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that to each offense there should be attached an appropriate penalty, but he would also provide for appeals in certain cases from courtsmartial to higher criminal courts of the captor country or to a Hague criminal court of appeal, if instituted, and he suggests that this Hague court might be given original jurisdiction for the trial and punishment of offenders. Dr. Lawrence, who feels that in respect to atrocities the situation is worse than it was when Grotius wrote his great book, believes that a more comprehensive revision of the Hague règlement and other texts is required, and that it may be necessary to establish neutral tribunals to try breaches of it. Like his colleagues, he realizes that this war, fought under new conditions, by whole nations in arms instead of armies alone, has evolved new methods and established new precedents, some of which are of doubtful validity. He is against the indiscriminate sowing of mines in the seas. Allowing for differences in the spirit and method of the belligerents, he criticizes the wide extension of war zones as an infringement of the freedom of the seas. He deplores the illegal use of submarines, but sees in their increase in size a possibility of their conforming, except that they travel under sea, to the customs of regular cruisers in respect to search and capture. He is of opinion that there will have to be a new statement of the law of contraband and blockade. Sir Walter Phillimore favors reprisals now, but after the war a convention for the better protection of the lives and property of neutrals.
The two writers who turn aside from the laws of war and neutrality to discuss international peace reorganization see merit in the plan for the League to Enforce Peace as compared with the present chaos, but neither accepts it. Dr. Bisschop, however, who discusses unions, likes its leading idea of creating machinery to secure delay before a power can go to war. Dr. Darby objects to the military aspect of the plan of enforcement as a peace-making measure and regards it as a setback to the Hague procedure. He prefers the sanction of public opinion to that of armed force. He is inclined to suspect the proposition of the League as an alliance for the domination of the world by the United States in the interests of peace and the regulation of backward nations, but comes out for the anticipative and preventive principle of international federation, of which he cites the United States as an example. We fear, however, that Dr. Darby misunderstands the origin of the plan of the League and that he may also have confused the treaties for the advancement of peace, sometimes called
the Bryan treaties, with the Hay or with the Taft arbitration treaties. But now that our troops are in France he can no longer, as in 1916, say that our national attitude towards the issues of the war is one of sensitiveness towards our own selfish interests, but of silence towards the nonobservance of Hague conventions or violations of international law that only concern other countries.
JAMES L. TRYON.
La Neutralidad y la Beligerancia de la República de Cuba durante la
Guerra actual. By Gustavo Gutierrez. Habana: Imprenta “El
This little brochure was prepared by the author for his doctorate degree in the University of Habana and is likely to prove useful for those who desire some information relative to the Cuban point of view of the pending war and of the steps leading up to the declaration of war by Cuba. The author finds Cuba in war with the German Government for two reasons, one referring to the law of nations, and the other to its international political situation, determined in this case by the bonds uniting it to the United States. He strongly dissents, however, from the position which he finds taken by the Cuban President, that there exists a veritable alliance between Cuba and the United States.
The writer apparently takes satisfaction in the fact that Cuba, in making use of the right to declare war and peace, which belongs to all sovereign nations, has affirmed its international personality as an independent nation, while, because of its physical situation, with reference to the Panama Canal and the nations of the south, he believes that its military, commercial and political importance is bound to augment very rapidly. He looks forward to Cuba bringing forth all its forces on the termination of this war to the end that the nations of America and others of the world may be induced to maintain the neutrality of his country. As giving a glimpse, therefore, of the attitude of some Cubans, the work has its special value.
JACKSON H. RALSTON.
BOOKS RECEIVED (Mention here does not preclude an extended notice in a later issue of the JOURNAL.)
North Atlantic Coast Fisheries Arbitration at The Hague Argument
on behalf of the United States. By Elihu Root. Edited by Robert Bacon and James Brown Scott. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1917. pp. cix, 445, maps. $3.00.) )
Miscellaneous Addresses. By Elihu Root. Collected and edited by Robert Bacon and James Brown Scott. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1917. pp. ix, 313. $2.50.)
A Survey of International Relations between the United States and Germany, August 1, 1914-April 6, 1917. Based on official documents. By James Brown Scott. (New York: Oxford University Press (American Branch). 1917. pp. cxvi, 390. $5.00.)
Reports to the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907. Being the official explanatory and interpretative commentary accompanying the draft conventions and declarations submitted to the conferences by the several commissions charged with preparing them, together with the texts of the final acts, conventions and declarations as signed, and of the principal proposals offered by the delegations of the various Powers as well as of other documents laid before the commissions. Publication of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law. Edited, with an introduction, by James Brown Scott, Director. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 1917. pp. xxxii, 940.)
A Treatise on International Law. By William Edward Hall. 7th edition. Edited by A. Pearce Higgins. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press (American Branch). 1917. pp. xl, 864. $9.60.)
German Imperialism and International Law. Based upon German authorities and the archives of the French Government. By Jacques Marquis de Dampierre. With illustrations, charts and fascimiles. 2d impression. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1917. (Authorized translation from the French.) pp. 277.)
Trading with the Enemy. By Charles Henry Huberich. (New York: Baker, Voorhis and Company. 1918. pp. xxxiii, 485.)
European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648. Edited by Frances Gardiner Davenport. (Washington: The Carnegie Institution. 1917. pp. vi, 387.)
Early Diplomatic Relations between the United States and Japan, 1853–1865. By Payson J. Treat. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press. 1917. pp. ix, 459. $250.)
The President's Control of Foreign Relations. By Edward S. Corwin. (Princeton: University Press. 1917. pp.,vi, 216. $1.50.)
Guide to the Law and Legal Literature of Argentina, Brazil and Chile. By Edwin M. Borchard. (Washington: Government Printing Office. 1917. pp. 523. $1.00.)
The Commonwealth at War. By A. F. Pollard. (London: Longmans, Green and Company. 1917. pp. vi, 256. $2.25 net.)
The War and the Bagdad Railway. The story of Asia Minor and its relation to the present conflict. By Morris Jastrow. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1917. pp. 160. 14 il. map. $1.50.)
Cinco Años en la Corte de Justicia Centroamericana, By Manual Castro Ramirez, Magistrado de El Salvador en la Corte. (San José: Imprenta Lehmann Sauter and Co. 1918. pp. 184.)
Het Beginsel der Openbare Orde in het International Privaatrecht. By R. D. Kollewijn. ('s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. 1917. pp. 134.)
Onderzoek Naar Den Juridischen Wereldbouw. By F. M. Van Asbeck. (Amsterdam: A. H. Kruyt. 1916. pp. 323.)
Het Prijsrecht Tegenover Neutralen in den Wereldoorlog van 1914 en Volgende Jaren. By J. H. W. Verzijl. ('s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. 1917. pp. vi, 343.)
Neutraliteitsrecht te Land. By J. Wijnveldt. ('s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. 1917. pp. 217.)
Treaty Ports in China. A Study in Diplomacy. By En-Sai Tai. (New York: Columbia University Press Bookstore. 1918. pp. x, 202.)
Le Tunnel sous la Manche et le Droit International. By C. J. Colombos. (Paris: Rousseau et Cie. 1917. pp. 161. 6 fr.)
Répertoire des Thèses de Droit soutenues dans les Facultés Françaises, Période 1911-1920. Premier fascicule, année scolaire 1910-11; deuxième fascicule, année scolaire 1911-12; troisième fascicule, année 1912-13. (Paris: Librairie Centrale des Facultés. pp. 76. Index. 2 francs each.)
America's Message to the Russian People. Addresses by the members of the Special Diplomatic Mission of the United States to Russia in the year 1917. (Boston: Marshall Jones Company. 1918. pp. vi, 154.)
PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
[For list of abbreviations, see p. 403]
Agency. Termination of agency by war. Harvard Law R., 31:637. Feb.
Droit (Le) d'agir en justice des sujets ennemis en Italie. J. Valery. Clunet, 45:121.
German laws relating to payments to alien enemies. Charles Henry Huberich. Columbia Law R., 27:653. Dec.
Liquidation forcée des biens français en Alsace-Lorraine par les autorités allemandes. Clunet, 45:170.
Mesures prises et à prendre en Angleterre contre les sujets ennemis. L. D. Clunet, 45:89.
Séquestre des biens des sujets ennemis en France. E. Audinet. Clunet, 45:51.
Séquestres et déclaration des biens ennemis devant l'administration judiciaire. Clunet, 45:104.
Status of alien enemies in courts of justice. Harvard Law R., 31:470. Jan. Alsace-Lorraine. Allemagne et Alsace-Lorraine. Partage projeté entre la Prusse et la Bavière. Clunet, 45:426.
Alsace-Lorraine and the principle of nationalities. Paul Helmer. 19th Century, 83:229. Feb.
Germany and Alsace-Lorraine. G. K. Chesterton. N. American R., 207:354. March.
Germany's claim to Alsace. A study of Frederic Masson. Current History, 7 (pt. 2):485.
Why Alsace-Lorraine should be restored without a plebiscite. Albert Thomas. Current History, 7 (pt. 2):490. Assyria. Assyrian government of dependencies. A. T. Olmstead. American
Political Sci. R., 12:63. Feb. Balance of Power. Balance of power by disarmament. John R. Commons. R. of
R., 57:177. Feb. Balkans. Austria-Hungary and the Balkans. Noel Buxton. Atlantic, 121:370.
March. Belgium. Actitud (La) de los Estados Unidos ante la violación de la neutralidad de Bélgica. Ernesto J. J. Bott. R. de Ciencias Económicas, 5:205. Belgique. Office des dommages de guerre.
Réclamations contre les gouvernements et les sujets ennemis. Convention de la Haye. Clunet, 45:363. Blockade. Development of the allied blockade. M. Saint-Brice. Current History, 7 (pt. 2):153.