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that after the Shogunate had been defeated, the victors became at once the advocates of foreign intercourse.
The act of the Shogunate in signing the treaty of 1858 before obtaining the sanction of the Throne had importance only because of its bearing upon the domestic situation. Both sides were intriguing for possession of the Mikado, and when a little later the Shogun triumphed for a brief time over his enemies by obtaining the favor of the Emperor, he nominally accepted the anti-foreign decrees, but in reality he ignored them and seized the opportunity to punish with imprisonment and decapitation many of the leaders of the opposition, that is to say, the very men who were nominally anti-foreign but in reality antiShogun.
Dr. Treat notes the injustice to Japan done by the early commercial treaties in depriving Japan of tariff autonomy, and particularly in requiring the free export of gold and silver coins. Japan had adopted a mistaken ratio between the two metals which enabled the unscrupulous foreigner to buy with foreign silver coins enormous quantities of gold at much less than their real value. The results were so serious that in 1859 the government ordered the sale of gold coins to foreigners to cease. Although each person had been limited to five thousand dollars worth in any one day, demands were made for enormous quantities. One person asked for four million dollars worth, another for two hundred fifty millions at one time.
Japan's bitter experience under these treaties, which deprived her until 1894 of control of her own tariff, ought to lead that government to sympathize with the present efforts of China to obtain a revision of the treaty tariff in force in that country which, while nominally 5 per cent ad valorem, in fact averages perhaps not more than 31 per cent.
It is difficult to realize that in less than half a century feudal Japan was transformed into a great modern Power, a constitutional monarchy, a military and naval Power of the first rank, an industrial state whose forges and factories rival those of the west, and a commercial Power whose merchant fleets are found in all the seven seas.
The visit of Perry was only one of the causes contributing to this change. It did not cause the overthrow of the Shogunate, but it hastened it, and the fall of the Shogunate led logically to the abolition of feudalism.
Dr. Treat does not deal specifically with this topic, for his narrative stops with the imperial sanction in 1865 of the commercial treaties
of 1858, and feudalism was not abolished until 1871. The latter date, however, more properly marks the transition from the feudal to the modern period.
Dr. Treat deserves our thanks for a valuable contribution to the history of the period during which this transformation occurred. The volume is well indexed and an appendix contains a very complete bibliography. The typography and the binding are a credit to the publishers.
E. T. WILLIAMS.
Los Estados Unidos de América y las Repúblicas hispanoamericanas
de 1810 a 1830. By Francisco José Urrutia. [Biblioteca de Historia Nacional, volumen XX.] Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional. 1917. pp. xii, 423.
Dr. Urrutia is a member of the National Academy of History and of the American Institute of International Law, and author of several other books of value to students of international law and diplomatic history. Between the title of the volume as given above and the name of the series at the top of the title page are the words Páginas de Historia Diplomática. So far as the period between 1810 and 1822 is concerned, the title given above, the most nearly descriptive of the three, is fairly accurate. But after 1822 the volume is devoted almost wholly to Great Colombia. There is comparatively little other than Colombian material later than 1817. The editor states that through the special favor of Secretary Lansing he had been permitted to use the manuscripts in the Department of State in Washington. In addition to the documents copied there, he says he has taken others from the diplomatic archives of Colombia, and to complete the documentation of the first part he adds that he has copied a few from the printed collections of Cadena and O'Leary. For his illuminating historical introductions he has drawn from several secondary authorities, some in English and some in Spanish, quoting frequently and extensively, and citing his authorities.
The first sheaf of documents, seven in number, illustrates the Venezuelan mission to the United States in 1811 and 1812 intrusted to Juan Vicente Bolivar, Orea, and Revenga. The second, of three documents, deals with contemporaneous New Granadan missions. The next
group, of nine documents, comprises various communications from several Spanish American Governments to that of the United States between 1811 and 1819. Then follow two documents concerning Aguirre's mission in 1817 representing both Argentina and Chile; and then come two announcing a projected Venezuelan mission in the same year. The following eleven documents elucidate the plans of the Venezuelan, Clemente, and his associate, Pasos, for taking forcible possession of the Floridas in the name of the new governments in 1817 and 1818, and shows how they were frustrated by the acts of the United States Government. The next, by far the largest bundle of documents, twenty-two in number, deals with the mission conferred on Manuel Torres (who had long been a resident of the United States) as the representative of Great Colombia from 1819 to 1822, culminating in his official reception at Washington, which was the first formal recognition by that government of any Latin American nation.
The foregoing, with their historical introductions, constitute Part One of the volume and occupy about one half of it. Part Two, covering only about forty pages, reviews the steps leading to the act of formal recognition by the United States, including the often printed recognition message of March 8, 1822, the report of the House of Representatives Foreign Relations Committee on it, the protest of the Spanish Minister against it, and the reply of Secretary Adams.
Part Three, covering the rest of the volume, bears the subtitle, “The First Diplomatic Missions of the United States to the Latin American Republics." But after a brief résumé quoted from W. S. Robertson's First Legations of the United States in Latin America and properly accredited to it, this part is devoted entirely to Great Colombia. There are three full documents, and brief résumés of various others, arising out of the mission of Charles S. Todd in 1820. Then follow six documents, and résumés of several other communications, belonging to the mission of Richard C. Anderson, who was at Bogotá from 1824 to 1826 and negotiated the first treaty between the United States and Colombia, which served as a model for many others with other Powers. Next come four documents written during the year 1827 when B. J. Watts was chargé. Eleven documents bear on the very interesting mission of (the later President) William Henry Harrison in 1829, whose hostility to the monarchical tendencies of Bolivar gave rise to much criticism of him and to a belief that he was endeavoring to further the interests of his country at the expense of Colombia,
as Poinsett was charged with trying to do at the same time in Mexico, and led to his early recall. The last group, of twelve documents, running from late in 1829 to the beginning of 1831, belong to the mission of Patrick Moore.
Covering the entire history of the relations between the United States and Great Colombia, and being in a field where comparatively little has been published and where much remains to be published, this collection is not only very interesting but very valuable as well, even though it does fall far short of being all that its title leads one to expect. If the work could have been made large enough to include the full text of all documents mentioned, it would have been much more valuable. But that would probably have required more than a single volume. It would take many volumes to include all of the documents legitimately comprehended by its title. Of the documents merely outlined, some are contained in American State Papers, Foreign Relations; but most of them are not. Of those printed in full some appear in English in the same publication. In some cases citation is made to the published documents. In other cases no citation appears. Several of the documents are also contained in other books, chiefly in Spanish, mentioned in the footnotes.
Unfortunately many errors due to insufficient care in transcribing or proofreading, or both, mar an otherwise creditable and useful book. For example, on page 301 is mentioned a note of December 20, 1822, for which citation is made to American State Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, 851. The year should be 1825, and the volume, V. Many other errors in dates and references occur. On page 76, and in some other places, David C. de Forest appears as David C. Foster; on page 306 John Quincy Adams is disguised as John A. Adams; and on page 281 Iturbide parades under the alias, Ilubirde.
WM. R. MANNING.
Treaty Ports in China (A Study in Diplomacy). By En-Sai Tai, Ph.D.
New York: Columbia University Press. 1918. pp. x, 202.
Under the direction and guidance of Professor John Bassett Moore, Chinese students at Columbia University have produced in recent years a number of highly valuable monographs on subjects relating to diplomatic and legal questions wherein China is the principal state concerned. The latest of this group is Treaty Ports in China.
Doctor Tai in his preface distinguishes "treaty ports” from the three other types of commercial ports in China. He then proceeds with an account of the position of aliens in China in pre-treaty-port times, which introduces the body of the thesis, an historical account of the opening of the treaty ports and their development.
The book contains a certain amount of material which is irrelevant or a repetition of accounts which have appeared elsewhere in connection with other subjects. If there was reason to include an account of the Whampoo Conservancy, there should also be an account of the Peiho Conservancy; and in connection with both there might be mention of the import duty surtax imposed at the ports benefited by these conservancy undertakings as a contribution to their maintenance. The statement in the preface that "the boundaries and the foreign jurisdiction in these (treaty) ports are also defined by the diplomatic documents” needs qualification, as is shown by instances which the author cites of controversies as to the limits of a "port.” Attempt was made in the Treaty of Chefoo of 1876, Article III, subsection ü, to provide for delimiting the boundaries of treaty ports, but, although arbitrary decisions have been rendered from time to time, this problem has never to this day been fully and conclusively dealt with either by diplomatic negotiations or by the determination of the Chinese Government.
The author has made exceedingly good use of American, British, and French documentary sources; but there is no reference at any point to a strictly Chinese source. Studies of this type should in every case be given an index, especially when no page numbers appear with the table of contents.
The particular value of Doctor Tai's monograph to students of international law, to diplomatists, and to residents in China may be found in the concise treatment of the rights of foreigners in treaty ports, the description of the municipal administrations and of foreign jurisdiction, and the accounts of various incidents and developments in very recent years, such as the attempt to extend the Shanghai Settlements and the French Concession at Tientsin. Especially gratifying to the American student is the proportion of attention given to AmericanChinese relations.
Following a well-wrought narrative chapter on Foreign Jurisdiction in the Treaty Ports, Doctor Tai makes the substance of his concluding chapter a plea for the relinquishing of extraterritorial juris diction. Is