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Federal Vocational Education Functions Now Directed by the

United States Commissioner of Education




AROLD L. ICKES, Secretary to the Board representatives of labor, The vocational education organization of the Interior, on October 10 agriculture, and manufacture and com- functioned as an independent office durissued an official order trans- merce. Ex-officio members the ing its nearly 17 years' existence. It was

ferring the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of responsible directly to Congress to which Federal Board for Vocational Education Commerce, Secretary of Labor, all from it made an annual report. to the Federal Office of Education in the the President's Cabinet, and the United Secretary of the Interior Ickes has Department of the Interior, under the States Commissioner of Education. Dr. notified Commissioner Zook to proceed direction of George F. Zook, United Charles A. Prosser, director of the William with the necessary organization of the States Commissioner of Education. Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute, Office of Education so as to provide for The Secretary's order, effec

the inclusion of the necessary tive October 10, carries

personnel of the Federal Board out the terms of President

for Vocational Education. Roosevelt's Executive order of

The importance with which June 10, which specified that “the

Commissioner Zook regards the functions of the Federal Board

transfer of functions of the for Vocational Education

Federal Board for Vocational Edu. transferred to the Department

cation to his direction is expressed of the Interior, and the Board shall act in an advisory capacity

in his reply to Secretary Ickes' without compensation.”

official order which reads: “I In announcing the transfer

wish to assure you that I have of the functions of the Federal

a deep sense of the importance Board for Vocational Education,

of this added responsibility. I Secretary Ickes said: “This trans

will, to the best of my ability, fer of the functions of the

promote the cause of vocational Board is not to be interpreted

education vigorously and wisely. as any curtailment of the activ

I trust that this union of ities of the Federal Government in the field of vocational education.

educational forces in the Federal Both Dr. George F. Zook, the

Government will increase the Commissioner of Education, and

effectiveness of the service which I have long been deeply interested

the Federal Government renders in vocational education studies

to the States and local comand efforts, and we both propose

munities in the conduct of their to promote the development of

educational programs." this highly important part of

Headquarters of the Federal the field of education vigorously.”

Office of Education is

now in The Federal Board for Voca

the tional Education came into exist

Hurley-Wright Building, The new home of the Federal Office of Education. Six floors of this ence as the result of the passage building are now devoted to Federal interests in education

Eighteenth and Pennsylvania of the Smith-Hughes Act

Avenue N.W., Washington, February 23, 1917. This consummated Minneapolis, Minn., was selected as the D.C. Staff members of the office the efforts, over a period of years, of a first director of the Board. He came to moved recently from the Department number of societies engaged in promoting Washington in August of 1917 to assume of the Interior building to provide vocational education. Both agricultural the responsibility of organizing a staff more office space for the rapidly increasand industrial organizations lent their and putting into operation the program ing personnel of the Public Works strength to the support of this measure. for vocational education in accordance Administration. The Interior building

A Board was organized in the late sum- with the terms of the National Vocational was the home of the Office of Education mer of 1917. President Wilson appointed Education Act.

for nearly 10 years.



Teachers' Salaries



Thousands of Teachers Receive Less than the Minimum

for Unskilled Labor

I up in the N.R.A. codes?

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OW do salaries of teachers in lowing data on code wages and teachers' Skilled labor includes plumbers, elec-
the United States compare salaries.

tricians, steamfitters, and other craftsmen.
with the wage minimums set What are the new minimum wages Now, let us turn to teachers' salaries.

which have been set with the cooperation Our most adequate figures on salaries This is a live question.

of the Federal Government?

What are

are predepression--1930. If we had The answer requires a preface. teachers' salaries?

1933–34 figures, they would undoubtedly Preface: Farm and factory supply the Thus far, no code adopted by the Na- be lower. foundation of life in the United States. tional Recovery Administration sets mini

Median teacher salary.

$1, 420 Above this foundation rises our elaborate mum salaries for services comparable to Median city teacher salary.

1.71 structure of schools, hospitals, museums, teaching services. First there was the Median rural teacher salary. libraries, churches. This superstructure “blanket code” President's Reemploy

Median l-room teacher salary.. has sagged because the economic crisis ment Agreement, widely accepted in These figures are medians and therefore weakened the farm and factory founda- August, which set up minimums for fac- do not quite give us the facts we need. tion under it. To restore the foundation tory and mechanical workers and “white Code minimums are the rock bottom is the central aim of the national recovery collar” workers. For factory and me- wages. Industrial wages go up from the industrial codes and agricultural agree- chanical workers it sets up a minimum minimum. But salaries of teachers go ments. The theory is that restoring the wage of 40 cents an hour; for “white both up and down from the median. foundations will also bolster up the sag- collar” workers, $12 to $15 per week, What do we find when we explore the ging superstructure; revive sick school, depending on the population of the salaries below that paid the median rural museum, hospital, and church budgets; community.

teacher? repair salary cuts; reestablish sacrificed

This "blanket code" is being rapidly In the first place there is no minimum services.

replaced by special codes adopted by the salary for teachers. The principal of a The rebuilding of foundations is under various industries. The hosiery workers' Negro school in September reported at way.

Restoration of the “educational code, for example, provides from $13 to the Office of Education that neither he nor wing” of Hotel America must soon begin. $27.50 per week for various types of work his teachers had received a cent of salary Alert school officials and school board in the North; $12 to $24.75 for similar in money since 1931. Their meager salamembers will not want to be held respon- work in the South.

ries were paid in warrants which were sible for having their section sag months Certain other compensation standards cashable at discounts of from 25 to 30 after the rest of the structure has been set up by the Government agencies will percent, if at all. reconditioned.

be of much interest to teachers and school Estimates based on these percentages One of the first problems public opinion officials, as reflecting new standards of

indicate that more than 13,000 rural white will lay before them will be the salary prob- compensation for effort.

and 28,000 Negro teachers were in 1930 lem. It is a tough old problem liberally The Public Works Board has passed a receiving salaries at rates lower than the studded with many new thorns. The resolution determining “wage rates on all present “blanket code” minimum for “New Deal” has meant-more than construction financed from funds appro- unskilled factory workers. This was beanything else, perhaps--new standards of priated by the Administrator of Public fore teachers salaries had been reduced to reward for human effort. Therefore, Works.” The scale per hour varies for

any extent. school officials will be asked to determine three sections:

Last year another study disclosed that new salary schedules in the light of the

of 45,489 white rural teachers, 6,181 re

L'nskilled Skilled new standards for farm, factory, and store

labor ceived $60 or less per month. Last year workers. To orient school officials wan

also 588 Negro teachers out of 6,722 were

$0.40 $1.00 dering in the complicated maze of code

receiving $25 or less per month. standards, School Life presents the fol

(Turn to p.38, col, 1)


Southern zone.
Central zone
Northern zone


1. 10

. 50

1. 20


in Washington!

What Happened When the State Superintendents of Education
Met in September

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National Council of State Superintendents and Commissioners of Education: front line left to right; James M. Pringle, N.H., James N. Rule, Pa., George C. Cole, Ind., John Vaughn, Okla., Charles A. Lee, Mo., Charles H. Elliott, N.J., George F. Zook. U.S. Commissioner of Education, Elizabeth Ireland, Mont., Inez Lewis, Colo., Agnes Samuelson, Iowa, J. H. Saunders, city supt., Newport News, Va., second line; F. L. Bailey, Vt., P. F. Voelker, Mich., Mrs. Cole, W. W. Trent, W.Va., Robert Moore, Ill. (for Blair), Beverly O. Skinner, Ohio, T. H. Harris, La., Mrs. Katherine A. Morton, Wyo., H. E. Hendrix, Ariz., Sidney B. Hall, Va., top line; Bertram E. Packard, Maine, E. W. Butterfield, Conn., J. H. Hope, S.C., A. F. Harman, Ala., A. T. Allen, N. C., Jeremiah Rhodes, Tex. (for Woods), John Callahan, Wis., Charles W. Taylor, Nebr., H. V. Holloway, Del., J. H. Richmond, Ky., W. D. Cocking, Tenn., Vierling Kersey, Calif., M. D. Collins, Ga., Albert S. Cook, Md. Not in picture: W. S. Cawthon, Fla., W. T. Markham, Kans., Payson Smith, Mass., C. H. Skidmore, Utah.

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