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opens novel and interesting lines of thought. What would be the jurisdiction of the respective countries regarding the several parts of the tunnel! It is obvious that much of the tunnel will be outside the marine league, and that problems of birth, marriage, contracts, and criminal law are to be considered; and, besides, there is much to be said regarding a possible difference between jurisdiction over the sea, over the bottom of the sea, and over the earth below the bottom, and also regarding the possibility that some regions are res nullius or res extra commercium or res communis. `In time of war should the tunnel be free from destruction by the warring countries! Something is to be said, obviously enough, regarding the interest of the whole world and regarding the various sorts of neutralization and of internationalization; and, further, there is much to be said regarding the use of the tunnel for transporting contraband of war in case a war should arise between Great Britain and some country other than France.

The topics just now mentioned consume the principal part of Dr. Colombos' book; and the discussion of them and of collateral matters must be recognized as ingenious and timely. Here is a book rendered peculiarly interesting by the current war, but in no way influenced by the enmities which have weakened the scientific value of many recent writings on international law.


The War and the Bagdad Railway: The Story of Asia Minor and Its

Relation to the Present Conflict. By Morris Jastrow. Philadelphia and London. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.50. 1917. 2d impression, February, 1918. pp. 160, il. 14, map.

There is undoubtedly a widespread demand for a popular explanation of some of the less known factors that served as contributing causes to the Great War, such as the controversy over the Bagdad Railway. Dr. Morris Jastrow, Jr., who is professor of Semitic languages at the University of Pennsylvania, has given us in this little volume an excellent account of the Bagdad Railway episode, which answers all the requirements of a popular treatise. The book is written in an interesting manner; and its historical accuracy is guaranteed by the high scholastic reputation of the

author. The narrative is divided into four parts: "The War in the East," "The Story of Asia Minor," "The Story of the Bagdad Railway,” and “The Issue and the Outlook”; but the emphasis is laid chiefly upon the two middle chapters, to which the author devotes 91 pages, while giving only 38 to the other two. “The War in the East" is misleading as a title for the first chapter, for there is nothing in it concerning the military operations of the Great War in the Near East. Nor does the writer explain how Turkey was drawn into the conflict. This part of the volume is simply a brief statement of the significance of the highway across Asia Minor along which the Bagdad Railway has been built, with a few accompanying remarks about the attitude of Arabia and Islam to the war and the effect of the Bagdad Railway on the solidarity of the Ottoman Empire.

The second chapter on “The Story of Asia Minor," after a brief description of the physical features of the country, is devoted almost wholly to a history of Asia Minor from the days of the Hittites to 1878, with interesting references to the archæological researches in that region in recent times. This is enlightening since it shows how many different civilizations have been built on the soil of that country and how many different peoples have contended in times past for supremacy on the same territory. It is unfortunate, however, that the author does not tell something about the present-day inhabitants of and the political conditions in this remarkable land, and that he gives but two short pages of indifferent statements to the developments between 1878 and 1914. The third part, dealing with the “Story of the Bagdad Railway,” is excellent. It gives a complete account of the whole affair in a fair and unbiassed fashion, giving Germany proper credit for having started the railway as a purely commercial enterprise, and calling attention to the political phase of the question as it developed later. And there is a discussion of the diplomatic moves, and the contest for colonies and spheres of influence by European Powers in Africa and Asia, that created in the minds of German statesmen a desire to ear-mark Asia Minor for their own.

The last chapter on “The Issue and the Outlook" is taken up primarily with a discussion of how the War of 1914, inaugurated with certain selfish political aims, was transformed in 1917 into a contest for the preservation of democracy through Germany's con

duct of the war, the Russian revolution, and the entrance of the United States into the struggle. And this is followed by some concluding remarks upon the necessity of bringing about cordial relations and proper intercourse between the West and the East. The author emphasizes the need of resuscitating the East and of securing cooperation between these two great sections of the world; and he closes with an appeal for the internationalization of Constantinople.

The writer announces that the purpose of the volume is to “elucidate an aspect of the war which . . was the most significant factor contributing to the outbreak of the long-foreseen war in 1914." But one wonders if the author is not giving undue emphasis to a single feature of a great movement that reached out not only to Asia Minor, but also to the heart of Europe, to Africa, and to the Far East as well. And a perusal of the book raises the question whether the reader is getting the proper perspective of a remarkable situation when only one of its outstanding features is set forth at length. When he writes (page 115): "The control of this highway (the Bagdad Railway) is the key to the East—the Near and the Farther East as well. Such has been its rôle in the past—such is its significance today," he tells but a half truth. He forgets that there is a water route to the East quite as important as that by land. And, in the mind of the Pan-German the “Drang nach Osten" movement meant something more than the control of the Bagdad Railway. It included the control of the connecting link of water and rail routes via the Danube, the Black Sea and the Balkans, the supremacy of trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans and the Black Sea, the suzerainty over the Ottoman Empire which possesses an economic treasure house in its Asia Minor lands, and the domination of the trade of the Persian Gulf, Persia, India and the Far East.

The famous Bagdad Railway project was only one feature of the notorious Near Eastern Question, which has caused the ruin of many a statesman and has been a source of unrest and trouble in European political circles for over two hundred years. It embraced the problems of three distinct regions: the Balkans, Asia Minor and the Persian Gulf. It involved the solution of great and complicated national questions in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire; and it affected the future destinies of a number of races and native tribes. The German and Austrian interest in a solution of this Near Eastern Question, that would favor their own ambitions, was very great. But

that their desire to control the Bagdad Railway was a greater incentive to wage war than other motives, such as the ambition to secure the domination of the German people in the Balkans and Central Europe, is to be doubted, especially, when one recalls that in June, 1914, agreements had been initialled between Great Britain, Germany, France and Russia, which not only assured to the Germans permanent control of the Bagdad highway to the Persian Gulf, but also gave to them the lion's share of the future economic and commercial development of the central and richest portion of Asia Minor.

There is a certain looseness of terms in this volume and in other recent works on the Near East, which is probably due to the fact that earlier European writers always referred to Asia Minor and adjacent countries as the “Orient” or “East." Since the “Far East” has acquired a distinct individuality of its own, the time has now come to make a careful distinction in the different parts of the East. Writers and students of Asia and Asiatic affairs, as well as European statesmen, now recognize three chief regions on the great Eastern continent: the Near East, the Middle East, and the Far East. And it is imperative that those who wish to speak intelligently on questions relating to this part of the world should observe carefully this distinction.

The usefulness of the present work would have been improved if it had been provided with an index and a bibliography; but there are eight pages of excellent notes. An additional map, showing more clearly the strategic position of Asia Minor in relation to Europe and Asia, would have been a material asset also.


Guide to the Law and Legal Literature of Argentina, Brazil, and

Chile. By Edwin M. Borchard. Washington: Government
Printing Office. 1917. pp. 523. $1.00.

This book not merely fills one of the most pronounced gaps in English of matters relating to South America, but is also a very distinct contribution to the general literature on the subject which it treats. It is well written in a pleasant, easy style, and could be used to advantage as a text-book in our colleges, where so much instruction is now being given on Latin-America.

A particularly valuable feature of the work are the statements comparing the legislation in the three republics. It is to be hoped that Dr. Borchard will, at some future time, publish a more extended treatise on this particular phase of the subject. The accounts of the legal history of each country are concise and clear. The book is well divided, and the author does not fall into the error so common to many writers on South America, of over-emphasizing one country. Two or three slight changes might be suggested. In the section on Argentine constitutional law, pages 119 to 120, while mention is made of the fact that “Sarmiento was largely influenced by Story's works," it would have rendered this reference more interesting to note the translation of Story's work on the constitution into Spanish, made by Dr. Nicolas A. Calvo in Buenos Aires in 1888. This translation has had a great influence in Argentina. Since Dr. Borchard's work was finished, a new compilation of Argentine legislation is now being made by Dr. David Pena. Two very minor errors are: Copiaco instead of Copiapo (page 428), and that the statement that Roque Saenz Pena was twice President of Argentina (pages 46 and 182).


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