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November 8, 1817.)
fund. The dwarf, however, received occasional frequently displayed much caprice and jealousy,
contributions from the neighbouring gentry and and they therefore found it necessary to be cauBIOGRAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, MORAL, &c.
farmers whose houses he visited ; and his meal- tious in their deportment towards him. A lady · David Ritchie, the original of the Black Dzearf: bag, which hung in the mill, received a small to whom he liad been under great obligation, -This singular person, who has been described donation from every person who had a melder. gave him mortal offence, in one of her visits to in the Quarterly Review, in the Edinburgh The occasional presents of strangers, and the bis garden, which he was always proud of exMonthly Magazine, and lately in the Edinburgh sale of his vegetables, supplied his few wants, hibiting. Throwing back his jealous glance, he Magazine, from which the particulars of the of which snuff was the most expensive. He fancied he saw her spit at him. " Am I a toad, present account are extracted, was born at Easter died in 1811, after a short illness, at the age of woman ! that ye spit at me that ye spit at me !" Happrew, in the parish of Stobo, Peebles-shire, 70 or 80. About £.20 was found in his chest he exclaimed with fury; and without listening about the
1740. His father was employed at his death, one half of which was returned to to any answer, he drove her out of his garden for many years in the slale quarries at that the parish. His sister still resides in the cot with imprecations and insult. When irritated place. David, though he used to say his de- tage,during the day, and is at a loss to know the by persons for whom he entertained less respect, formity was owing to ill.guiding, is understood cause of those inquiries which visitors are induced his misanthropy displayed itself in words and to have been misshapen from his birth. Iodi. to make into her brother's history." What sometimes actions of still greater rudeness. He cation of a peculiar temper appeared at a very gars folk speer sae mony questions about us?" would then utter the most shocking imprecaearly age, which drew from his father the ob. she inquires; our parents were mean, bus tions. His jealousy was even roused against servation that "he was born either to slay or there was nae ill anent them.” Davie's physi- the most insignificant of the animal creation. be slain." Though he was only a few inonths ognomy differed in some slight particulars from Observing a lady, to whom he was shewing, at school, he learned to read English very well. the description of the author of the Black Dwarf. with all the complacency of which he was capa. Ile was sent to Edinburgh, when young, to learn So far as regards personal beauty, however, poor ble, his rich flower borders, turn her eyes with the trade of a brush-maker ; but his extraordi. Davie has no great cause to complain of the ap a smile towards a plot of cabbages which had nary figure attracted so much notice, that he soon pearance he exhibits. But his eyes, which were been somewhat injured by the caterpillar, he inretired in disgust to his native bills. Having at black, are said to have been fine. His skull was stantly assumed his savage scowling aspect, rush. tracted the notice of Sir James Nasmyth, he was of an oblong and unusual shape, and from a ed among the cabbages, and dashed them to permitted to build a cottage for himself at the love of the marvellous, is said to have been so pieces with bis staff, exclaiming, “ I hate the hottom of a steep bank, on the farm of Wood hard, as to be made to pass easily through the worms, for they mock me." Although a know. house, without the payment of any ground rent. pannel of a door, or the end of a tar barrel ! His ledge of the revengeful disposition of Davie imThough the proprietor directed his servants to long chin projected so much as to form a line pressed both young and old with a certain de. assist him in the work, it was chiefly by his own with the crown of his head. His person was gree of fearful respect and awe of him, a fariner labour that the building was completed. With still more remarkable than his visage. The de. in the neighbourhood ventured one night, out of incredible perseverance he cleared the ground scription of the Black Dwarf does not seem to a frolic, to assuine the character of a robber, for for his hut and garden, by cutting into the side have gone beyond the truth. “ His body, thick the purpose of frightening him. The dwarf, of the hill. The walls were built of alternate and square, like that of a man of middle size, after reconnoitring him from his small window, layers of large stones and turf, without mortar. was mounted upon two large feet; but nature wrenched a large stone out of the wall, dashed Having constructed some rude pieces of house. seemned to have forgotten the legs and thighs, it down upon the assailant, and knocked him to hold furniture, he proceeded to the cultivation as they were so short as to be hidden by the the ground, where he lay for some time senseless. of his garden, in which he displayed very con. dress which he wore. His arms were long and But his resolute and dogged perseverance will siderable taste, as well as industry. He stocked brawney, furnished with two muscular hands, be better illustrated by his conduct, in conse: it with a few fruit-trees, Aowers, herbs, and and, when uncovered, in the eagerness of labour, quence of the refusal of a gentleinan in the neighculinary vegetables, with some lettuce. Being were shagged with coarse black hair. It seem. bourhood to allow him to cut down a particular unable to make any use of his feet in digging, ed as if nature had originally intended the se. branch of a tree, which he required for some he had a spade so contrived, that he could force parate parts of his body to be the members of a purpose. On the morning which followed this it down with his breast. Having planted a giant, but had afterwards capriciously assigned unsuccessful application, the servants of the genbower of willows and rowan-trees, his little her. them to the person of a dwarf-oso ill did the tlevan happened to be going from home so early mitage, with the fame of his own peculiarities, length of his arms, and the iron strength of his as two o'clock, when, to their surprise and terror, drew inany visitors. The cultivation and ex frame, correspond with the shortness of his sta they perceived through the grey twilight a strange hibition of this spot of ground formed his chief ture.” Davie's laugh is said to have been quite figure struggling and dancing in the air below a uccupation. He reared a great proportion of horrible; and his screech.owl voice, shrill, un. tree. Upon summoning courage to examine into Aowers for his more elegant visitors, and cha. couth, and dissonant, corresponded well with the cause of this phenomenon, they found Davie momile, rhubarb, and other medicinal herbs, for his other peculiarities. He usually wore an old suspended by a rope to the envied branch, swing. his homely neighbours. He also supplied the slouched hat, when be went abroad ; and when ing and tugging with all his mortal might : have tables of some gentlemen in the neighbourhood at home, a sort of cowl, or night.cap. He never ing met with no interruption, he succeeded in with honey. His cottage falling into disrepair, wore shoes, being unable to adapt them to his his purpose, and conveyed the arm of the tree Sir James, in 1802, ordered two separate dwell. misshapen tin-like feet, but always had both feet to his dwelling. He had a sort of strange plea. ings under one roof, to be erected for him and and legs concealed, and wrapt up in pieces of sure in wandering out in the dark, and is said his sister, at a short distance from his first abode. cloth. He always walked with a sort of poll ur to have sometimes spent whole nights among the The work was completed under Davie's direc- pike staff, considerably taller than himself. His ruins of old buildings, and other places where : tion, but the garden wall was almost entirely habits were in many respects singular, and indi: spectres were believed to haunt; and he used to. built with his own hands. His sister was de. cated a mind sufficiently congenial to its un. vaunt greatly of his courage and intrepidity in sirous of having a door common to both, but couth tabernacle. A jealous, misanthropical and such adventures. But with all these bravadoes her amiable brother would have a separate on irritable temper was his most prominent cha. he is known to have been extremely supersti. trance into bis hut, which was raised to the racteristic. The sense of his deformity haunted tious ; and to protect hiinself from witchcraft, he height of three feet and a half high; and he him like a phantom; and the insults and scorn had planted a considerable number of the rowan would admit no inmates except his dog and cat, to which this exposed him, had poisoned his or mountain-ash around his dwelling. Upwards which shared largely in his sympathies and af. heart with fierce and bitter feelings, which, of forty of these were cut down in his garden af. fections. A small chink served for a window, from other traits in his character, du not appear ter his death. He spent much of his time in soli. with a shutter, having objected lo glass. Mr to have been more largely infused into his ori- tude; and when his garden did not require his Ballantyne, the present farmer of Woodhouse, ginal temperament than that of his fellow.men. care, would lie whole summer days by the side having enlarged the garden, Davie Look a whole He detested children on account of their pro of a well, poring into the water. He also read year to put it in order to bis liking. He turned pensity to insult and persecute him. To stran a good deal when he could get books, and was up the soil two feet and a half ep, and cleared gers he was generally reserved, crabbed, and very fond of Shenstone's pastoral ballads, which it of the stones. After repeated quarrels he be surly ; and though be did not refuse assistance he could repeat by heart. The sort of reading came estranged from his sister, who, from im. or charity, he seldom expressed or seemed to in which he took the greatest delight was, the becility, was never capable of regular employ. fcel much gratitude.' Even towards those who adventures of Wallace and Bruce, and other ment. They were long the only persons in the had been his greatest benefactors, and who pos. popular tracts about Scottish heroes. He pos. parish who received support from the poor's sessed the greatest share of his good' will, he sessed a copy of Milton's Paradise Lost, some
[November 8, 1817 parts of which he read with much interest. his other performances; and as he indulges his , ed with this proposal, and is inclined to accept of -He had also gut hold of Tooke's Pantheon, love of the marvellous even in so serious and it. The only difficulty is, that he insists posiand had his head confusedly filled with the important a subject, he has given a pledge to tively on his gouvernante sitting at table, a prostories of the Heathen mythology. His in the public that he was in earnest in all his other posal which is not to be made to Mr. and Mrs. formation appeared to great advantage when topics. If I dared to object any thing to Mons. Townsend. This woman forms the chief incumhe mingled with the peasantry at the mill or Rousseau's eloquence, which is the shining side brance to bis settlement. Monsieur de Luze, smithy. He was very satirical in his conver. of his character, I should say that it was not our companion, says, that she passes for wicked sation; and his harsh creaking voice was then wholly free from the defect sometimes found in and quarrelsome, and tattling, and is thought to heard much higher than the sound of the clapper that of the Roman orator ; and that their great be the chief cause of his quitting Neufchatel. He or the fore hammer. He visited Peebles occa talent for expression was apt to produce a pro- himself owns her to be so dull, that she never sionally, but very seldom went to church. He lixity in both. This last performance chiefly is knows in what year of the Lord she is, nor in was supposed to entertain some very peculiar cxposed to this objection ; and I own, that it what month of the year, nor in what day of the notions on religious subjects ; but spoke of a abounds in noble and shining passages. It gave month or week, and that she can never learn the future state with earnestness; and, at the same me rather less pleasure than his former writings; different value of the pieces of money in any time, when his feelings were excited, would however, it carries still the stamp of a great country. Yet she governs him as absolutely as burst into tears. Davie would appear to have genius; and, what enhances its beauty, the a nurse does a child. In her absence his dog had some ambition of posthumous honours. Per standp of a very particular genius ; the noble has acquired that ascendant. His affection for haps Tooke's Pantheon might have inspired him pride and spleen and indignation of the author that creature is beyond all expression or conwith a thirst of immortality ; er perchance he bursts out with freedom in a hundred places, ception." had some presentiment of his approaching apo- and serves fully to characterize the lofty spirit Letter of Dr Franklin to Mr Whitfield.--" For theosis under the plastic hand of a mighty ma of the man. When I came to peruse that pas my own part, when I am employed in serving gician. It is at least certain that he long ex. sage of Mons. Rousseau's treatise, which has oc others, I do not look upon myself as conferring pressed a desire to be buried at a most pictu. casioned all the persecution against him, I was favours, but as paying debts. In my travels, resque spot which he pointed out; and that his not in the least surprised that it gave offence ! and since my settlement, I have received much favourite rowan trees might wave above his he has not had the precaution to throw any veil kindness from men, to whom I shall never have grave, he wished that a clump of them might over his sentiments; and as he scorns to dissemble any opportunity of making the least direct rethen be planted. The motives assigned by him his contempt of established opinions, he could turn ; and numberless mercies from God, who for this deviation were, that he might not lie a. not wonder that all the zealots were in arms is infinitely above being benefited by our servi. mong the common brush, as he termed the herd against him. The liberty of the press is not so ces. Those kindnesses from men, I can there. of mankind; and that “ he disliked to have the secured in any country, scarce even in this, as fore only return on their fellow-men, and I can clods clapped down on him by such a fellow as not to render such an open attack of popular only show my gratitude for these mercies frond Jock Somerville the bell-man.” This man he prejudices somewhat dangerous.”
God, by a readiness to help his other children, always detested, and would scarcely ever remain Rousseau's private conduct." My pupil and I, and iny brethren. For I do not think that in his company, from a disagreeable reminis. | dear madam, arrived safely in this place, both of thanks and compliments, though repeated week. cence suggested by a certain resemblance which us in good health, and also in good humour, ly, can discharge our real obligations to each the grave-digger bore to himself in personal de after the first melancholy of iny separation from other, and much less those to our Creator. You formity. But be changed his mind on his death. you was a little dissipated. My companion is will see in this my notion of good works, that I bed; and was gathered to his fathers," like a very amiable, always polite, gay often, common. am far from expecting to merit heaven by them. decent Christian, in the church.yard of Manor. ly sociable. He does not kpow himself when he By heaven we upderstand a state of happiness,
David Hume. The fame of Rousseau, and thinks he is made for entire solitude. I exhort. | infinite in degree, and eternal in duration : 1 the prodigious effect produced by his writings, ed him, on the road, to write his memoirs. He can do nothing to deserve such rewards. He render us desirous to learn, from a great con. told me, that he had already done it, with an in that for giving a draught of water to a thirsty temporary, what were his habits in private life, tention of publishing them. At present, says person, should expect to be paid with a good and what opinion was entertained of his works he, it may be affirmed, that nobody knows per plantation, would be modest in his demands, hy the most competent judges of his own time. fectly any more than himself ; but sha I describe compared with those who think they deserve We are enabled to gratify curiosity in both these myself in such plain colours, that henceforth heaven for the little good they do on earth. particulars. Hume's opinion of the renowned every one may boast that he knows himself and Even the mixed imperfect pleasures we enjoy in Treatise on Education is stated in a letter dated Jean Jaques Rousseau. I believe that he in- this world, are rather from God's goodness than Edinburgh, 220 January 1763; and an ac. tends seriously to draw his own portrait in its our merit : how much more such happiness of count of Rousseau's behaviour on retiring from true colours, but I believe at the same time that heaven! For my part, I have not the vanity France to England, at a period three years later, nobody knows himself less. For instance, even to think I deserve it, the folly to expect it, nor is contained in another letter from Hume to the with regard to his health, a point in which few the ambition to desire it; but content myself Comtesse de Boufflers, dated the day after the people can be mistaken, he is very fanciful. He in submitting to the will and disposal of that travellers arrived in London, the 19th January | imagines himself very infirm. He is one of the God who made me, who has hitherto preserved 1766.
most robust men I have ever known. He passed and blessed me, and in whose fatherly goodness Rousseau on Education." You deign, Ma. ten hours in the night-time above deck, during I may well confide that he will never make me dam, to ask my opinion of the new performance the most severe weather, when all the seamen miserable ; and that even the afflictions I may of M. Rousseau. I know that it becomes me were almost frozen to death; and he caught no at any time suffer shall tend to my benefit.better to form my judgment upon yours ; but in harm. He says that his infirmity always in. The faith you mention has certainly its use in complianc with your commands, I shall not creases upon a journey, yet was it almost imper. the world ; I do not desire to see it diminished, make a secret of my sentiments. All the writ. ceptible on the road from Paris to London. His nor would I endeavour to lessen it in any man. ings of that author appear to me admirable, par. wearing the American dress is a pure whim, But I wish it were more productive of good Licularly on the head of eloquence; and if I be which, however, he is resolved never to abandon works, than I have generally seen it: I mean pot much mistaken, he gives to the French He has an excellent warm heart, and in conver. real good works; works of kindness, charity, tongue an energy, which it scarce seems to have sation kindles often to a degree of heat which mercy, and public spirit ; not holiday-keeping, reached in any other hands. But his enemies looks like inspiration, I love him much, and sermon-reading or bearing; performing church have objected, that with this domineering force hope that I have some share in his affections. ceremonies, or making long prayers, filled with of genius, there is always intermingled some I lind, that we shall have many ways of settling Aatteries and compliments, despised even by ciegree of extravagance : it is impossible for bis him to his satisfaction, and as he is learning wise inen, and much less capable of pleasing friends altogether to deny the charge ; and were | English very fast, he will afterwards be able to the Deity. The worship of God is a duty ; the it nut for his frequent and earnest protestations choose for himself. There is a gentleman of the hearing and reading of sermons may be useful; to the contrary, one would be apt to suspect, name of Townsend, a man of four or five thou but if men rest in hearing and praying, as too that he chooses his topics less from persuasion, sand a-year, who lives very privately, within 15 many do, it is as if a tree should value itself on than from the pleasure of shewing his invention, miles of London, and is a great admirer of our being watered and putting forth leaves, though and surprising the reader by his paradoxes.- philosopher, as is also bis wife. He has desired it never produced any fruit. Your great Mas. The treatise of education, as it possesses much him to live with him, and offers to take any ter thought much less of these outward appear. of the merit, seems also exposed to the faults of board he pleases. M. Rousseau was much please ances and professions, than many of his modern
November 8, 1817.)
107 disciples. He preferred the doers of the word “ broad grins." The particulars of this humi- with no great ceremony or devotion. When # to the mere hearers; the son that seemingly re liating custom are related by Eneas Sylvius. glass of brandy is given to an African, he puts fused to obey his father, and yet performed his “ In a pleasant valley, near the town of St. it to his lips, then up with his fetish, into whose commands, to him that professed his readiness Voit, are to be seen the ruins of an ancient face he puff's his breath once or twice, with a but neglected the work; the heretical but cha. town, the name of which is unknown; in the noise something between blowing and whistling. ritable Samaritan, to the uncharitable though neighbourhood of these remains stands a piece He then swallows the dram. A similar action, orthodox priest, and sanctified Levite ; and of marble, on which, at the inauguration of the or a whisper in the ear, or a less graceful mo. those who gave food to the hungry, drink to the duke, a peusant of a particular family possesses tion, takes place whenever the fetish is consult. thirsty, raiment to the naked, entertainment to an hereditary right to take his station, having ed. A Mafooka, soliciting the arrival of slave the stranger, and relief to the sick, though they on his right hand a black meagre bullock, on ships, blows lustily at his little wooden deity, never heard of his name, he declares shall in his left a lean mare, and being at the same time and exclaims, " Ship come, many, many !" the last day be accepted--when those who cry surrounded by a crowd of peasants and other There seems to be a great resemblance, in many Lord ! Lord! who value thermselves upon their people. When thus prepared, the prince, envi. customs, between the African savages and those faith, though great enough to perform miracles, roned by his officers, advances with the stand of the South-sea islands. but have neglected gond works, shall be rejected. ards and insignia of the principality. Count Miss M Avoy.-Dc Gough of Kendal, who He professed that he came not to call the righ- Goritz, who is marshal of the court, heads the although blind from a very early period of life, teous, but sinners to repentance; which implied procession, with twelve small standards, and possesses very extensive powers of observation, his modest opinion that there were some in his is followed by all the magistrates in their robes has published the following remarks on the new time who thought themselves so good that they of office, while the prince himself appears in powers of vision, which is said to be possessed need not hear even bim for improvement ; but the habit of a siinple shepherd. His highness by this lady. Miss M'Avoy lost her sight by a now-a-days we have scarce a little parson that is no sooner perceived by the peasant on the disorder in the brain, but not the power of seedoes not think it the duty of every man within marble stone, than he exclaims in the Sclavonian ing, which has been transferred from the seat of his reach to sit under his petty ministrations; tongue, “Who is he that comes attended by vision to her hands, feet, and other parts of her and that whoever omits them offends God. 1 such a proud magnificent train ?" He is an body. This wonderful alteration in her constiwish to such more humility, and to you health swered, “ It is the prince of the country." The tution, enables her to read by the assistance of and happiness ; being your friend and servant. peasant again inquires, “ Is he an equitable her fingers when her face is covered ; by run.
Ceremonial of taking possession of the duchy of judge, zealous for the good of his country? Is ning her fingers over one side of a thick plate of Austria. European travellers, and their unre he of a liberal disposition ? Does he deserve to glass, the opposite surface of which was covered flecting readers, are very apt, with fancied su. be honoured ? Is he an observer and defender with a piece of writing, having the characters periority, to treat with contempt the institutions of the catholic religion ?" Being answered in turned towards it. But what is still more won. and customs of savage countries; although the the affirmative, “ I desire to know," be again derful, upon holding up her hands before the histories of their own more polished nations ex. exclaims, “ by what right he comes to take my window, she recognized a person displaying a hibit forms and ceremonies in no degree more place ?" Count Goritz answers, “ The favour scrawl of paper on the opposite side of the useful or rational. Experience, the earliest in- is purchased of thee for sixty deniers ; these street. These amazing feats are not performed structress of the wild sons of nalure, first point. beasts are thine ; thou shalt have the clothes for the sake of lucre, nor can she always succeed ed out to man that it was necessary for the the prince now wears, and thy family shall be in them, for, according to her own account, her peace and welfare of a community to elect one exempted from taxes." The prince then ap. hands lose the power of seeing when they are ruling chief, one guiding head, to whom all the proaches the peasant, from whom he receives a moist. A visit to this surprising character must other members of it should be subordinate, and box on the ear, and an exhortation to be an be made in company with a medical gentleman in him to invest the sole right of dispensing re equitable judge. On ending his harangue, he of her acquaintance, and the greatest delicacy wards and punishment, enabling him through resigns his place to his prince, and retires, dri- of behaviour is to be observed during the inter. this power to stimulate to virtuous deeds, and ving off the bullock and the mare. The prince view, because the least perturbation of mind to enforce that obedience and order from the having mounted the stone, brandishes his sword, will terminate in fits. It will be readily ad. multitude which can alone prevent those jealous swears to judge his people impartially, descends mitted, that the surface of the human body is and destructive contests for superiority, which from the marble, goes to hear mass, quits his insensible to the action of light, at least when it invariably arise where all are equal, yet all pastoral garb for apparel more suitable to his is uncombined with calorific rays; but this is struggling for power. Why then should insti- rank, and returns to the stone, from whence he not the case with the lady, who can read a let. tutions, which have for their basis the same hears sume causes or grievances, and receives ter through glass with the tips of her fugers, principles that influence the legislators of civi. homage for the vacant fiefs."
when her face is covered. In the next place, lized governments, become subjects of ridicule War Fetish (or Fetiche) of Embomma. These does natural history afford any instance of an to those who have made a greater progress in personal divinities are mentioned in the narra- animal which perceives the presence of light general knowledge ? The bone bracelet which tive of the late voyage to the Congo : the natives without the assistance of its eyes? this question designates a nobleman of the highest order in carry them about with them wherever they go, may be answered in the affirmative, for a creathe kingdom of Pelew, is not less intrinsically hung over their shoulders, or under their arms, ture resembling a water lizard has been discover. honourable than the more tasty badges of me or any where most convenient to the water. ed in the subterraneous lakes of Germany, which dals, ribbons, and stars, that mark superiority When the Portuguese missionaries first visited being intended to spend its life in perpetual of rank or merit in more enlightened countries. this region, their crucifixes and images were all darkness, is not furnished with the visual organs; Nor will any unprejudiced mind deny that the held to the fetishes, and one of the most ancient but if a torch happen to shine upon the animal's good, the princely-minded Abba Thule, was en writers, in relating the arts employed to inspire body, it shows a strong aversion to light by hisstitled to claim as much glory in his victory over a chief with jealousy of his son, who continued ing and other signs of uneasiness. It is not im. the people of Artingall when he triumphantly a Christian while his father recanted, because possible that a morbid affection of the nervous carried off the regal stone on which the kings the priests would not allow him half a dozen of system has given to the hands and other parts of that island sit in council, as our Edward 1. wives, informs us that they made the old man of the Liverpool lady, that extreme sensibility arrogated to himself, when he proudly deposited believe, that Prince Alfonso (the son's name) by which the Proteus possesses, and thereby has at Westminster, as a trophy of his conquest over the power of his European fetish rode through turned each of her fingers into an unheard-of the Scots, the marble seat on which their kings the air every night 80 leagues, carried off his kind of retina ; but should this hypothesis be were formerly crowned at Scone. At no very re father's favourite wise, and conveyed her back granted, it will prove insufficient on the premote period there prevailed in Germany, that to her own residence in the morning! These sent occasion, because a retina is no more on the empire so proud of its antiquity and its gran. fetishes are generally about the size of large eye than a sheet of white paper is a camera obdeur, a ceremony to which the Dukes of Austria dolls, and the most grotesque figures that can scura, for both the organ and the instrument were obliged, at their election, to submit ; a ce. be imagined. They are indifferently carved require a proper refracting medium to make remony which would have shocked the dignified out of wood, or made of rags ; the eyes and them complete and fit for use.
Thus it appears feelings of the savage prince already mentioned, teeth are of shells, and the whole appearance as that the irritation produced by light can give no could he have possibly witnessed it. Though hideous as the workmanship is clumsy. They just conceptions of the objects from which it is were the farce to be acted by one of the accom are such things as children would contrive in reflected, because touch is the only one of the plished clowns of our refined theatres, it would sport. Nevertheless, they are worshipped and five senses which judges of bodies by actual conafford some laughable scenes to the lovers of prayed to with unceasing importunity, though I tact, the rest of our perceptions being received
[November 8, 1817. through indirect channels. For instance, men whenever it appears those who are not attacked have hitherto been observed, shall here be enutalk of seeing trees or buildings, but, accurately abandon their habitations, and leave the miser. merated, as the knowledge of them may lead to speaking, they only see the images of these things, able victims to perish. He says he has seen many cautions for preventing accidents of the most which the eye paints upon its own retina, by the villages thus deserted ; and that the capital once serious nature. If quicklime in any quantity be refractive power of its own humours. I have remained three years without inhabitants, who laid in contact with any combustible, as wood, already indued the hand of the lady with an did not return till it was supposed to be purged and be wetted accidentally, as to make it into extreme degree of sensibility equal to that of the from this pestilence. In China, where the po- mortar, a sufficient quantity of heat may be ex. retina, because the supposition is barely possi- pulation is immense, an incalculable number die tricated to set fire to the wood. Animal or veble; but no substitute for the refracting me annually of the small pox. In India it has been getable substances laid together damp in large dium has been offered, and I am convinced none said that no less than one out of three have died heaps undergo a fermentation which often ex. can be found, consequently no image can be of it. The terror and anxiety felt during the cites combustion, as in the case of hayricks, and tormed: thus we come to the conclusion, which season in which it prevailed were inexpressible, also in the destruction of the human body, mais fatal to the miraculous narrative, if there be and even the inoculation of it was usually fatalny instances of which are on record-but it has any truth in optics, namely, the Liverpool lady to one in 60 or 70 of the children born there been observed, that all the persons who thus does not see distant objects, but feels them ; in of European parents! Percival, in his History suffered were much addicted to the use of spirit. other words, she employs a sense which requires of the Island of Ceylon, says, the small pox is a ous liquors. Woollen cloth, pot freed from the actual contact to read a letter through an inter disease which particularly excites apprehensions oil used in dressing it, and laid up damp in posing plate of glass, and succeeds in the at. among the natives ; for they look upon it as the large heaps, has been known to take fire; and tempt.
immediate instrument of God's vengeance ; and so has painted canvas. Flowers and herbs boit. Effects of the small por.-- The natural small therefore do not venture to use any charms a. ed in oil, as is done by druggists, and then taid pox has been supposed to destroy a sixth part of gainst it, as they are accustomed to do in other in heaps, sometimes do the same. The mixture all whom it attacks; and even by inoculation disorders. If any one dies of it, he is looked of linseed oil and lamp-black, and of linseed oil about one in 300 has died. In some years more upon as accursed, and his body is denied the and black wadd is also very liable to inflame. The than one tenth of the whole mortality of London rites of burial ; it is carried out to some unfre- cause of a fire, some years ago, in the Ganges is occasioned by it; and however beneficial the quented place, and there left with branches of schooner, was ascribed to the spontaneous cominoculation may have been to individuals, it ap trees scattered over it. When that shocking bustion of a small quantity of wood oil contained pears to have kept up a constant source of conta and fatal malady, the small pox, first made its in a dubber, or leathern jar, which had been gion, which has been the means of increasing the appearance among the natives of Botany Bay, stored in the gun-rooin ; a fire, originating from number of deaths by that is called natural dis it was truly shocking, says Governor Hunter, a like cause, occurred in the arsenal of Fort Wil. ease. Dr. Lettsom computed that it proved fatal, to go round the coves of the rocks, where no liam about the same time i another instance has ** in the course of a century, to twenty-one mil. thing was now to be seen but men, women, and been mentioned, of a vessel having taken fire, in Jions in Europe alone.” About the year 1757, children lying dead. So lately as the year consequence, it was believed, of a quantity of oil the small pox broke out in Burford, Oxfordshire, 1793, it was conveyed to the Isle of France by having fallen upon some wool. Torrified vegeoccasioned, as was generally supposed, by some a Dutch ship, and 5,400 persons perished with tables, as malt, coffee, or bran, put, while hot, infected clothes being sent thither from London. it there in six weeks! There died in Mexico into coarse bags, are apt to take fire. The sponIt raged with all the fury of a plagne from a short alone 3,600,000; it was first introduced into ancous combustion of phosphorus, and various time after Michaelmas till near Midsummer fol- New Spain in 1520: not long after this 800,000 pyropheri, is well known. The vegetable kinglowing ; during which interval it was computed Indians perished by fresh variolous infection dom abounds with phosphorus or its acid. !t je to have carried off upwards of 900 of the inhabi. brought over from Europe. In the single pro principally found in plants that grow in marshy tants. In consequence of the disease the market vince of Quito 100,000 Indians died of it! places, in turf, and several species of wbite was suspended, the country-people not venturing
woods. Various seeds, potatoes, agaric, soot, to attend it. The provisions were left with the
and charcoal, afford phosphoric acid. It is sus. prices affixed at some distance from the town,
pected to be owing to the presence of one or whence the town's-people fetched them, leaving
ARTS AND SCIENCES. other of these substances that charcoal some. the money in their place, which was suffered to
times takes fire without any apparent cause ; remain some time exposed to the air to prevent Magnetic Phenomena.-Professor Morichini, of and the charcoal of peat is said to be particularly the extension of the disease. It carried off in Rome, having discovered the magnetising power liable to this. To this cause professor Bartholdi many instances whole families ; so that, on a of the violet rays of the prismatic spectrum, the ascribes two accidents at the powder.mills at Bl. moderate calculation, considerably more than one Marquis Ridola has succeeded in magnetising sone, where spontaneous combustion appeared half of the population of the town was swept away. two needles, the one in 30, the other in 46 to have taken place in one instance in the char. At Edinburgh, according to Dr. Monro, one tenih minutes; and can now charge with the magne. coal store room—in the other, in the box into of the whole population was cut off by the small lic power, by the same process, as many needles which the charcoal was sifted ; as well as tbree pox. In France from 60,000 to 72,000 fell an. as he pleases. The needles thus magnetized successive explosions at the powder mills of Vos. nually by this disease; and in one year not less (namely, by directing on and passing over them, gee. To the same cause may be ascribed many than 20,000 died of it in Paris alone. In the for a period of not less than 30 minutes, the of the explosions of powder magazines in this year 1749, 6000 out of 32,000 inhabitants of violet rays of the spectrum, through the medium country. Montpelier died of the small pox. In Rome of a condensing lens) possess all the energy and On the Distillation of Spirits of Wine (Alcohoh 6000 perished by it in six months; in Naples all the properties of needles magnetized in the from Polátoes.-A French lady, the Countess de 16,000 died in the year 1768; and in Palermo common way, by means of a loadstone. Their *** whom political events compelled to 8000, in 1799. In Germany this disense de- homonomous poles repel, while the heteronomous change her chateau, on the banks of the Soane, stroyed 70,000 persons annually. At Constan- poles attract each other; and made to vibrate on for a cottage eight leagues from Vienna-has linople, before the adoption of the inoculation, a pivot, their point turns constantly to the north, established, on the small farm she occupies, a even one half of those afflicted with small pox their head to the south! This adds to the won. distillation of brandy from potatoes, which she have fallen victims to it. Its malignancy has ders of magnetism, and must be regarded as a has found to be very lucrative. The brandy of heen dreadful in Russia, in Siberia, &c. In very extraordinary discovery.
twenty degrees of Reaumur is very pure, and 1767 the small pox was introduced by a sick Spontaneous Combustion. There is a remark. has neither taste nor smell different from that soldier into Kamschatka, whereby 20,000 per. able distinction in bodies with regard to the effects produced by the distillation of grapes. The sons were cut off, to the utter depopulation of of heat upon them. Combustion is commonly oc method she employs is very simple.1001b. of extensive tracts of that country. The Kamtscha. casioned by the application of a body already igni- potatoes, well washed, dressed by steam, and dale nation has been almost entirely destroyed ted to the combustible; and when this is not the bruised to powder with a roller, &c. 4b. of by this disease, the number of individuals re case it is termed spontaneous. But this would in. ground malt, steeped in lukewarm water, is maining at present not exceeding 600. Capt. clude the mechanical means, ás friction, and the then poured into the fermenting back, with Turner, in the account of his embassy to the concentration of the solar rays, which cannot twelve quarts of boiling water ; this water is court of the Teshoo Lama in Thibet, draws a with propriety be called spontaneous. Combus- stirred, and the bruised potatoes thrown in, and melancholy picture of the ravages of this disease, tion, therefore, which arises simply from the well stirred again with wooden rakes, till every and its dreadful consequences. Its fatality is play of chemical affinities, can alone be justly part of the potatoes is well saturated with the li. Well known, and so seriously apprehended, that I termed spontaneous. Such instances of these as quor. Six or eight ounces of yeast is to be mis.
November 8, 1817.]
109 ed with twenty-eight gallons of water, of a pro on the surface ; in which state it takes the name, refuse towe, or what is often vulgarly called pob, per warmth to make the whole mass of the tem of potass. The ashes, exhausted of their alka- and is thrown aside as useless at lint-mills. (At perature of from twelve to fifteen degrees of line principle, afford excellent manure for land times, indeed, the pob is used by cottars who Reaumur; there is to be added half-a-pint to a intended to be planted with potatoes. The fol- live near such mills, and receive it gratis, for pint of good brandy. The fermenting back | lowing is a table of the results obtained in their fires, ør it is put by them as thatch on must be placed in a room, to be kept, by means France :-An acre planted with potatoes, at one their houses.) He twisted the tow into slender of a stove, at a temperature of fifteen to eigh- foot distance, gives 40,000 plants. These yield, ropes by the same rude instrument applied to teen degrees of Reaumur. The mixture must on an average, 3lb. per plant at least, or of green twist straw ropes for the roofing of stacks in then be left to remain at rest. The back to be tops 120,000lb.-On drying they are reduced the farm yard. These slender ropes he afterlarge enough to suffer the mass to rise seven or to 40,000lb.- This quantity produces of ashes wards cut by an axe into small short portions of eight inches, without running over. If, not. 7,5001b. The evaporation gives of ashes, ex. an inch or an inch and a half in length, and withstanding this precaution, it does so, a little hausted of alkali, 5,000lb. ; and of salin 2,5001b. having beat and teazed these till the different must be taken out, and returned when it falls : The salin loses ten to fifteen per cent. in calci filaments were fully loosened and separated the back is then covered again, and the fermen. nation, which gives of potass 2,2001b.
from each other, he mixed them with the lime tation suffered to finish without touching it, New kind of Vinegar.-Messrs Turnbull and in the same way that hair is usually mixed with which takes place generally in five or six days. Ramsay, of Glasgow, chemical manufacturers, it in making plaster. I saw the plaster so This is known by its being perceived that the have made an important discovery to the arts, made in its crude state, and also after it was liquid is quite clear, and the potatoes fallen to in the purification of pyroligneous acid, which applied to the walls and smoothed, and I am the bottom of the back; when the fluid is de thus becomes vinegar of an excellent quality. quite satisfied that in every point of colour and canted, and the potatoes pressed dry. The dis- and superior to the vinegar which is obtained quality it is equal to hair plaster. Nor can 1 tillation is by vapour, with a wooden or copper from the fermentation of saccharine substances. doubt its durability. It is no doubt a vegetable still, on the plan of Count Rumford. The pro. From its strength, and less tendency to undergo product, while hair is an animal one, but the duct of the first distillation is low wines. When any change, it is found to answer well for warm lime will equally preserve it from change.-the fermentation has been favourable, from climates, for preserving vegetable and animal It may be, Mr Editor, that this improvement every 100lb. of potatoes, six quarts and up- matters, and for combining with lead and copper now described, is known and practised in other wards of good brandy, of twenty degrees of the to make sugar of lead and verdegris. In the districts than that where I observed it; but I aerometer, are oblained ; which, put into new notice which we have seen of this discovery, no am sure that it is not generally known, and casks, and afterwards browned with burnt su mention is made of the method of purifying the your inserting the description may be the means gar, like French brandy, is not to be distinguish. acid as it is obtained from wood. Is it by dis- of leading to such repetitions of the very simple ed from it. The countess has dressed and distillation alone ?
and unexpensive experiment as will ultimately i tilled per diem 1000 lb. of potatoes at twice, which gives sixty to seventy quarts of good
Tow, a substitute for Hair in Plaster.
produce a very desirable saving in the cost of buildings.
B. brandy. The residue of the distillation is used MR EDITOR—Many practical processes in the Edinburgh, October 11. as food for the stock of her farm; which con arts, that are of great importance and value, are sists of thirty-four horned cattle, sixty pigs, and frequently lost in their results to the community. Patents lately enrolled in France. By a royal sixty sheep: they all are excessively fond of it They are confined to the district where they ordinance of July 9th, several persons have obwhen mixed with water, and the cows yield a. are first discovered and applied, or if the know. tained patents for steam engines. Ainong these bundance of milk. The sheep use about five ledge of them spreads, it spreads very slowly. are Mr Isaac Cox Barnet, for a machine prodoquarts per diem each ; one hall in the morning, The unlettered professional men whose expe. cing immediately, according to him, a rotary and one half at night. The malt must be fresh. rience and sagacity suggest them, are more ac motion ;-Mr Wm. Paxton, for the importation ground: the countess has it ground every week. customed, in many of the cases, to wield the tool and improvement of a new steam engine ;-M.
On the Means of extracting Potass from Po. of the mechanic than the pen of the author; and Honore Dalmas, residing at Castelnaudary, for tato.tops.-It is necessary to cut off the potato- even where the inclination to write is found ari. a machine for applying the action of fire to the tops the moment that the flowers begin to fall, sing, it frequently happens, that such persons as rotatory motion of flour mills and other purpo. as that is the period of their greatest vigour ; are alluded to cannot easily procure, from local ses :- M. Bagneris for additions and improvethey must be cut off at four or five inches from situation, a ready and convenient vehicle for ments to the steam engine ;-the Marquis de the ground, with a very sharp knife. Fresh conveying their communications to the public. Jouffroy for the same. Several patents have sprouts spring, which not only answer all the -I have often regretted the public loss (or ra. also buen granted by the sa ordinance to difpurposes of conducting the roots to maturity, ther the privation of public benefit) sustained from ferent persons for extraordinary amusements; but tend to an increase of their bulk, as the the circumstances I have mentioned, and I have as, for example, to Sieur Benoiste, restaurateur sprouts demand less nourishment than the old wished that those well-informed individuals who on the Boulevard of Mont Parnasse, for his lop. The tops may be suffered to remain on | happen to come to the knowledge of such im. Promenude Suisse ; to the Sieurs Benry, Vallede, the ground where cut; in eight or ten days proved practical processes, (whether in the liber. and Ruggieri, for the Saut de Niagara ; to Sieur they are sufficiently dry without turning, and al or mechanical arts), would take the trouble Lesigne, for machinery for setting in motion fifmay be carted, either home or to a corner of to describe and record themn.
teen carriages at once, and which he calls Prothe field, where a hole is to be dug in the earth, pose, periodicul publicutions that are generally menade Dedalienne. Other patents have been about five feet square, and two fect deep. The circulated, se em fit and favourable channels ; granted, to Sieur Allix, for the manufacture of combustion would be too rapid, and the ashes and if the OBSERVER supports, in its future wigs that are not affected by perspiration ; cool too quick, and thereby diminish the quan. Numbers, that claim to patronage which its first Briard, for a cosmetic called by him Eau de Ro. lity of alkali, were they burnt in the open air. Numbers promise so strongly to establish, Isieres ; Fabre, for a cosmetic called des Tem. The ashes must be kept red-hot as long as pos. would be gratified by seeing it become " a De- pliers ; Darcet, for processes for extracting the sible : when the fire is strong, tops that are only pot for Scottish Improvements in the Arts."— gelatine contained in bones; Cabany, for a copy. imperfectly dried may be thrown in, and even Under these impressions, I beg to give you, as ing machine ; Gengambre, senior and junior, green ones will then burn well enough. The a specimen of what I have in my view, and as for apparatus applicable to the system of illumi. ashes extracted from the hole must be put in a the first article to be deposited, the following nation by inflammable gas ; Thilorier, for provessel, and boiling water be poured upon it, as notice.--In a late excursion to the country, cesses for the construction of radeaux plongeurs ; then the water must be evaporated : for these (Perthshire), I learned, that a considerable im- Sartoris, for a kind of fire arms which is loaded two operations potato tops may be used alone provement had been adopted by a tradesman in at the breech ; Blanchet and Binct, for a hyas firing in the furnace, and the ashes collected. making good and cheap pluster for the walls of draulic crane; Marguerite, for plating needles There remains after the evaporation a dry saline some apartments in his house ; and I found, too, with silver; Passe, for a lamp which he terme reddish substance, known in commerce under that a gentleman in his neighbourhood had suc- hydrostatique regulateur ; Lousteau, for making the name of salin ; the more the ashes are boil- cessfully adopted the same expedient. Hair hats of cotton, or other fibrous substances, ed, the greyer and more valuable the saliu be is the only material hitherto used for mixing Matthieu de Dombasle, for a still called combi. comes. The salin must then be calcined in a with the lime of which plaster is made: but it neur hydropneumatique ; Lemire, senior and ju. very hot oven, until the whole mass presents a is expensive, and the tradesman referred to em. nior, for making nails cold ; and Jomard de Sauniform reddish brown. In cooling it remains ployed a vegetable substitute in lieu of it, which vergue, for making a liquor which be calls kilidry, and in fragments-bluish within, and white at present costs nothing. He employed the schi.
For such a pur