want to go barefoot
This increase in about 150 years in

number of educational courses offered by And let the cool, velvet dust
one city to 600 or more branches of learn. Cling to my feet.

“TÆERE WILL BE LITTLE juvenile delining, is typical of our endeavor through

quency if we give boys and girls a chance. education to prepare ourselves for more


No young person I ever met wanted to go complete living in an ever changing world.

Polytechnic High School,

wrong. What they wanted were chances

Long Beach, Calif.

to succeed. But we fail them in our public

MAURICE ATKINSON was outstanding in high school
in oratory and debate and won the southern California

schools, and exclude them from school, oratorical championship, in 1932, in a world problem and then wonder why they go wrong. I tically every phase of education will be

contest. His other interests are literature, economics, published regularly in Elementary School

am bold to say that boys and girls do not and political science. In the “Scholastic" contest Journal and the School Review beginning this year he was awarded second prize in book reviews. fail; the home, the church, the school and with the January issues, it has been an

He is now attending Long Beach Junior College. Idyll society fail, and juvenile crime follows as a

is reprinted from "Acacia," the literary publication of
nounced. This new feature of both jour-

natural consequence."
the Polytechnic High School. Selected for SCHOOL
nals will continue a service begun in the LIFE by Nellie B. Sergent,



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Trends in Tests
Some New Tide Marks in the Measurement

of Education













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HE USE of objective tests has


tests to particular grades for children who become an established practice

have been exposed to about the same in the schools of our country.

amount of schooling. Such tests are now considered This QUICK JOURNEY along the new hori

Diagnosis as tools of the educational process along zons of tests and measurements is the second with books, maps, and the like. In gen- tour of educational trends with expert guides In the achievement test field there are eral, testing advocates may look with some presented by School Life. Others scheduled several rather outstanding developments satisfaction upon the present condition soon are Homemaking Education, Health taking place. One is the growth of the of testing. Nevertheless, there are some Education, and School Buildings.

construction of diagnostic tests and in elements in this complacency about "having

making test scores in different subjects arrived” which are

comparable so that a dangerous for the

diagnosis as between TEST TTTEST 2 TEST 3 TESTA TEST 5 TEST 6 TEST 7 TEST 8 TEST DI TESTIO TOTAL best future develop



be ment of the move

made. This sort of ment. It is well to 1198

diagnosis is repreconsider briefly these 2 100

sented graphically undesirable trends 3 76

by the figure which before discussing the 4185 g

illustrates the test recent advances in 5 81

results for a seventh the use of tests. 690

grade boy. . An inIn the early days 7195

spectional diagnosis of testing much time 886

of the boy'sstrengths and energy were ex9.80

and weaknesses may pended in perfecting


be made. Diagnosis tests. The result was

within a subject may that the majority is

be similarly made. sued were fairly good

There has been a judged by the stand

rapid advance in this ards of test construc

use of achievement tion known at the

tests. Many diagtime. This excellent

nostic tests, good, beginning of testing

bad, and indifferent, work brought about

have been produced. a feeling that any

The use of diagnostic published test was a

tests seems to be of good one. This feel

particular value in ing still persists at

individual instructhe present time.

Illustration of how a diagnosis is made of a pupil's strengths and weaknesses in various school subjects.** tion programs and Unluckily, the com

activity programs. mercial success of some tests, and the rapid any kind is growing rapidly, new develop- The recent work of Brueckner and Melby extension of a superficial knowledge of ments whether good or bad are seized refers to many of these tests and discusses testing has caused a great increase in the upon and made the most of; but when a means of diagnosis within subjects. number constructed. Many tests have been movement has established itself these new There has been much interest mani. hastily thrown together and should not be developments must wait for a particularly fested very recently in the construction of considered in the same category with others favorable time before they can become a batteries of tests covering the whole range more carefully constructed. Due to the factor in it. There are signs that the of subject matter in certain grades or careless acceptance of any test as good testing of subject matter has reached this schools. Among batteries developed for because of the past reputation of tests in cross road. Of course, many lines of test- the elementary school subjects are the general, the testing movement will suffer. ing are too new to be subject to this following: Metropolitan Achievement Tests should be scrutinized carefully before criticism.

Tests, Modern School Achievement Tests, being used regularly.

After displaying these danger signals we New Stanford Achievement Tests, Public

shall feel free to dwell on advancements in School Achievement Tests, and the Unit Refinements

testing which have been taking place in Another danger in the present stage of the last few years.

1 Brueckner, Leo J., and Melby, Ernest 0. Diag. testing lies in the perpetuation in a certain

The trends in general scholastic ability nostic and remedial teaching. Houghton Mimin Co., use of tests without making further appli- testing are following the lines set down at

: A battery of tests constructed on the basis of the cation of refinements which are discovered the beginning of the construction of such

new New York City course of study. Published by from time to time. When a movement of

tests. One line is the search for test items the World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y.
which are not dependent upon schooling,

• Published by the Bureau of Publications, Teachers • Specialist in Tests and Measurements, U. 8. Office

College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. such as can be used in individual testing of Education.

4 Published by the World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y. and the testing of children having irregu** From "Guide for Interpreting the New Stanford

• Published by the Public School Publishing Co., Achievement Test, World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y. lar schooling. Another line is to adapt Bloomington, Ill.


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