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Scales of Attainment. In the high-school prediction of success in several subjects Strong's 11 Vocational Interest Blank is
field besides the Iowa High School Con- may be obtained from a single series of a distinct contribution in this field.
tent Examination ? there has been devel- test scores.
oped the Sones-Harry High School Achievement and prognostic tests are

Personality tests
Achievement Test.8 In the college field being used more and more in conjunction
individual colleges and universities are with tests of general scholastic ability (in- is the work of testing personality which

An important trend in objective tests producing examinations covering a whole telligence tests) for the prediction of suc

has grown so rapidly during the last few year's work or several years' work in a cess for guidance or the classification of large subject field. It can be seen that pupils for instruction. Statistical meth- tail the various methods and means of

years. Symonds 12 has discussed in dethe development of such test batteries ods for combining test results for making testing in this realm. The principal brings about a possibility of better differential predictions, i. e., prediction of appraisement of the individual variations whether a student will do better in one have been through observation of be

means of getting at personality traits in the ability of a pupil than has been subject than another or whether an appli- havior, ratings, questionnaires, tests of possible heretofore.

cant will do better in one job than another, conduct, knowledge and judgment, and These test batheries also represent have recently been evolved.

performance tests. Personality tests have another trend in educational testing Still another trend in achievement testthrough the fact that they increase the ing is that towards the constructing of yet. Just what the scores mean on many

not been used extensively in schools as accuracy of the measurement of the per- tests more in conformity with the true obformance of the individual pupil in the jectives of the courses they presume to well for schools to use most of these

of these tests is not known. It is probably educational process as a whole. Up to test. In science, for example, the objecthe last few years there had been a gradual tives may be to teach the scientific method fulness as a regular tool has been shown.

measures experimentally until their useswing away from the use of formal exam- in experimentation, procedures in the ma- Aside from rating scales and physiological inations to determine a pupil's fitness to nipulation of apparatus, writing of logical tests, most tests of personality are coachtake certain courses or enter certain insti- reports on experiments, method of obsertutions. With the introduction of the vation, etc., as well as the acquisition of able to a high degree. If a pupil knows new type examination many of the objec- knowledge and skills. The correlation bring his score up. Another limitation

that a test is a personality test he can tions to the use of examinations as an between these various objectives of a

to the use of most of these tests is that the agent for educational placement have dis- course has not always been found to be actual social situation is not furnished. appeared. The increased use of the com- high. Testing should if possible take into

Most of these tests measure social adaptaprehensive examinations is a reflection of

consideration all the objectives of a subthe desire to place appraisement of the ject or course of study. The construction The responses to such situations probably

tion indirectly through imaginal situations work of the pupil on an objective basis. of tests by teachers and research depart

are different in some degree from responses The advance along this line in secondary ments in individual school systems has schools and colleges will

The next steps in

to actual situations. doubt

been steadily increasing. Many tests continue. constructed by local school systems have doubt find ways of overcoming these

the research in personality testing will no been later published for use throughout limitations and establish their valid use Two approaches the country.

in the public schools.13 Another new development in educa

However, some colleges are using pertional testing is the introduction of testing

Instructional tests

sonality measures with apparent success for the prediction of scholastic success.

in their guidance programs. The work of There are two approaches being made on

Series of tests covering units of work of Hartshorne and May ! is probably of this problem. The direction of

a few weeks duration each are beginning most importance in this field of personality attack is the test specially constructed to to be issued under the name of instruc

testing. predict success in a subject. Such tests tional tests. Such tests keep the teacher

Tyler 16 and others, who are attempting have been constructed most successfully very closely informed of the progress of

to test all the outcomes of a course of in those subjects having definite subject her pupil and may be used as a motivating study probably have the same end in view matter content which is not too closely agent with the pupils. Such tests are

as other investigators working directly related to the outside life of the pupil or sometimes issued for use unrelated to any

in the personality field when they are to other subjects of the curriculum. Such particular textbook or course of study and

constructing tests on social and economic subjects are, for example, mathematics are also issued in direct relation to a par

attitudes. Continued growth in this and foreign languages. Success in making ticular text or course of study by having field should eventuate in controlling the such tests depends upon the ingenuity of the tests printed in the textbook or in

formation of wholesome civic and social the constructor in getting exercises which separate work books.

attitudes and in desirable personal traits. are similar to those within the subjects Tests for use in vocational guidance themselves. The other approach to the have been slow in developing. Patter

11 Strong's Vocational Interest Blank is published by prediction of scholastic success is that son, et al,' have increased the prediction the Stanford University Press, Stanford University, where the results of several different power of certain mechanical ability tests.

12 Symonds, P. M. Diagnosing Personality and tests are added together through the Trabue 10 is conducting a program, the

Conduct. Century Co. 1931. proper weighting procedure to make a results of which show the definite value of

13 For a partial list of personality tests see Circular composite score which predicts success in personality and other tests in predicting No. 52 “Selected list of Tests and Rating for Social a subject. This method allows the use of success in particular jobs in industry. Adaptation.” This is issued free by the Office of Edu

cation. tests which have been given in a school

14 Hartshorne, Hugh, and May, Mark A. Studies in for other purposes. By this method the

Patterson, Donald, et al. Minnesota Mechanical Deceit (1928). Studies in Service and Self-Control

Ability Tests. University of Minnesota Press, Min- (1929). Studies in the Organization of Character (1930). 6 Published by the Educational Test Bureau, Minne- neapolis, 1930.

MacMillan Co., New York, N. Y. apolis, Minn.

10 Under the direction of Dr. Trabue the Employ- 15 Tyler, R. W. and others. Some experiment in ? Published by the Bureau of Educational Research ment Stabilization Institute of the University of higher education at Ohio State University. April 1, and Service, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Minnesota is issuing a series of studies of considerable

of Educational Research, & Published by the World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y. value to vocational guidance.

Columbus.

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1932.

Ohio

Bureau

OCTOBER, 1932

33

Schools and the Social Upheaval

Part II

as

(CHOOLS, particularly high schools By FREDERICK J. KELLY *

ing a task not previously undertaken by and colleges, must take the re

any national system of secondary educasponsibility for finding the way to

tion. If my statements seem unfair, assure society's advance with less THE TIME HAS COME," says Doctor Kelly, please understand that they are made by serious disorders than prevail to-day. "to take risks. So much involved that one who has been throughout his life a Demonstration of this challenge falls into three parts: it could hardly be supposed the solution

staunch defender of the high school. I

think there has been little awareness 1. The basic idea back of the public would be found without risks. I am happy

among educational people anywhere that support of schools is that an educated to believe, however, that if guiding America the very safety of democratic civilization public is the surest safeguard of the through this social revolution is chiefly the rests upon whether education can prepeople's freedom.

The job of educationand it isand that to do pare a whole people for freedom. Why should the people of this country that job involves risk-and it doesteachers,

high schools are patterned largely after pay in taxation two and one-half billion

the colleges, while the colleges have dollars per year to support a public school particularly teuchers of adolescent youth, will

evolved as institutions to serve essentially, system? Is it with the idea that an courageously take those risks.

leisure and professional classes. The educated person gets more out of life than

great common people have not been in an uneducated person and that therefore

mind when colleges have devised their people merely combine to run the most recall, are: First, health; second, com

curricula or their methods. High schools economical school system for the personal mand of fundamental processes; third,

have in general taken their cues as to both improvement of the several individuals? worthy home membership; fourth, voca

subject matter and methods of teaching Or is it rather that the welfare of each one

tion; fifth, civic education; sixth, worthy from the colleges. is dependent upon the fact that others are

use of leisure; seventh, ethical character. educated? Or is it a combination of the

Education's functions You will note that none of these refers two?

specifically to the mastery of any given We are aware to-day much better than Individual well-being is dependent both high-school subject, such English we have ever been before that the type upon one's own capacity for enjoyment literature. It is true that the second one, of education which the high schools have and also upon a type of social order in

command of fundamental processes, may provided is not adequate. Social, ecowhich one can experience with least refer rather definitely to the subject nomic and civic problems so numerous hindrance those enjoyments for which he

matter of a few of the high-school courses and so difficult as to bewilder everyone is prepared. Under any circumstances

which are taught primarily as tools or can not be solved without the intelligent society expects that through paying for a processes.

participation of a large proportion of our public educational system a social order

Generally, these objectives refer to out- people. To prepare for that intelligent will be developed which will make

comes which are not directly involved in participation is the primary function of possible the fullest measure of life's

the subject matter. The fact that a stu- education, particularly the high school satisfactions. If people find their legiti- dent gets an “A” in a course in English and college education. Every teacher mate hopes and their most cherished

literature does not of itself give any assur- must check his own instruction on the ambitions thwarted because of conditions

ance that literature will actually function basis of its contribution directly or indiprevailing in the social order, they will

in this student's life to make him a better rectly to the solution of these problems. not continue to support public schools as

citizen or to make him use his leisure more 3. The schools, particularly the high they have done up to date. To the

worthily. The fact that a student does schools and colleges must discover what people at large it is not a question of satisfactorily in a course in foreign lan- the essential goals of a free people are and whether the schools teach ever so well

guage, does not of itself assure that any of must go about the business of developing literature, history, Latin, or agriculture. these main cardinal objectives is reached public opinion in the support of these They want to be assured that when chil

in the case of the student. Only as a goals. This involves two issues which are dren have completed their public-school teacher of foreign language can give some subjects of debate throughout the educaeducation, they will be prepared to main

clear indication that the student through tional world. First, character education tain a social order in which the qualities his study of foreign language is achieving and second, the general policy of using of justice, fairplay, and equality of oppor

some one or more of these objectives does the schools to develop a given public tunity so fundamental to freedom shall

the teaching of foreign language have a opinion with respect to certain social and prevail in the land.

place in the high school curriculum. It economic issues. Cardinal principles

may turn out that the subject matter now In September School LIFE I pointed

employed in the various high-school out how certain forms of control have been 2. The cardinal principles of secondary courses is the best subject matter to use cut from under our people by processes education as set forth in a report of the for the accomplishment of these objec- mainly of education. While I do not Commission on the Reorganization of tives, but that is a question remaining yet share the fear of some people that our Secondary Education (U. S. Office of to be answered. The practical challenge civilization is doomed, candor compels the Education Bulletin, 1918, No. 35) are not which this critical period in the world- admission that we seem not to be very built around subjects. These objectives wide social revolution is putting up to the effective so far in instituting new controls are intended to center the thought of the high schools is to find just what subject in place of those which have been broken high-school teachers upon their respon

matter and what methods of teaching are down. In many cases our people, parsibility to produce an effective citizenship. best for the purpose of building a sound ticularly our young people, seem not to These seven main objectives, you will social order.

develop those strengths of character adeChief, Division of Colleges and Professional Schools,

I do not wish to be unduly critical of quate for the severe strains which modern U.S. Office of Education.

the American high school. It is undertak- life puts upon them.

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Just how these strengths of character untainted with indoctrination. But in- Educational people can not longer sideare to be developed is a matter requiring doctrination with respect to this very step the responsibility of deciding on the much investigation, but that it must guarantee of free minds, the rights of basis of the best information and expert somehow be accomplished is generally minorities, the respect for expert opinion, testimony available what the best pracrecognized. One thing is reasonably etc., is the surest way to bring the benefits tices are for the attainment of the socialclear. Incentives which actuate students of intellectual freedom to the people as economic goals of American life. If to must be as high up the scale of values and a whole.

teach these goals with the definite purpose as abiding as possible. Practice in re- Having said this I hasten now to state of securing support for them pending the sponding in a certain way to a given mo- the second of my propositions, namely, time when the educational engineers shall tive is likely to determine responses to no country can long survive which does have come to a different conclusion is that same motive throughout life. If, not provide for the systematic teaching using the schools to develop public opintherefore, schools can make use of those of that nation's ideals as to the rising ion, then I am in favor of such use. I motives which do persist throughout life generation. The schools of any people believe that to refuse longer to take a they will be training their students in are primarily for the purpose of passing position on the important questions which responses which will serve them well in on the accumulated wisdom of one lie at the root of our present social-ecolater life. Dependence upon superficial generation to the next. If to-day we nomic difficulties is to render the schools incentives such as grades, honor points, believe the earth is in the center of a impotent in respect to the most important and the like will but prepare for similar great sphere in the outer surface of which service for which they were created. If responses in later life. If similar incen- the stars are set we will teach that sup- educators are not in position to sift the tives for desirable responses are not pres- posed fact to our children. If we believe evidence and arrive at a judgment as to ent in mature life-and it is my contention that molecules are the smallest particles the policies our people should follow in that generally they are not—then to use of matter we will teach that to our order to free us from the pitfalls into which such superficial incentives lacks character children. That next year may reveal society is periodically plunged, then who training value. Again, students prepare the errors of our teaching does not is? If the country can not depend upon for assuming responsibility in later life by justify us in refusing to teach our present the honest, capable, and disinterested carrying responsibility in school. Gov- beliefs.

study of these questions by experts whose ernment by regulations in school, prepares

judgments are accepted by educators, for government by regulations out of

Education's responsibility

upon whom may the country depend? school. Only as one carries responsibility In social matters the accumulated Others who are busy with efforts at creatfor decisions and actions does the factor

wisdom leads to certain beliefs with ing and molding public opinion are too of ethics play any considerable part. If

reference to social organization. On the often open to the charge of selfish interest. the choice is with the student and his is basis of our beliefs we will support or But their indoctrination goes on incesthe responsibility for the decision, the refuse to support policies and practices santly. The question is not one of indoesituation becomes a moral situation. For present in our social life. It is just as

trination or nonindoctrination. Public him to choose on the basis of a high ethical

important that the schools assume re- opinion is molded by all sorts of educastandard is character training for choosing sponsibility for bringing about a support tional agencies. The home, the church, on a high ethical standard in later life.

on the part of the rising generation of the newspapers, the radio, the theater, and On the general question of the use of these essential principles of social conduct many others, all are powerful as creators the schools to develop a given opinion, as it is that they teach the truth about of public opinion. much is being written and spoken these the germ theory of typhoid fever and how Shall the school, the most disinterested, days. Do we have a right in the schools to inoculate against the disease.

impartial, and presumably the most to imbue the children with certain precon- This attitude toward developing public capable, of all the agencies to answer what ceptions of social and economic policy? opinion and the previously expressed are the social-economic policies of a people Have we any right to inculcate in them a attitude toward the need for independence which will lead most surely to the goals given point of view concerning, let us say, of thought may at first seem mutually for which the people aspire, remain disthe rights of capital and the rights of incompatible. I do not believe they are. creetly out of the picture and witness the labor?

We are accustomed to giving great weight near collapse of our cherished institutions Two points

to the views of experts. We do not ask of law and order? Free speech and free

for a popular vote on how large a steel press are admittedly fundamental in One needs to be exceedingly cautious girder will be required to hold up a representative government. Should not about his statements in a field like this. certain bridge. We ask an engineer, and teachers be among those to exercise these On the other hand this question is at the we regard his view as of more value than rights? Should not the schools seek the very heart of the problem which confronts the views of a hundred laymen. Simi- diagnosis of our social ills by calling upon America to-day. Even though my dis- larly, we ask a doctor for his diagnosis of the best social diagnosticians we have in cussion must be very brief, I wish to the case of a sick child. We believe his the world? Should not these experts in venture statements upon two points. diagnosis is worth more than that of a social-economic affairs render judgments First, any educational system must make hundred neighbors. The fact that a periodically for the guidance of the schools? definite provision for the development of given engineer says that a twelve-inch Should schools not then accept those the highest intelligence and the greatest beam of a given type of steel is adequate judgments as more likely to be sound independence of thinking, possible among for the bridge in question does not keep than those of a hundred neighbors? its people. Social attainment at any engineers from continuing research which Should they not proceed boldly to prepare given time is not so important as provision may ultimately show that a thirteen- a generation to live happily by the socialfor improving that social attainment. No inch beam would be better. The engi- economic policies advocated? This is not satisfactory society can be static and every neers cherish independence of thought the indoctrination of a fixed and changesystem must provide the machinery to but they nevertheless recognize the need less doctrine. Provision for research, for accomplish changes within itself. There- for answering specific questions to-day continuous study by experts, for change in fore, the choicest outcome of education on the basis of the best information the policies to be advocated or taught must be the development of free minds available.

must be a part of the plan.

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Using orange crates for a charging desk and a shoe box for filing purposes, kindergarten children build their own library

The Love of Books

How Cleveland's Experimental School Library

Lures Children to Literature

N

POT LONG AGO I had the By EDITH A. LATHROP *

on the map Clark's route from Kentucky opportunity of spending a

and quoted facts from various books showhalf day in the Mount Auburn show in how many ways the library can ing how the people of Kaskaskia lived, School in Cleveland, Ohio. be of service to the school.

their occupations and their eagerness to Many educators visit this school, because

Its objectives are: First, to train chil- join Clark's band of western recruits it is carrying on a unique experiment. It

dren to supplement the information found against the encroachments of the British specializes in interesting children in the in their textbooks with that found in other

and Indians. When he had exhausted intelligent use of books. printed matter; second, to help them

his fund of knowledge about Kaskaskia Some one may say: “What a paradox! appreciate reading which is worth while; other pupils gave added information from A school that specializes in interesting third, to teach them to use the library and other books. A dozen or more books of children in books! There is nothing reference books easily and effectively; history and of biography and pictures unique about that. Do not all schools and, fourth, to cultivate attitudes toward

had been drawn from the library for this interest children in books?"

books and reading as sources of pleasure particular discussion. But, do all schools interest the majority and information that will carry over to the

Here was a learning process not wholly of children in books? They may interest

use of public libraries. How are these dependent upon textbooks and teacher. the few who are of superior intelligence or objectives being realized?

These children had located information who are “book minded," but books must

Supplement textbooks

for themselves on the subject under disbe "sold” to the rank and file. Do we

cussion. They were comparing authorinot all know adults who never read books?

In the Mount Auburn School, as in

ties and supplementing what they had
If a school is to interest children in
other progressive schools, children are not

read with pictures and maps.
books it must have access to a variety of assigned, each day, a few pages from a
them, suited to the various intellectual

Book club
textbook to be memorized. Instead they
levels and interests of the children served originate units of work which take several

A visit to a fourth grade showed how a by the school. The Mount Auburn

weeks or months to develop. In each book club was correlating its activities School does this. It has a library of about

unit there are many problems to be solved. with the curriculum by contributing to 8,000 volumes, in charge of a trained

For aid in solving them the children are an observance of St. Patrick's day. The librarian and two assistants. This library directed to the books in the school library. menibers of the club were seated in the is a school branch of the Cleveland Public

A fifth grade had been working for front of the room in chairs, which were Library.

some weeks on the Northwest Territory. arranged in a semicircle, the president Four aims

There was a map of the territory upon the and secretary sitting by a small table at There is nothing pretentious about the blackboard, showing the States that have one end of the semicircle. building. The library is an ordinary class- been carved out of it, the towns and The subject under discussion was the

The school enrollment is about villages that played an important part life and stories of Padraic Colum, the 700, and the number of grades represented in its early development, and the old Na- popular children's writer of Irish folklore range from the kindergarten through the tional Road, now U. S. Route 40, over and myths. The child who told about sixth grade. The school is called a library which the pioneers traveled. A boy was Colum's life had obtained her facts from curriculum center because it attempts to standing before the map telling of the “Who's Who," in the library. This • Associate specialist in School Libraries, U. S.

capture of Kaskaskia in 1778 by George fourth grade child was more familiar with Office of Education.

Rogers Clark. As he talked he traced Who's Who” than are some high school

room.

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students. Stories of Padraic Colum re- · books, and in the end experienced the Some of the things emphasized in these viewed included: "The Girl Who Sat hy satisfaction of owning and managing a lessons are the need for quietness and the Ashes, The Princess Swallow- library.

courtesy in using a library, the proper Heart," "The King of the Cats," and Not only the kindergartners but all handling of books, use of such reference “The Boy Who Knew What the Birds grades of the school have an opportunity books as dictionaries and encyclopedias, Said.”

to spend some free time each week in the the arrangement of books on the shelves, One delightful feature of the reviews library. Children who can not settle and how to use the card catalog. was their variety. Not every story began down to reading during these free periods The principal of the school says that with “Once upon a time.” In fact, receive the help of special reading teach- the librarian of the Mount Auburn School emphasis was placed upon originality in ers, who diagnose their cases for the pur- is much more than a custodian of books; introducing book reviews.

pose of ascertaining the causes of their lack that her task is a vital and challenging Not all the stories were given in full by of concentration. It may be that the one, because the library contributes to the narrator. The child who told about mechanics of reading have not been mas- practically every activity of the school, “The Princess Swallow-Heart” stopped tered or that their interests have not been assists in the development of individual when she came to an interesting part discovered. Whatever the trouble, these pupils and ultimately influences lives in and said: “If you want to know how the special reading teachers try to remedy it. the homes. story ends, read it and find out for your- There is a special room set aside for them, The librarian works with the teachers self.” The reviewer of “The King of which is supplied with reference books, in preparing outlines for the units of work. the Cats" advised her audience to look textbooks and recreational reading. The most suitable material on every unit up the place where “The King of the Cats"

is brought together and placed, for a came from.

No custodian

limited time, either in the library or in the The way in which the members of the

classrooms. So it is necessary for the club quizzed each other on the stories Nor are the children who find it difficult librarian to keep in touch with new pubshowed their interest and familiarity with

to learn—the border-line intellectual cases lications, to know older books intimately Colum's writings. After the review of -neglected. This group was discovered enough to retain or discard as the needs “The Princess Swallow-Heart” the ques- in the library on one of the visits. Through develop, and to call upon the resources of tion was asked: “In what collection is the the sympathetic guidance of the teachers the public library whenever necessary. story found?” With the response, “The they were being helped to enjoy easy That the library in the Mount Auburn Peep-Show Man," the next question books.

School has influenced the home lives of was, “What other stories in that collec- Each group of children in the school has the children is evidenced by the fact that tion?" One felt that if a listener in this one period every week in the library for there were few books in the homes of book club were not familiar with Padraic the purpose of receiving instruction in the these children before the experiment Colum's writings he would surely want to selection, use, and care of books. This began. Now the parents are keenly be after observing the enthusiasm of the instruction is given by the librarian or by interested in buying books for the chilchildren. a member of her staff.

dren's home libraries.

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An orange-box library

Questions They Ask at Chicago U.

AHIGA A

U

CHIGAAN

On one visit to the library I found 30
kindergarten children looking at picture
books. They were as much at ease as
were the older children. They got their NIVERSITY of Chicago's plan of devoting the freshman and sophomore
picture books from low shelves and sat at

years to general survey courses has attracted national attention. By persmall tables. Some were talking together

mission of the University, SCHOOL LIFE will present monthly some of the about their books. Others were telling questions asked in Chicago examinations. SCHOOL LIFE readers, nearly all of whom one of the library assistants what the are college graduates will, no doubt, be able to answer the questions with ease, but pictures were about.

they may like to try them on their friends.-EDITOR.
Mount Auburn School places great
emphasis upon the use of books by the

Literary history
youngest children. It has been found the

Place before each literary form the number of the period in which it had its first principal says, that children who get an

great development in European literature.
early start in the use of the library acquire
a habit for reading which promises to 1. HOMERIC AND HELLENIC PERIOD.

Lyric poetry.
become permanent; and that because of

Ode. much practice in independent reading,

Pastoral poetry. children in the lower grades tend to be- 2. HELLENISTIC PERIOD.

Historical novel. come fluent readers and to think more

Chivalric romance.
clearly.

Epic.
Visits to the library by the kindergarten

Tragedy.
3. ROMAN PERIOD.
children stimulated the desire to develop

“New Comedy" (Comedy of a library unit. One result of this unit

Manners).
was the building of a library corner in

Essay.
their room. They built library shelves
4. MEDIEVAL PERIOD.

Mystery and miracle plays. with Trace blocks; made a librarian's

Oratory.
charging desk of orange boxes plus paint,

Social novel.
and a filing case of a shoe box and more
5. RENAISSANCE PERIOD.

Sonnet.
paint, and book ends and a flower vase of

Prose dialogue. clay. They borrowed books from the

History. ibrary for their shelves, learned to charge 6. ROMANTIC PERIOD.

Satire.

1

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