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[The illustration on the cover of this issue is adapted from a drawing appearing on
the cover of a series of text books used in the schools of Mexico)

Page Schools in Nine Nations. William John Cooper...

41 The Grouping Idea. Roy O. Billett...

43 Mexico's New Schools. Katherine M. Cook.

45 The Herald's Horn. Cline M. Koon..

47 The Status of the States..

47 Home-Making Education; How It Has Forged Ahead in the Last Two Years. Emeline S. Whitcomb..

48 A Plea For Missionaries (Editorial Page).....

50 Mr. Justice Holmes-His Opinions on Education; His Philosophy of Life and Law. Ward W. Keesecker....

51 Education Abroad. James F. Abel...

53 What Teachers Colleges Teach. Earle U. Rugg...

54 Do You Know These Books? A Test for Book Week..

56 Have You Read? Sabra W. Vought...

57 Character Building Stories. Edith A. Lathrop....

58 Answers to Book Test.....

58 New Government Aids for Teachers. Margaret F. Ryan...

59 Office of Education Organization....


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OFFICE OF EDUCATION NEW PUBLICATIONS Statistics of Universities, Colleges, and Professional Schools, 1929–30, Bulletin, 1931, No. 20, Vol. 2, Chap. 4...

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Issued Monthly, except July and August, by the United
States Department of the Interior, Office of Education

Secretary of the Interior : Ray Lyman Wilbur · Commissioner of Education : William John Cooper




Schools in Nine Nations
Doctor Cooper, Back From Tour, Tells of

Changes in Europe



OST European school sys

German culture. The chief subjects are, finishing school in commercial work, in tems segregate the second- German, history, and the history of art agriculture, in home making, and in the ary-school population from and two modern foreign languages. It trades. It might well be a school to which the

elementary at an early is not necessary for one to learn Latin pupils would be admitted on scholarships, date. This is impossible for us. Before and Greek in this school, and yet this and to which other pupils would pay for a the war Germany did this at the very school will lead to the university or other certain part of their instruction. This outset of education by having some pupils higher institutions of learning.

may provide a method of financing our attend a vorschule, which was more or less (2) A fundamentally new institution high schools during the depression. private, and the rest of the pupils attend in the larger centers of Germany is the a volkschule, which was public. This in ausbauschule. This school is only six

In France itself made a classification of pupils on the years in length instead of nine years, and

In France I did not have the opporbasis of the wealth of their parents. In boys may enter it from the seventh grade some cities these schools began at slightly of the volkschule, thus remaining in the tunity to visit any schools. From what different hours, so that the boys and girls common-school system almost the entire I learned of their schools at the ministry would not even meet on the streets. length of the 8-year course. It aims to of education I concluded that the war had There has been a significant change make it possible for the brighter boys to made virtually no changes in French eduwrought in this system by the war. The prepare themselves for college. In all cation. I was impressed by the influence vorschule is now forbidden, except where German States, now, girls may be admitted of France itself on these schools. Foreign it is held with the approval of the minister to schools intended primarily for boys languages are not taken by these people of education. The volkschule has been when their homes are not within reach of as much as in Germany, and the desire to changed by adding a grundschule of four a girls' secondary school. Usually they speak French and to have French spoken years, which offers the same course of constitute separate classes, however, is very strong. study for everybody. A few people still Only in very small centers are girls

I find that these foreign countries learn send their children to private schools, but educated with boys, and in general co foreign languages better than we do, in time the grundschule will contain education does not exist at all.

probably due to the fact that students virtually everybody.

realize the need of speaking them. If one Four-year junior high

takes a train in almost any part of Europe, In Germany

inside of six or eight hours at the most he The grundschule aims to develop grad.

I think that if there is any point to this will cross a frontier and be completely surually “the aptitude of the child by trans

for us it tends to favor the establishment rounded by a foreign tongue. Realizing forming the instinct which urges him to of the 4-year junior high school; that is, a this, pupils make more strenuous efforts

than they do in this country to learn the play and indulge in physical movement junior high school which takes one to the into a deliberate will to work." In order

end of the compulsory school period. language thoroughly. I doubt if we will to do this successfully the school must try

Such a school could be maintained by a ever be able to get such a powerful incento penetrate the mind of the child, and,

city free of charge, and the school above tive into our foreign-language program. having grasped the ideas, then express

such junior high schools, possibly a 4 In England I was especially interested them in the language of childhood. year collegiate school including the other

in the physical-education work. All of There have been also established in two years of high school and the first two

the old schools have well-established Germany, as a result of conditions following years of college, might have a small tui schedules of games.

Of these perhaps the war, at least two new schools:

tion fee. This tuition fee should be flex cricket is the most important, and at the (1) The Deutsche Oberschule, which

ible as in Germany, where at least a fourth International Conference on Secondary places the emphasis upon elements in

of the fees are used to help pay for tuition Education the other European countries

of pupils who can not afford to go if com were interested in England's program of * United States Commissioner of Education. pelled to pay. This school would be a physical education. They were anxious


to incorporate some similar program into the universities. The schools for students walls hang the pictures of the King and their own schools, but it did not seem that who wish stenography or home making, Mussolini along with the crucifix. Italian cricket was making very much progress. trades, and industrial work are entirely schools are trying to rebuild the Italian

I was able to visit Westminster School. separate and under the control of a dif- civilization on the model of the best days Its enrollment at the present time is 365. ferent ministry.

of ancient Rome. It is one of the most famous of the Eng

Out of all this do we get any worthlish public schools, which are not public

Smaller nations

while lesson for the United States? In at all. Boys are enrolled in the schools

the first place, you will observe that there like Westminster at birth, and preference In the smaller nations of Europe is everywhere in Europe a marked tendis given to the sons of graduates, which Holland, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and ency to limit secondary instruction. As makes it almost impossible for an out Switzerland—the secondary school is

a matter of fact, the positions which resider to get in.

slightly different. In Belgium, for in- quire secondary education of the type I also visited the Bec School. This is stance, the secondary school age begins given in European schools are those places one of the larger of the London County at 12 and the population is strictly limited filled by about 8 per cent of the populaCouncil schools, having a site of 7 acres

to those who wish to go on to the uni tion. Generally they have about 10 per and enrolling 540 boys. The building is versity. The rest go on through an

cent of the population in the secondary comparatively new and approximates in 8-grade common-school system, and from

schools. We had in the high schools of arrangement our own buildings. There this school enter normal schools and this country the last year for which staare in all 18 classrooms, 3 science labora- industrial schools.

tistics were available 53 per cent of our tories, an art room, a handicraft room

In Holland there is a 6-grade elementary eligible population in secondary schools. devoted largely to woodwork, an assem school, usually followed by a 6-year sec

When one takes into consideration the bly, a dining hall where a mid-day lunch- ondary school, which means that the sparsely settled areas in the country, it eon is served, a gymnasium fitted with secondary school begins at 13 years of

means that 75 or 80 per cent of our city modern appliances, baths for use after the age with all the pupils.

population go on from the elementary games, and a well-lighted library. There

In Czechoslovakia, which has developed school into the high school. A great are playing fields on each side of the

as an independent nation entirely since the many of these are preparing for college. schoolhouse utilizing about 5 acres of the war, the elementary school for everyone

What does this mean? For a few occupasite. On these I saw splendid work in extends to 12 and for most to 14 years.

tions we have figures. There are in this tennis and volley ball in progress.

The smaller group who enter the 8-year country to-day more physicians per secondary school at 11 years go on to

thousand people than in any other counEnrollments low college.

try in the world. Yet our medical schools The fee for pupils whose parents reside

In Switzerland there is no central ad are strictly limited, so much so that some in the county of London is approximately ministration of education. Statistics of of our boys and girls go abroad to study $50 a year for those under 12 years of age schools are gathered by the Secretary of

medicine. I do not believe that we need and $65 a year for those over 12 years of

the Interior. The secondary school for any more medical schools or medical age. If one lives in other counties than the Canton of de Vaud begins at 10 years, departments in this country. I think London, the fee is considerably higher. for the Canton of Suneva at 12 years, there are probably enough physicians Practically every European secondary with an elementary-school system con being turned out at the present time. school has a fee system. Once admitted tinuing to 14, and for the Canton of There are undoubtedly too many lawyers, to a school a boy must participate in the Geneve it begins at 12 years. There is especially if they were all practicing law. games and physical-education work unless practically no uniformity, due to the fact Secondary education, then, is all a a doctor files a certificate to the effect that that the people of Switzerland are partly question of whether America is ready the boy is unfit for this work. He must French, partly German, and partly Italian.

to accept education as worth while in also do promptly and effectively his home The Austrian system of education is so itself, and not put quite so much emwork. He should join some school society, much like the German that it really needs phasis on the dollars and cents value and is strongly urged to join the Boy

no further comment. They have only an of it. Scouts if he is under 13 and the school 8-year secondary-school system as against

I have a feeling that an education cadet corps if he is over 13 years of age.

the German 9-year system, but both begin should be worth while to carpenters, He may take music and other subjects by the secondary period at 10 years of age.

plumbers, bricklayers, hodcarriers, and paying extra tuition fees.

in fact to every skilled tradesman. I do Secondary schools in Europe are usually

Lessons for U. S.?

not understand why it would not be demuch smaller than those in the United

sirable for these men to have a cultural, States. I found that a school with an In Italy there is a marked difference. civic education in addition to their voactual enrollment of 700 was regarded by At 11 years, children enter the secondary cational skills. I think the same printhe schoolmasters as a monstrosity. They school. While these schools are varied, ciple applies to business.

Why would it think that for a school to be so large a the regular school which leads to the uni

be objectionable for the man who does principal can not know the boys individ- versity consists of a 5-year gymnasium the dry cleaning to have in addition to ually and personally is not a school at all. followed by a 3-year lycee. Ten years his knowledge of his trade a good culIn Germany I did find secondary schools ago in October the Fascisti marched on tural education? Or for the man who approaching a thousand in number, but Rome and took possession of the Govern delivers the groceries to one's home to in no other part of Europe was that the ment. They at once made Giovanni have in addition to his knowledge of

Gentile Minister of Education, and he the grocery business a knowledge of how One of the things which one learns from put into effect some of the doctrines the Government of the United States the secondary schools of England is that which he had been preaching. The works? I wonder how many people they are primarily college preparatory, Italian schools have been united with really know how the government of and not general as are our schools, where the Roman Catholic Church in that the their cities, the State, and the Nation students who plan to go into life imme Roman Catholicism is the religion taught is actually carried on. Here is a large diately upon graduating are educated in them, but it is not taught by the priests. field for education and along with those who are preparing for Lay teachers have charge of it. On the growing day by day.


one which is

The Grouping Idea A Report and Forecast on Certain Aspects of a

Major Problem in Education






Intelligence quotient from a group

mental test (2)


combined (3)

Industry, application or effort (12)


Average of several teachers' ratings of pupils

academic ability or intelligence (8)
Group intelligence test score or

mental age (1)
Average scholarship marks in this or related

subjects (4)
Teacher's rating of pupils academic ability

or intelligence (7)
Educational or achievement test age

or score (5)




ROBABLY no educational topic,

whether to group and how to group have except perhaps plans character- LET US COMBINE the X and the Y of X, Y, been adequately answered. On the conized by the unit assignment, has

2, suggests Doctor Billett, at the conclusion trary, the era of grubbing for facts has evoked more words, written and of his bird's-eye view of the battle ground of only begun. Topics here briefly touched spoken, than the procedure commonly homogeneous grouping. Doctor Billett's

upon, and other important aspects of pupil known as homogeneous or ability group- opinion is based on experience with group

classification not even accorded mention, ing. The bulk of this discussion and con

ing, personal research, and investigation of have been discussed in considerable detail troversy has poured through the channels grouping in connection with the National

elsewhere. of educational magazines and periodicals Survey of Secondary Education.-EDITOR.

Homogeneous grouping within the brief space of the past dozen years. A recent selected but comprehen

Certainly the Utopian notion that persive bibliography totals 210 articles, books, examined with painstaking thoroughness; fect homogeneity can or need be secured or theses dealing with theoretical, prac- 2,740 secondary schools in which homo- has no place in any practical grouping tical, or experimental aspects of group- geneous grouping is practiced (represent- plan. The only really homogeneous ing. The earliest article 1 in this list ap- ing every State) were identified, and 289 group would consist of one individual. peared in 1910. Only two other articles schools were selected as outstanding in the Even he would need reclassifying from are dated prior to 1919. During the bien- use of homogeneous grouping. The latter subject to subject and from day to day. nium 1919–20 an abrupt

Therefore homogeneous increase in the number of

grouping is really an atBASIS

PER CENT articles on the subject oc


tempt to reduce hetero20

40 50 curred, due to the intro

geneity. Its aim is to reduction and use of group

fine present methods of Average scholarship marks in all subjects tests of mental ability. By

2 36.5

classification. 1923–24 the current num

3 35.0

Ability grouping is only ber of articles appearing on

4.5 32.0

one of many forms of homothe subject had reached a


geneous grouping. Ability maximum which has con

grouping generally refers tinued undiminished down

to a reduced heterogeneity to the present time. And


of the pupils' abilities to the end is not yet. Less


master academic material. than a year ago the ques

It is usually based on scores

9 16.5 tion “Whither homogen

or intelligence quotient

10 16.0 eous grouping?” occupied

from group tests of mental an important place on the

11 15.5

ability or teachers' marks program of an educational Educational or achievement quotient (6) 12


or ratings. However, conference sponsored by


ability grouping is also New York University. The

achieved when pupils are

14 phrasing of the question

grouped in Latin on the

15 more than faintly suggests

basis of tests prognostic of that thinking concerning

Number of Basis (See section 2 of this chapter)

their abilities to master homogeneous grouping has

Latin; in industrial arts, reached the fork of the

on the basis of mechanical FIGURE 1.–Frequency of use of 16 bases of grouping as employed in 289 selected schools. road in the fog at midnight. The data cover all subject-matter fields. (* See Monograph No. 13, Provision for Indi

aptitude tests; in physical The question of grouping vidual Differences, Marking, and Promotion, National Survey of Secondary Education.) education, on the basis of was given a conspicuous

indexes of physical effiplace in the three latest meetings of the group was studied in minute detail through ciency, and so on. National Education Association. At the follow-up forms, observation, and inter- Many forms of homogeneous grouping Atlantic City meeting it was the subject view. The Survey has thrown light on involve the abilities of pupils only in an of debate, Dr. Paul R. Mort taking the many important sectors of the grouping incidental or correlative way. For inaffirmative and Dr. James R. McGaughy conflict. Four discussed in this article are: stance, grouping is repeatedly based on the negative of the question.

1. What does homogeneous grouping pupils' needs, as in the segregation of Homogeneous grouping has been studied

pupils for remedial teaching in certain intensively in connection with the National 2. Is there any antagonism between major subjects. Also it is frequently Survey of Secondary Education as a part homogeneous grouping and the principles based on pupils' interests or objectives, of a major project dealing with provisions of democracy? for individual differences. In this investi- 3. What bases of grouping are likely to

: National Survey of Secondary Education, Monogation the literature of the field has been prove most useful?

graph No. 13, Part I (in press), and Billett, Roy O.,

4. What types of pupils are most likely The Administration and Supervision of Homogeneous 1 Foster, W.L. Physical Age as a Basis for Classifi. cation of Pupils, Psychological Clinic, IV (May, 1910), to benefit from homogeneous grouping?

Grouping, The Ohio State University Studies, Contri

butions in School Administration No. 4. The Ohio pp. 83-88.

In the following exposition no implica

State University Press, Columbus, Ohio, 1932, xivt Staf. National Survey of Secondary Education. tion is intended that the questions of


Physical maturity (14)


Health (11)

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159 pp.

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as in college preparatory or non-college ties of the group, and if the group in turn economic groups: Any group of laborers, preparatory mathematics, Latin, or Eng- interacts fully and freely with other factory workers, or office workers; the lish. Where schools are large enough to groups. Homogeneous grouping, under patrons of any club, golf course, restaupermit it, grouping with reference to certain conditions to be suggested in the rant, or hotel; the students of any higher pupils' interests, needs, or aims is fre- remaining paragraphs of this article, is a institution of learning; the inmates of any quently realized through differentiated recognition and not a violation of these penal or charitable institution. Obviously courses and curriculums. Further segre two criteria of democratic organization. any of these groups is far more homogegation, on the basis of the ability to do Although certain objections to homo neous than the total population. Morethe work of the course, then may take geneous grouping brand it as undemoplace and is properly termed “ability cratic, nevertheless it is a procedure born



OF ONE STANDARD DEVIAgrouping. In the only practical sense of the necessities of a highly popularized LEVEL

TION of the term, a greater degree of homo- system of education. For example, in an geneity results whenever the ranges of aristocratic social order those pupils reabilities or the diversities of interests, ceiving secondary education are a highly

SLOW needs, or aims have been lessened. selected group set apart by social and

In the past, homogeneous grouping has economic forces. This high degree of se AVERAGE always signified the segregation of differ- lection produces a relatively small student ent types of pupils into separate classes. body highly homogeneous in abilities, in FAST At the present time homogeneous group- terests, needs, and aims. How different ing within the class is also widely em is the American high school's heteroployed, the class period being divided for geneous student body representing almost FIGURE 3.-The composite results of two of the Ohio each group into alternating periods of every possible variation in abilities, in experiments indicate that the advantages of homostudy and of class discussion. Grouping terests, needs, and aims. The difference geneous grouping decrease regularly as the pupils' within the class is recognized as essential makes it obvious that methods of classi

abilities increase. (See footnote 2, second reference,

pp. 59, 78-81, 108-109.) in small schools if there is to be any homo- fication more refined than the traditional geneous grouping at all. It is necessary grouping into grades, largely on the basis over, each large social or economic group also in large schools in courses where for of chronological age, are more imperative invariably tends to subdivide into smaller any reason there are only enough pupils in American schools than in the schools of groups in which still greater homogeneity for one class or section. Under this plan countries where an aristocratic social order prevails. For example, the foursome is the course is usually presented by means prevails. Moreover, as American second more homogeneous than the total group of the unit assignment and the classroom ary education becomes more democra on the golf course; and the fraternity or is sometimes equipped with a library of tized the need for homogeneous grouping football squad is more homogeneous than reference books, laboratory materials, and will increase.

the entire student body. movable tables and chairs.

It has been alleged that homogeneous grouping exerts an undue influence on the

Bases of grouping Antagonism with democracy?

pupil's future amounting to educational The data of the National Survey show In school, as in society, groups of some

"determinism.” Homogeneous grouping, that 16 bases of grouping are being used sort must be formed. Dewey recognizes intelligently employed, so far as the pres alone or in various combinations in 289 two characteristics of the groups coment writer can perceive, is not fairly open schools studied intensively. (Fig. 1.

) posing a democratically organized society.

to this criticism. It does not predestine the Composite bases are used in more than He says:3

pupil to a particular level of accomplish- four-fifths of these schools, and no two The two points selected by which to

ment, a particular occupation, or a partic- schools are proceeding along identical lines. measure the worth of a form of social

ular place in the social order. In schools Sound criteria for the selection of bases life are (1) the extent in which the in

where homogeneous grouping operates of grouping likely to prove most useful are terests of a group are shared by all its successfully, each curriculum is freely open greatly needed. One such criterion is

to all pupils. Within each curriculum suggested by the following line of reasonCOMPOSITES IN PERCENT

further classification is based on measures ing: Since it is absurd to think that ABILITY


of ability to master the subject matter. individual differences will be eradicated DEVIATION

No classification is regarded as final. The by any kind of classification, homogeneous

way is open for the transfer of pupils from grouping or refined classification should be SLOW

one classification level to another when- aimed at removing or minimizing the most

. 40






ever such transfer seems advisable. serious impediments to group learning and AVERAGE

Again, some claim that homogeneous group instruction. Hence the basis of grouping is undesirable because it has no grouping should consist of the best avail

counterpart in real life. In the writer's able measures of those qualities of the FAST

opinion homogeneous grouping does have pupil which are most significant of the a multitude of analogies in real life. If probable rate at which he will acquire the

“reduced heterogeneity” is accepted as concepts, appreciations, attitudes, knowlFIGURE 2.-The composite results of five of the Ohio the practical criterion of homogeneity, edges, or skills which it is the purpose of experiments indicate that homogeneous grouping increases the measurable achievements of slow pupils anyone can say from common-sense obser the course to develop. But the probable but retards the progress of average and fast pupils. vation that homogeneity is the rule in rate of learning depends on two kinds of (See footnote 2, second reference, pp. 110-112.)

real life. Ancient and general recognition qualities—first, those relatively subject to members, and (2) the fullness and freedom of the fact has crystallized in the adage change (for example, industry); second, with which it interacts with other groups. “Birds of a feather flock together”; and those relatively unchangeable (for ex

No type of group is undemocratic if the modern cartoon, “They Don't Speak ample, intelligence). Clearly, the individual members participate in an Our Language,” thrives on the numerous teaching must aim to modify the changeoptimum manner and degree in the activi- evidences of the fact in the daily lives of able traits, since it can have no appreciable Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. Thə

everyone. The following may be cited as effect on relatively unchangeable qualities. MacMillan Co., New York, 1920, p. 115. random examples of everyday social and

(Continued on p. 56)


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