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Utopian the plan of making states coterminous with nationalities, but admit that there should be within each state civil equality, religious liberty, and the free use of native languages, - at least in so far as the private, as opposed to the public and especially the official, use of language is concerned. Dr. Hildebrand believes that each question of nationality should be studied and answered separately, in accordance with actual facts, and that these questions can best be answered by each nation after the war, and not in the treaty of peace. Dr. Laun refers to the eight nationalities which contribute to the population of Austria, no one of them being in the majority, and argues that as Austria is "the cradle of protection to national minorities” (die Wiege des nationalen Minoritätenschutzes) it should become the model of "the law of nationalities" (Nationalitätenrecht).

Dr. Van Houten, of Holland, writing on the development of the Hague Conference as “The Way Out,” outlines and advocates a “Council of States for International Affairs” to represent the Conference when not in session, and to act as a council for conciliating disputes and for administering such tasks as those connected with the freedom of the sea, a sea-police, contraband, etc.

Dr. Lammasch, of Austria, contributes a careful critique of the Dutch committee's plan of an international organization for the pacific settlement of disputes. In the course of this, he supports the development of a genuine international court and commissions of inquiry and conciliation, but rejects (as does the Dutch committee also) the economic boycott and military force as sanctions of international institutions.

Writing under the caption of "An International Police," Baron Palmstierna, of Sweden, rejects the economic boycott as an insufficient sanction of international law and also a genuine international police force as impracticable, at the same time rather doubtfully advocating the pooling of all national armaments for this purpose.

Our own Mr. Taft advocates without any doubt or hesitation the use of both the economic boycott and an alliance of national armaments for the preservation of the peace, and answers in familiar form a halfdozen objections to such a sanction.

A reduction and limitation of armaments on land and sea, at the end of this war, is demanded by Hon. W. H. de Beaufort, of Holland, who regards this step as necessarily pari passu with the development of a satisfactory court of arbitration. Dr. Broda, of Switzerland,

coincides with this opinion, and discusses in much more detail than is usual some concrete plans for the limitation of land, water, and aërial armaments.

Mrs. Fannie Fern Andrews, of Boston, sketches the history of the American attempt to secure the exemption of noncontraband private property from capture in warfare on the sea, and quotes a number of American publicists, most of whom are opposed at present to this “American" proposal. She also states some of the current problems associated with contraband, blockade, the conversion of merchant ships, enemy merchant ships, war zones, mines, and submarines.

The last and the longest essay is contributed by Mr. Denys P. Myers, also of Boston, who writes on “The Control of Foreign Relations. This is an instructive historical account of the development of democratic control over foreign relations in various states of the Old World and the New, and shows the real progress that has been achieved in the past, while enabling the reflective reader to realize how much needs to be accomplished along this line, as along so many others, before the world is truly safe for democracy.

The volume as a whole, though by no means definitive, of course, on any of its topics, is well worth while, and the society under whose auspices it is published is to be congratulated on its persistent and intelligent efforts to internationalize the world's public opinion on the most pressing international problems of our time.

WM. I. HULL.

PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

[For list of abbreviations, see p. 176.]

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Adriatic, The. Problem of the Adriatic. V. R. Savic. N. American R., 206:885.

Dec. Africa. Germany and Africa. “Mallam.” Edinburgh R., 226: 153. July. Albania. Albania and the Albanians. Ismail Kemal Bey. Quarterly R., 228: 140. July

Albanian (The) question. M. E. Durham. Contemporary, 112: 386. Oct. Aliens. Absorbing the alien. M. E. Ravage. Century, 95: 26. Nov.

Alien enemy persons, firms and corporations in English law. Cyril M. Picciotto. Yale Law J., 27: 167. Dec.

Séquestre (Le) des biens des sujets ennemis en France. Eugène Audinet. Clunet, 44: 1601. Alsace-Lorraine. Mesures allemandes contre la propriété privée des AlsaciensLorrains. Clunet, 44: 1700.

Rive (La) gauche du Rhin. Julien Rovire. Revue des Deux Mondes, 41 (3): 512. Oct.

Return (The) of Alsace-Lorraine. Ernest Dennet. 19th Century, 82: 504. Sept. Arabia. Arab (The) revolt and its advantages to the British Empire. T. Cham

berlain Bey. Chambers J., 7: 529. Aug. Armed Merchantmen. Armed (The) merchantmen. Thomas G. Frothingham.

Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 464. Dec. Armed Neutrality. Sea power and armed neutralities III. Sir Francis Piggott.

19th Century, 82: 647. Sept. Armenia. Armenia and the Armenians. Ismal Kemal Bey. Fortnightly, 102: 494. Oct.

Armenian deportations. L. P. Chambers. Queens Q., 25:1. July-Sept.

Germany and the Armenian atrocities. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 336. Nov. Austria. What is Austria? Henry Wickham Steed. Edinburgh R., 226: 364. Oct. Bagdad. Along the line of the Bagdad Railway. W. P. D. Stebbing. Fortnightly, 102: 432. Sept.

Bagdad railway negotiations. Quarterly R., 228: 487. Oct.

Responsibility for Bagdad. Lovat Fraser. Edinburgh R., 226:386. Oct. Balance of Power. Balance (The) of power. W. Allison Phillips. New Europe, 5:65.

Nov. Balkans. Final (The) settlement of the Balkans. Quarterly R., 228: 353. Oct.

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Balkans. Lösung (Die) der Balkanfrage. Josef Diner-Dénes. Friedenswarte, 19:225.
Aug.- Sept.

New (A) phase in the Balkan question. Milivoy Stanoyevich. Current
History, 7 (pt. 1): 111. Oct.
Belgium. Déportation en masse et assujettissement au travail forcé en Allemagne
de la population civile des pays occupés. E. T. Clunet, 44: 1318.

Mask is torn from German duplicity by Cardinal Mercier in letter to the
Governor General of Belgium protesting against atrocities imposed upon the
helpless workmen who were, in charity's name, deported and enslaved. Official
Bulletin, Dec. 22, 1917.

Teuton atrocities exposed in text of Belgian workers' appeal to Governor i von Bissing against the deportations to Germany and enslavement of thou

sands of toilers decreed in charity's name. Signed by members of the Comité

Nationale and the Commission Syndicale. Official Bulletin, Dec. 27–17. Blockade. Third (The) year of the blockade. Archibald Hurd. Current History,

7 (pt. 1): 135. Oct.
Bohemia. Bohemia — The submerged front. Stephen Bonsal. N. American R.,

206: 426. Sept.
Brazil. Brazil at war with Germany. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 439. Dec.
Bulgaria. Bulgaria and peace. Crawfurd Price. Fortnightly, 102: 418. Sept.
China. China in the war. Carroll K. Michener. American R. of R., 56: 411. Oct.

Japan, China, and the Far East. K. K. Kawakami. American R. of R., 56: 415. Oct.

Japan's new pledge regarding China. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 356.
Nov.

Question (The) of China. Kenneth Scott Latourette. Yale R., 7: 101.
Oct.
Citizenship. Citizenship and the Constitution in time of war. Job E. Hedges.

Constitutional R., 1: 131. Oct.
Declaration of Paris. Story (The) of the Declaration of Paris. Sir Francis Piggott.

19th Century, 82:985. Nov.
European War. Counting the cost. E. J. Dillon. Fortnightly, 102: 330. Sept.

Economic problems of peace after war. Arthur Raffalovich. J. des Economistes, 76: 260. Aug.

German trade after the war. William Harbutt Dawson. Quarterly R., 228: 403. Oct.

Kaiser (The) and King George: Official telegrams of 1914. Current History, 7 (pt. 1):508. Dec.

Mr. Morganthau and the secret Berlin conference (July 5, 1914). New Europe, 5: 94. Nov.

Necessity (The) for a decision. André Chéradame. Atlantic, 120: 679. Nov.

Plan (The) for a new war. G. K. Chesterton. N. American R., 206: 858. Dec.

Preparation (La) de l'après-guerre. IV. Maurice Alfassa. Nouvelle R., 31 (2): 101, 309. Sept.

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European War. Procédés (Les) diplomatiques des Empires austro-allemands au cours de la guerre, 1914–1917. A. Merignhac. Clunet, 44: 1201.

Some economic lessons of the war. André Lebon. Quarterly R., 228: 77. July.

Supreme (The) war council. Colonel House's mission to the Allies. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 437. Dec.

Victoire (Une) décisive est-elle possible? Général Palat. La Grande R., 94:17. July.

Who was responsible for the war? Statement by Dr. Michaelis. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 91. Oct.

World congestion and the real Armageddon. H. G. Hutchinson. Quarterly R., 228: 371. Oct.

World's trade after the war. Sidney Webb. N. American R., 206: 575. Oct. Pederation. National federations and world federation. W. Allison Phillips. Edin

burgh R., 226:1. July. Finland. Finland's independence: A letter from Helsingfors. Robert Crozier Long.

Fortnightly, 102: 646. Nov. France. Our debt to France. Ralph W. Page. World's Work, 34: 659. Oct. Freedom of the Sea. Estados (Los) Unidos y la libertad del mar. Por un Diplomático. Nuestro Tiempo, 17:285.

True (The) freedom of the sea. Sir John MacDonell. 19th Century, 82: 1007. Nov.

"The freedom of the seas": the enemy's trap. Archibald Hurd. Fortnightly, 102: 685. Nov. Germany. Ambassador's (An) revelations: Mr. Gerard's book. Sidney Whitman. Fortnightly, 102: 711. Nov.

Future (The) of the German colonies. Bishop Frodsham. 19th Century, 82: 727. Oct.

Future of the German colonies; I. The case for retention; II. The Case for conditional return. H. H. Johnston. Contemporary, 112: 250. Sept.

How cheaply Germany has fought the war. André Chéradame. Atlantic, 120: 663. Nov.

How much Germany has won in the war. André Chéradame. Atlantic, 120: 669. Nov.

Kaiser's responsibility. David Jayne Hill. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 496. Dec.

Peril (The) of underground Germanism. W. Morris Coles. 19th Century, 82: 903. Nov.

Political future of Germany. Is there to be a German Republic? Kuno Francke. A reply to Dr. Francke. James M. Beck. Harpers, 85: 475. Sept.

Political future of Germany. Kuno Francke. A reply. James M. Beck. Fortnightly, 102: 348, 357. Sept.

Reichstag and economic peace. H. N. Brailsford. Fortnightly, 102: 447. Sept.

Revelations of German plots. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 274. Nov.

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