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Fine Arts.

[November 8, 1817. FINE ARTS.

play of the lines in every direction. These en limit we intend, that of general information.

gravings are the first productions of Mr Acker The young admirer of art would be little beneLithographic Engravings of A. Durer's Designs mann's lithographic press; and if he continues to fited by the endless variety of names and dis. in a Prayer.book. After the revival of literature issue from it works of equal interest with this, we tinctions, with which dealers and dictionaries and the arts in the latter part of the 11th and be shall hail this re-introduction of lithography into have contrived to puzzle the understanding. gininngof the 15th century, when they were so'ra our country, asa cheaper vehicle than copper of the To enjoy a prospect or a picture is within the pidly promoted by the valuable discovery of print- sketches, the neat pencil and pen drawings of the power of good sense ; but, like the science of ing, the first painter of eminence produced by Ger. artists, and especially of drawings made by the de. music, its utmost pleasure can only be reached many was Albert Durer. Though his works some. signers themselves on the stone froin which they are by the artist and the connoisseur. Style in times possess the quaintness of idea, stiffness in printed, as they must then be fac-similes of those painting is that by which one artist is distin. the dresses, and an absence of Grecian propor- drawings. It will also be economical ; and when guished from another, and this chiefly from the tion in the figures, which mark the style of Ger. exactness of shape is requisite, a very useful manner in wbich the work is executed: some man art in his time, there is still an intermixture mode of copying valuable manuscripts contained with a broad and firm pencil ; others with a of much grace, and an occasional approach to in colleges and public libraries, thus conferring minute and delicate touch: some, as the painters elerated feeling. Perhaps no master in painting no trifling gratification on the literary. The call it, well impasted; and others smooth and ever presented so conspicuous an instance of in- page given as a specimen of the type and text blending. Of the firm and bold style, there are congruity, of the union of excellence and inferi- l of A. Durer's Prayer-book will shew this. The but few prominent examples, such as Salvator ority, of meanness and refinement, of stiffness originality of the conceptions, and the beauty of Rosa, Borgononi, and Rosa di Tivoli. These and freedom, of beauty and plainness. He is al- the designs, exhibiting much of A. Durer's rare are seldom to be mistaken, and scarcely ever to most a harpy in art. His genius appears to have off-hand mental and manual power, render be copied in the executive part. Dividing the struggled against the contracted taste, uncouth this a very novel and acceptable work, not two distinguished styles of painting between the costume, manners, dress, &c. of his period ; in withstanding its double translation. The ob Italian and Flemish schools, they will be found short, against the common nature, and what is jects to be represented in lithographic print. to present, from the nature of their subjects, the technically called, the “ dryness of style,” to ing, whether figures, landscape, or writing, epic and the pastoral in art. To begin with the which the German painters had been confined, are drawn with the crayon, or an unctious ink, latter, it will only be necessary to select a fer up to his own superior practice. His disposure with a pen, on a polished calcareous stone that of the most eminent masters in the Flemish of the limbs is sometimes uncouth, oftener ele- | freely imbibes water. Tbe stone is then wetted, school, whose styles may be said to take the gant; and his dresses, with all the angular when a greasy and coloured matter is laid upon lead, most of the others resolving themselves harshness, have frequently much grace, and of the stone, and is repelled by the water in every more or less into the resemblances of these mas. ten an aim at grandeur. What pleases us most part but the drawing or writing to which it ad. ters; and we give the names of the following, is the look of truth in the positions and actions heres, and which drawing or writing it transfers as particularly at the head of a class or style of of his figures, which appear as if faithfully trans to paper by pressure or printing. "Mr Acker- art :-Rembrant-Rubens-D. Teniers — Hobferred by his pencil to the canvas, paper, or mann has thus far done well at his early stage bima-Ruysdal-Cuyp-Borghem-Pynaker copper, while they were engaged in actions si. of lithographic publication ; but he will do bet. Both-Waterloo-Brugghel, and Vander Hyden. milar to those he described. In pourtraying cha- ter, if, in the next great painter he thus illus. To these perhaps might be added Wouvermans, racter, his genius bears no small affinity to our trates, he would not give us an anonymous copy but his landscapes are so entirely accessaries to keenly.discerning Chaucer. The influence of his ist, but have some name, as delineator on stone, his figures, that it might be going out of our genius gave a noble impulse, not only to his from the great original, appended, that would intended path to detail the particular features of own but other countries and times, and it is felt give us assurance that he has done his best. his style. to this day. Even Italy, with its own boasted Such a name, for instance, as that of Mr. Moses, “ Řembrant, with whose style we shall begin, Raffaelle himself, has felt it. These opinions the engraver of the masterly work of Altars, has little in the eye of the uninitiated, that will respecting A. Durer are, in some degree at least, | Vases, Patera, &c.

bear out the extravagant praises of the inspired borne out by the engravings just now produced, Styles of Art ih Landscape Painting. We are connoisseur, when he is expatiating on the mafrom a series of German plates published by indebted to the intelligent pen of a friend, (angic of his light, the depth and mellowness of his Messrs Strixner and Piloty, engraved from a. artist, as will easily be seen, of great practical shade, and the harmony and brilliancy of his Durer's designs for a Catholic Breviary, and de attainments and acute observation) for some tone and colours. The truth of all this certain. posited in the Bavarian library at Munich. They brief, but we conceive not uninteresting, re. ly does apply to Rembrant; but as this taste is occupy spaces round oblong borders, which are marks on the different styles in landscape paint. not the growth of a day, it will not be easily blank within, as in the German plates, but, says ing, as tending to increase the knowledge of, understood, unless we examine and analyse the the advertisement affixed to the English work, and to point out the merits, as well as to show principle on which he wrought. From the na" through the friendship of M. Scherer, librarian the manner of the leading masters in the several ture of vision only a small space or angle can be to the King of Bavaria, Mr Ackermann is enabled schools of art. These remarks are chiefly di- taken in, and distinctly seen, and the camera to furnish a specimen of the first page of the dactic, and are evidently intended to instruct and will assist to demonstrate this position, where Breviary. It will also be seen, that for the in direct the young amateur where to look for all the objects are comparatively indistinct, to teresting introduction, which contains all the in. those qualities in art, which are justly deserving that of a central space; and this principle should formation that can be collected respecting the of admiration. A series of essays on the dis. guide every work of art, but not so as to pre. original work, he is indebted to Mr Bernhart, tinctive attributes of the great schools, generally vent a proper distribution of light, according to assistant librarian of the royal library at Mu- considered and classed, and with reference to the nature of the subject. This contracted or nich." The forty-three plates, contain sub their productions immediately under the eye of focus light is peculiar to the pictures of Rem. jects illustrative of the Breviary's text, some the writer, so as to form, not only a definition of brant, and has been thought by some to be too from the Bible and Catholic Legends, such as an their separate styles, but a history of their great a sacrifice, while many of his imitators have Ecce Homo and The Napkin of Veronica ; others modes and varieties, is a desideratum in the art iinagined a spot of light, surrounded by much dark, from Pagan mythology, as moral allegory, such of painting, which we shall, at no distant period, was painting like Rembrant. In some of Rem. as The Fight of Hercules with the Harpics; some endeavour to have produced by competent abili. brant's historical pieces may be found a slight of modern allegory, such as A Warrior on horse ty. In effecting this, we shall, without pre and sketchy back-ground. This may have been back pursued by Death ; some relating to domes sumption, flatter ourselves with doing a service for the purpose of giving value to the care and tic matters and objects of local peculiarity, such to the arts, and in the meantime offer as a like finish with which the luminous and principal as The Housewife returning from Market, and tribute, though limited to one branch, the fol- part of the subject was treated. In his landAn Indian Warrior. All the subjects are partly lowing communication.

scapes also, a slight and sketchy sky is often and some purely Arabesque, such as plate 32, “ In landscape painting there are two styles seen contrasted with the objects on the ground, where chimeras, animals, flowers, flourishes, &c. that eminently distinguish themselves, and they which are painted with great care ; all which are most fancifully conceived, gracefully arran. will be found in the Italian and Flemish schools. tends to that point in art of bringing the atten. ged, and drawn with a surprising dexterity and In the latter, an imitation of nature in the de. tion to a focus in the picture. This artifice of freedom. This species of designing may be called tail ; in the former, general character, with a obscuring much for the sake of a little, is, after the lively small-talk of a pictorial genius, and is view to a more exalted style of art. Between all, only conceding what we have not the power highly entertaining, from the association of con these are many connecting links and similari to effect, the entire representation of objects, or trary objects, and the beautiful composition and ties; but this would lead us much beyond the that bright and perfect light which nature throws

November 8, 1817.]

Fine Arts-Natural History. with lavish or with sparing hand. For, place | zon is placed rery high in the picture, and in feet; and Chimborazo, the summit of the Andes our pictures how we will, we cannot prevent some almost approaches to a bird's-eye view. or South American chain, rears its snowy head light or reflection from interfering with the This great artist sometimes condescended to to the astonishing height of 20,000 feet. But surface, whether dark or light. A painting must paint the figures in the landscapes of Brughel, there is soine ground for conjecture, that this be seen surrounded with a margin of frame, and the landscape to the animals of Snyders. extraordinary elevation is even exceeded by that must be placed in a particular light, and must Bolswert has engraved many of his landscapes, of the mountains of Tibet, far in the interior of be unconnected with other objects, to be seen to which give some idea of form and effect, but the extensive Asiatic continent, some of which advantage. To illustrate this farther, it may nothing short of seeing his pictures can be ade. are covered with perpetual snow, but in lat. not be foreign to our subject to show, in two in- quate to produce a full feeling and understand. 33° N. and were seen at the distance of 300 stances, where art brought into an immediate ing of them in these respects.”

miles." This conjecture is fully verified by the comparison with nature failed in producing a sa

( To be continued.)

observations of Lieutenant Webb, who, in surtisfactory effect. Borgononi, eminent for his

veying a province from which this great snowy battle pieces, was supposed to possess a secret

chain is visible, has ascertained trigonometrical

NATURAL HISTORY. process by which he could more successfully

ly the altitudes of twenty-seven peaks above the imitate armour than any of his contemporaries. Account of Minerals in Scotland.--Cornelius level of the sea. The distance of the nearest This artist was requested by a young painter to Devossec, a lapidary of London, was the first point of the snowy range from the place where examine and remark upon a 'piece he had in who discovered gold in Scotland. A bason was the observations were made was more than one hand, and with which he could not satisfy him- made of this natural gold, which contained an hundred miles. Of the twenty-seven peaks alself. Borgononi came, and found the piece of English gallon of liquor': it was filled up to the luded to, the lowest is 15,733 feet, and higher armour which served as the model placed neat brim with coined pieces of gold called Unicorns, than Mont Blanc ; four of them exceed 21,000 the picture in question, and most successfully which were coined in James the Third and feet; eleven of them exceed 22,000 feet; two imitated. The young artist, however, request. Fourth's time ; which bason and pieces were of them exceed 23,000 feet; and one rises to ed a louch from his pencil, but the secret was both présented to the Prench king, by the re the stupendous elevation of 25,669 feet above insisted on, and the senior painter left alone gent, Earl of Morton, saying, “ My lord, be the level of the sea, and is consequently the which being complied with, he only removed hold this bason, and all that is therein, is na- highest point yet discovered. the model out of sight, placed the picture in ano tural gold, got within this kingdom of Scotland, Tides in Rivers.- A paper was lately read in ther light, and called in the young artist, who fell by a Dutchman named Abraham Grey :" Abra. the Royal Society of Edinburgh, by Mr Steveninto raptures at his own performance, declaring ham was standing by, and affirmed it upon a so. son, civil engineer, regarding the operation of the touch of the friendly Borgononi was infallible. lemn oath. This gold 'was found in the valleys the waters of the ocean and of the river Dee, in The other instance occurred in a room which of Wanlock-head, near Leadhill.-The follow the basin or harbour of Aberdeen; from which was painted as a panorama or continued land- ing is a memorandum of minerals found in it appears, that in the month of April 1812, with scape, but open on one side to some of the finest Scotland, by Colonel Borthwick.'

the use of an instrument, of which he exbibited views in nature ; and although executed by two 1. A silver mine on the north side of the hill a drawing, he has been able to lift salt water of the first artists of our time, the effect was lost. St. Jordin, in the parish of Foverán.

from the bottom, while it was quite fresh at the There must be a shutting out or exclusion some. 2. Gold found about Dunidar, beyond Aber surface ; and has satisfactorily ascertained, that where, to give value to the best efforts of art.deen.

the tidal, or salt waters, keep in a distinct stra. The pictures of Rembrant have great warmth, 3. Silver, called golden bank, at Menzies, in tum or layer under the fresh water of the river. as well in the deepest shades as in the brightest the parish of Foveran.

This anomaly, with regard to the salt and fresh lights; there is a harmony of colouring which 4. Silver at the back of a park, where there is waters, appears in a very striking manner at arises from a general tone, and partakes of that a well that serves Disblair's household, parish Dundee, where the fall of the Tay is such as to of which the back.ground is made, which was ge. of Fintra.

cause river water to run down with a velocity nerally of the richest brown, and very little chang 5. Gold in the bogs of New Leslie, at Drum. which seems to increase as the tide rises in the ed by the transparent manner in which he drew his garran, two miles from Dunidar.

harbour, and smooths the bed of the river. These objects immediately connected with it. His style 6. Iron at the well of Sipa, west side of Wo. observations shew that the salt water insinuates is further characterized in the following remarks: man-hill, near Gilhomestone-mill, quarter of a itself under the fresh water, and that the river “ Rembrant seems to bave drawn all his land. mile from Aberdeen.

is lifted bodily upwards ; thus producing the rescapes by twilight, and to have given hiinself 7. Gold very rich at a place called Overhill, gular effect of food and ebb tide in the basin, no troạble in the selection of subject. Exten- parish of Beakelvie.

while the river flows downward all the while sive plains of barren down, bog, or fallow, in. 8. Lead at the head of Loughlieburn, north with a current which for a tine seems to intercepted by rows of pollard trees, straight ca. side of Selkirk.

crease as the tide rises. These facts, with renals, mounds of ditches, are so melted and blend. 9. Copper in a place called Elphon, in a hill gard to the continual course of the river Dee ed into each other by the light, and so animated beside Allen Laird, of Hilltownslands.

downward, is such a contrast to the operation of by the magic of his pencil, as to exhibit effects 10. Silver in the hill of Shrill Galloway. the waters of the Thames, as seen by a specta. the most beautiful, though if seen in the glare of 11. Silver in Windynill Tweedale.

tor from London bridge, that Mr Stevenson was a mid-day sun, would be most offensive and dis 12. Gold in Glenclought, near Kirkhill. induced to extend his experiments to that river gusting." Obscurity, however, is not the excel 13. Copper in Locklaw, Fife.

in the years 1815 and 1816, by a train of expelence, but the art of a picture; its degree must 14. Silver in the hill south side Lockenfill. riments and observations from about opposite to be extended and calculated according to the 15. Lead in L. Brotherstone's land.

Billingsgate all the way to Gravesend. As has subject and the effect intended to be produced. 16. Several metals near Kirkcudbright. already been stated, the waters of the Thames Other artists have ventured into open day, and, 17. Copper north side Borthwick, Hawick, opposite the London-dock gates were found to be by the sweetness of their pencil, and the truth and Branxome.

perfectly fresh throughout : at Blackwall, even of imitation, have justly procured attention and 18. Silver in Kylesmoor, Lorn, and Macklin, | in spring tides, the water was found to be only regard. Ayrshire.

slightly saline ; at Woolwich, the proportion of “ Rubens, in his landscapes, was daringly 19. Several ores in the Orkneys.

salt water increases, and so on to Gravesend. visible ; they are characterised by a boldness and Williams, in his Mineralogy, says, “ Upon But the strata of salt and fresh water is less disvigour from which an ordinary mind would the north shore of the Moray frith, in Scots tinctly marked in the Thames than in any of those shrink. The sun's place is frequently found land, there is'a very great quantity of a most rivers on which he lias hitherto had an opportu. within the picture, while the rainbow, the beautiful purple.coloured sand; the grains of it nity of making his observations. But these instorm, and the shower, are equally pourtrayed is much larger than common sand, and every quiries are meant to be extended to most of the and distinguished. He seems to have painted grain of it is a pure amethyst.

principal rivers in the kingdom, when an aclandscapes always with a view to some extraor. Height of Mountains. In Dr Millar's edition count of the whole will be given. Mr Steven. dinary effect in nature. His colouring is bril- of Williams's Mineral Kingdom, it is remarked, son has made similar experiments on the rivers liant, and his shadows thin and transparent; that " Ben-Nevis, in Invernesshire in Scotland, Porth and Tay, and at Loch Eil, where the Ca. his forms bave little of study in them, and his which is the highest mountain in Britain, is lit- ledonian Canal joins the Western sea. The aper. trees are of the most ordinary kind; the hori- tle more than 4300 feet above the level of the ture at Curranferry, for the tidal waters of that

sea ; Mont Blanc, one of the Swiss Alps, and loch, being small, compared to the surface of Loch • Mr Payne Knight on Taste. the highest European mountain, is about 15,600 Eil, which forms the drainage of a great extent

112
Natural History-Literature.

[November 8, 1817. of country, it occurred to him that the waters of, with the potato oat, had been tried in St Do. our Lord.” She tells us, that " never did the surface must have less of the saline particles mingo, and that the latter only had produced Cæsar's ambition prompt to bolder enterprise, than the water at the bottom. He accordingly ears and ripe grains, which, it is ignorantly added, nor Alexander's thirst of fame lead to nobler ex. lifted water from the surface at the anchorage off would prove a valuable substitute for cassada ploits :" and she describes him as “ leaving a Fort William, and found it to be 1008.2; at bread, denounced as no better food than the track of glory behind him wherever he went," the depth of nine fathoms, 1025.5; at the depth Norwegian bread made from the bark of trees. and as “ making Christendom ring, and the Ot. of 30 fathoms, in the central parts of the loch, But experience has fully proved that the cassada toman power shake, with the thunder of his it was 1027.2, indicating the greater specific contains more nourishment than any of the arms."-We cannot compliment Miss Porter on gravity, and consequently more of the saline tribe of Cerealia, which are altogether unfit for the selection of such a subject. Can she be in. parts as the depth of the water is incrcased. a West India climate.

sensible to the march of truth and philosophy, Falls of Earth. On the 21st of June last, the Great Viper of Martinique.-- At a late meet. to the ceaseless developement of the science of ground of a village, abont 16 miles from St ing of the Royal Academy of Sciences of France, morals, and to the general and almost universal Petersburgh, suddenly sunk to the depth of many M. Moreau de Jonnes communicated some par. spread of those fraternal and truly Christian fathoms, the houses preserving however their ticulars respecting the great viper of Martinique. principles, which, at this epoch of the world, situation. A similar falling in of earth occur. It is a fact, that this serpent grows to the length are forming a new character for man, and are red, in the same place, in 1755 and 1788.- of seven or eight feet, and to a diameter of four progressively operating such a change in his Among other causes, this phenomenon is as. or five inches. M. Desfourneaux, a planter of condition, as the merely superstitious votaries of cribed to the swampy marsh upon which the Martinique, some months since, killed one of either cross or crescent in past ages dever convillage is built, and to the river which flows these reptiles which had attained these dimen. templated ? Would it not then have been a more through it. The difference observed between sions, and which, when erect on its tail, would pleasing, as well as a more useful task, had Miss this subinersion and the two preceding ones, is, have considerably exceeded the height of a man. Porter employed her talents to represent the that a little before the present, a considerable Upon an examination of the membranous sheath world as it is; and had drawn, with the elegant noise was heard, and the water fell so much at with which the mouth is laterally furnished, pen of which unquestionably she is mistress, the mouth of the river, that fish were taken by there were found on both sides sixteen channel. such characters and scenes as our nature might the hand, and its bed was raised, in some places, led teeth, of different sizes, but only two of sympathise with, and our intellect approve: ra. 12 feet above the level.

these having reached their full growth, served ther than to conduct us back to scenes which On the 30th July, on the Genesee river, about as formidable weapops to this enormous reptile. we must blush to own were acted by a kindred ten miles above New York, a part of the land By a singularity, worthy of remark, the trigo. species? Let us not, however, bé misunder. on the north bank has fallen into the river, 80 nocephalus possesses the faculty of living alike stood ;-we attribute to this writer no particle as completely to change the course of the in the marshes on the same level with the sea, of the spirit of bigotry which marked the actors

yards wide. The land on the south side of the notwithstanding the difference of temperature, trary, the little episode of the Cahet may be river was level for some distance ; on the north which is equal to twelve degrees of the centi- | pointed out as a proof of her far nobler senti. there rose a very high and steep hill, commen grade thermometer, and which, in the torrid ments; it is excellent. Describing an evening cing about 20 or 30 feet from the edge of the zone, produces a very powerful impression on scene, in which she introduces her hero, Miss bank. Along the intermediate space a road organized bodies. M. Desfourneaux has recent Porter says, "Birds warbling their hymn of passed, the level of which was not more than ly found, on ascending the wolcanic peaks of Car- gladness from each surrounding copse (when six or eight feet above that of the water. In the bel, four of these vipers inhabiting the lofty fo- every leaf sparkled with rain-drops, just scatafternoon about half an acre of the bank fell in rests of those mountains, 1600 yards above the tered from a passing cloud ;) the delightful smell to the river. About half past ten at night the Atlantic.

of mingled fruits and blossoms, and wild flowers, people in the neighbourhood were suddenly

rising like the earth's incense to her Creator; alarmed by a tremendous noise from the hill, ac

the sight of that beauteous earth, and those companied by a jarring of the houses. Huge mas

LITERATURE.

splendid heavens, were to Giovanni's heart so ses of the mountain were then observed tum

many calls to prayer and praise ; and with de. bling into the river, and dashing the waters to a

NEW PUBLICATIONS.

votional rapture he stood in that august temple, great height. About fifteen acres of the surface Legislators and others, who feel interested in silently worshipping the One Great Cause.”is supposed to have fallen. The cavity left in the science of legislation, will profit by the pe. But how are we to reconcile the feelings of the the hill is of a circular form, the back part of rusal of an octavo volume, recently published, Knight of St. John, on this occasion, with his which presents a precipice nearly perpendicular, by Mr Jeremy Bentham; containing papers re- bigotted devotion to an order, instituted for the of about 150 feet in height. Several of the trees lative to public instruction, and what Me Ben- extermination of infidels ? Yet, without this in. which stood on the side of the mountain yet re tham calls, “ Codification," including correspon- consistency, which is unnatural, Miss Porter main in an erect posture, having been carried dence with the emperor of Russia, and with di- doubtless felt that the character of her knight, down in that position on masses of the earth ; vers constituted authorities in the United States | Giovanni, would have been disgusting to mo. the tops of others are buried in the ruins, wbile of America. Many useful suggestions, many dern times. We have dilated far beyond our their roots are raised in the air. The current of excellent remarks, are contained in this volume, usual limits for the notice of a romance ; but the river being completely obstructed, it has risen which is a monument of the zeal and perseve hope we have not done so without achieving above the opposite bank, and is now forming a rance of the philanthropic author in the task of some good,-- which we shall certainly have acnew channel for a considerable distance.

forming codes of laws grounded upon reason and complished, if we succeed in directing the fu. Cassada Bread, and the Potato Oat. The cas. expedience, and adapted to the various states of ture choice of so good a writer to subjects of sada, or cassuva bread, of the West Indies, 'is the world.

modern life and living manners; such as have prepared from the root of latropha Manihot, a Miss Anna Maria Porter has this inonth add. so usefully and pleasingly occupied the pens of plant which is cultivated for this very purpose. ed another work to the number of her literary a D'Arblay, an Edgeworth, an Inchbald, an The root is dug up when the plant comes to productions, which, without possessing any | Opie, and other contemporary females of distin. maturity, washed clean, reduced by grating high claims to genius, have, at least in point of guished literary talents ; in preference to those down to coarse meal, not unlike saw.dust, and style, placed her name among the respectable suggested by monkish legends, or any other being introduced into a linen bag, is subjected writers of the day. It may be deemed a sort of musty chronicles of old and superstitious times. to strong pressure, to separate a juice which old cloister romance; as the story is formed of A small voluine, under the title of " Plura. is a deadly poison to every animal except the events supposed to have taken place in those lity of Worlds, or Latters, fc. occasioned by Dr goat. The dried meal is then spread on a heat. dark ages, when the articles of holy alliances and Chaliners' Discourses,” discusses, in the spirit of ed stone, or iron plate, and without any addi. | the defence of holy cities were made the blasphe- scepticism, most of the principles and facts of tion, the particles unite together and form a mous pretexts of holy wars. The Knight of St. modern astronomy; and charges Dr Chalmers thin cake, which is spread with butter and eaten John is one of the most perfect specimens of with applying what the author considers as er. to breakfast. This bread is one of the most nu. holy warriors-embued with the courage of the rors of science to the higher claims of theology. tritious productions of tropical regions.

lion, when seeking the blood of in Gidels; at the To say the least of the volume, it is bold and A notice has appeared lately in some periodi- | same time that he has a countenance, (to use ingenious, and cannot fail to serve as a caution cal publications in this country, stating, that Miss Porter's own words,)." such as Raphael to astronomers, in regard to some received po. wheat, and some other farinaceous grains along might have chosen for the favourite disciple of sitions in that noble science,

November 8, 1817.)
Voyages and Travels.

119 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. and pursued the voyage towards Canton. Now our countrymen, that the emperor had not only

approaching the object of their expedition, Mr granted permission for them to proceed on their Journal of the Proceedings of the late Embassy Ellis anticipates, that the former enquiries of voyage up the Yellow sea for Pekin, but that to China, &e. By Henry Ellis, Third Commis- those acute and intelligent travellers, Sir George i his majesty was inclined to receive them most sioner of the Embassy.-- This work, which has ex. Staunton and Mr Barrow, as well as the narra graciously. Thus encouraged, they sailed from cited so much public curiosity, was published tives of De Guignes, Vanbraam, and the ancierit the Hong (near Canton) on the 13th: their last month, with maps, coloured drawings, ty- missionaries, will render such information as he course lay too far from the coast to permit of pographical accuracy and beauty, which would | may procure less valuable than it would other. much observation : but where any opportunity have done credit to the longest preparations, wise be. That they have taken off the edge of offers, it is found that the people towards the and are really surprising, when we consider the novelty may readily be conceded ; but that they north have not that dislike to Europe which is short period that has elapsed since the author ar have also left much for future interest, Mr El. so sensibly felt in their intercourse at Canton. rived in England. lis's own work is a sutficient proof.

On the 25th, they entered the gulph of Petche. The first chapter is devoted to the voyage. About the part of the work to which we have lee, and took immediate measures to announce On the 8th of February, 1816, the ambassador conducted our readers, the author stops to state their arrival in due form to the proper authori. with his suite embarked on board of the Alceste the grounds on which the embassy was dispatch- ties at Ta-koo." The Chinese seem not to have frigate, and sailed on their destination. Having ed, and the objects it had in view. These were expected them so soon, for four days elapsed bea great superiority in speed, the Alceste suffered briefly the oppressions which had been exercised fore two mandarins, one with a white, and the the vessels in company to pursue their course upon the British mercantile interests at Canton, other with a gold button, came on board to restraight onward, while she ran to Rio Janeiro, and the insecurity of their future prospects, in turn the compliment, and signify that a mandawhere she arrived on the 21st March. At Rio the former case ; and in the latter, to explain rin, with no less than a blue button, was apJaneiro they remained ten days, and took seve away the complaints raised against us for the pointed to conduet the embassy to Pekin. How ral excursions into the surrounding country, the improper seizure of an American ship by the nours now flowed upon them. On the 31st, description of which occupies a few pages, but Doris, within the Chinese protecting boundaries : four mandarins, distinguished by crystal, ivo. does not possess sufficient novelty to recommend lo cultivate an amicable arrangement between ry, and gold buttons, paid them a complimentait to much notice. The Queen of Portugal died the Viceroy of Canton and the committee of su ry visit, and were received with all the respect on the day previous to their arrival ; and in percargoes; to obtain a free intercourse with due to their buttons. Only one failure in eti. consequence of that event, or of its furnishing the seat of supreme government, Pekin ; and, if quette is noticed. There was no apparatus fit an excuse, they were neither publicly received possible, to get permission to trade with a port for handing tea round in the most approved at court, nor, it would seem, very hospitably to the north of Canton. It is obvious, from this way, and cherry brandy was obliged to be subentertained by the Portuguese ministers, who re statement, that the viceroy and members of the stituted : with this, however, the mandarins fused to allot them a house for their residence Canton government were deeply interested in de. were not at all dissatisfied, but swallowed the on sbore. From Rio Janeiro they proceeded on feating the purposes of the mission : and we beverage with much complacency. This is the the 31st, and in good time reached the Cape. have no doubt but their intrigues contributed region of ceremony. The visit of the mandarins Here our commissioner seems to be a little greatly to the unsatisfactory result which attend. was repaid by Messrs Morrison and Cooke on home-sick, but, nevertheless, takes several trips ed it. On the 10th of July, the squadron arri. shore; the only point of consequence to the emround Cape Town, and describes the impres. ved at the Lemma islands, where Sir George bassy developed, at which was an intimation, sions made upon bim by the natural scenery. Staunton, the second commissioner, joined Lord that the emperor desired the number of the suite From the Cape to Anjere roads occupied the in- Amherst and Mr Ellis. The embassy now con. to be limited to tifty instead of seventy-five. tervening time to the 9th of June, four months sisted of seventy-five persons, being twenty We have refrained till now from mentioning the since their departure. At Anjere they landed, fewer than composed the suite of Lord Macart. grand consideration on which the reception or and set out for Batavia : their progress to which ney. Besides the three commissioners, the most rejection of the embassy turned. This was the by Serang furnishes topics for remark: but as prominent individual was the Hon. Mr Amherst, performance of the San-k wei-keu-kou, or thrice Java has been treated more at large in recent a boy of about twelve years of age, son and page kneeling and nine times bowing the head, on and separate publications, we shall not enter to the ambassador. The three commissioners being presented to the emperor. This courtly upon it here farther than to state, that Mr Ellis were, according to the formula of Chinese eti repetition of prostrations is called in the journal confirms all preceding accounts of the short-quette, divided into Ching-wang.chae, Tso-wang- simply ko-tou, and the negociations between the sighted and bad policy pursued by the Dutch in chae, and Yew.wang.chae, é e. the middle, left. Chinese ministers and the commissioners, on their government of this colony. He represents hand, and right-hand deputies. As they came this important question, are the leading political General Daendels as extremely harsh, and gives within ear-shot of their destination, they learnt features of the work. It appears that the perthe following anecdote of him :-" Whether that the Portuguese had been zealous co-opera- formance of this humiliation is almost a sine qua natural or assumed, for the purpose of intimi. tors with the party at Canton, in preceding them non with the Chinese. It is true, that Lord dation, his (Daendels') manner was ferocious to with gross misrepresentation. So far bad suc. Macartney was introduced without it, and this an unparalleled degree. An anecdote is related cess attended these efforts, that when the ships was the precedent set up by Lord Amherst; of his arriving late at night at one of the regen- appeared off the coast, their presence occasioned but, on the other hand, the custom has been cies, and ordering some eggs to be prepared for many military movements among the natives. complied with from the latter ages of the Byhis supper : the native chief unluckily had none To this inauspicious omen may be added an zantine empire, when independent princes ob. in the house, and had the temerity to inform opinion of no less weight than that of Sir George served it during the crusades, to the present era ; the marshal that no eggs were procurable at Staunton, that the time was unfavourable for when Tartar princes, and the representatives of that late hoor. Daendels seized one of the pis. the objects in view. The recent attempt to as foreign kings, have almost without an exception tols, that were always placed near him, and dis. sassinate the emperor bad filled that weak, fee. submitted to it in their intercourse with China. charged it at his head; the ball passed near his ble, and irresolute monarch with suspicions ; In 1805, Count Galovkin, the Russian ambassaear. The regent, a man of some humour, says and as it was ascribed to religious sectaries, fo dor, was dismissed without an audience for rethat the whizzing of the bullet had a most won reigners were at this moment looked upon with fusing it; and our ministers appear to have left derful effect ; all the hens in the village com- peculiar and augmented jealousy. A catholic it entirely to Lord Amherst's discretion to act mencing to lay their eggs immediately : the fact bishop had been executed for the plot only six according to circumstances, either in acceding to, was, that a second search, under the fear of months before, and a missionary was still in pri. or declining the ceremony. Mr Ellis seems to death, overcame the difficulty."

son under sentence of death. What excited this think, that it might be gone into without deJava is a good deal colonized by the Chinese, feeling also contributed to strengthen another gradation ; and Sir George Staunton, on the some of whom revisit their native country, and which stood in the way of a prosperous issue other hand, strenuously resisted the claim, as send their children thither, but return to lay It was no period for a Chinese sovereign to relax unbecoming in one who was the representative their bones in the land of their adoption. Their in his dignity, when even his life had been aim of a great monarch, and not of a tributary descendants are invariably a mixed race, for no ed at; and the ceremonies always pertinacious. prince. This had been the subject of discussion women ever leave China. But to whatever castly enough adhered to by these fantastic persons, with all the mandarins who had previously conthe Javanese belongs, he eagerly disclaims being became unalterable as the laws of the Medes versed with the commissioners, and is brought confounded with the Malay, and in fact is a be- and Persians, when alarmed by ambitious inno distinctly under view by the following extract, ing of superior character in every respect. On vation and treasonable inroad. Notwithstanding which will also serve to sbew the general modo the 21st of June the Alceste left Batavia roads, these forebodings, however, it was intimated to l of proceedings :

114
Voyages and Travels.

[November 8, 1817. 4th of August.Received a visit from which some European entertainers are with re. this has no claims; but, on the other hand, if Chang and Yin, the two mandarins who are to ference to excessive drinking. Their dishes are the gradual crowding of junks, till they become accompany the enibassy ; they were both pre generally greasy and insipid. After hearing ma innumerable, a vast population, buildings though ceded by their visiting tickets, composed of slips ny reports, and entering into frequent confer: not elegant yet regular and peculiar, careful and of red paper, eighteen inches long by six wide, ences, by which the time necessary for Chinese successful cultivation, can supply those deficien. on which their names and titles were inscribed. diplomacy was spent, at noon, on the ninth of cies, the entrance to T'ien-sing will not be with. Yin arrired first, and was received by Captains August, Lord Amherst left the ship in his barge, out attraction to the traveller. The pyramids of Maxwell and Hall, in their full uniforms, upon and began his voyage up the river Peiho for salt, covered with mats, the dimensions and exdeck : he would not be presented to the ambas. Pekin. He was saluted with three guns on pass. tent of which have been so ingeniously estimatsador till his colleague arrived. When Chang ing a small furt called Tong-koo, and three or ed by Mr Barrow, are the most striking objects. reached the ship, they were conducted to Lord four hundred soldiers were seen upon the beach, We were two hours and a half passing from the Amherst's cabin by Mr Morrison, where they divided into companies of ten by large flags, beginning of the line of houses on the right bank were received by his excellency and the two each soldier carrying a smaller, like so many of the river to our anchorage. A salate was commissioners. After the usual compliments, lancers. They were dressed in uniform. Visit. fired from a small furt; and, nearly opposite, they proceeded to make enquiries as to the num- ing tickets being interchanged with the Ching. troops were drawn up. Among them were her of boats that would be required for the em Chac, (a minister of some rank) complimentary matchlock men, wearing black caps. We obbassy, presents, and baggage. Copies of the lists visits followed, and great honours in store from served some companies dressed in long yellow that had been transmitted to the viceroy of Pe. the emperor to young Amherst were insinuated, and black striped garments, covering them liter. che-lee were then put into their hands, and, evidently by way of attacking the ambassador on ally from head to fuot; they are intended to rewith the exception of an attempt to reckon the the weak side of parental fondoess, in order to present tigers, but certainly are more likely to amount fifty-four persons, the number passed dispose him to concede the prostrations. On the excite ridicule than terror ; defence, from the unnoticed. They next asked what were the ob 10ih, the boats which had accompanied the spread of their shields, would seem their great jects of the embassy ? to which it was replied, commissioners from the squadron returned, and object. A short distance from our anchorage, that the intention of the Prince Regerit was to the embassy pursued their course up the river, we passed on our left the branch of the river manifest his regard for his Imperial Majesty, the banks of which were lined with spectators leading to the canal, and thence to Canton. and to confirun those relations of friendship that to see them pass. There were here no signs of The excess of population was here most striking. had subsisted between their illustrious parents. excessive population, and the numbers of the spec I counted two hundred spectators upon one On their demanding whether nothing else was tators did not exceed what would have appeared junk, and these vessels were innumerable. The intended, they were apprized that the objects of on a space of similar extent in India. The wo pyramids of salt were so covered, with them, the emba-sy were stated in the Prince Regent's men, unlike the crossds presented by our Euro that they actually became pyramids of men. letter, and would be communicated to To. pean spectacles, were few, and in general ugly. Some crowds of boys remained standing abore chong-tong, the principal minister, who was, as I was surprised (says the author) with the size their knees in the water for pcar an hour, to sawe had been informed, to meet us at Tien-sing, of the Chinese horses, having been led to expect tiate their curiosity. A more orderly assemblage

They then adverted to the cere. that their height did not exceed that of small could not, however, I believe, be presented in mony of ko-tou, or prostration ; and observed, ponies; on the contrary, they were not inferior any other country; and the soldiers had but that previous practice would be required to se. in that respect to the generality of Arab horses : seklom occasion to use even threatening gestures *cure its being decorously performed before the they are, however, coarse and ill-shaped, and to maintain order. I had not before conceived einperor. To this it was answered, that every promise neither strength nor action. The infan- that huinan heads could be so closely packed ; mark of respect would, on the present, as on the try are armed with swords, and the cavalry add they might have been by screws squeezed into former embassy, be manifested towards his Im. a bow and arrows to their equipment. Their each other, but there was often no possible vaperial Majesty. Upon coriferring together, it saddles are heavy, but did not look inconvenient cancy to be observed. All these Chinese spectaseemed that they were not really aware of what to the rider; they are not unlike the Turkish. tors were exposed bare-headed to the rays of had the occurred. As the subject was, how. The Ching. Chae travelled in a green sedan-chair, the mid-day sun, when the thermometer in the ever, renewed by them, it was judged advis- wider than ours, but not so high : green is the shade stood at eighty.eight. Females were not able to cut short this premature discussion by in- colour appropriated to men of rank. The carts numerous in the crowd ; and these generally forming them, that whatever was right would on two wheels justify the complaints that have old, and always of the lower orders. The Chi. be attended to."

been made of them. Both banks of the river nese are, to judge from the inhabitants of Tien. We need not pursue this interview any far. are covered with a large species of rush ; and sing, neither well-looking nor strongly made : ther. The mandarins were of rather a vulgar the country, as far as the eye reaches, is perfect. they are rather slight, but straight, and of midcast in dress, appearance, and manners, thoughly flat. We witnessed, this morning, the pu- dle height.” Chang and Yin were among the most genteel of nishment of face slapping, inflicted with a short At Tien-sing the discussions about the Ko. the class. In the course of conversation, Chang piece of hide, half an inch thick. The hair of tou thicken upon us ; the mandarins employing remarked, “that the emperor entertained a much the culprit was twisted, till the eyes alınost every artifice to induce Lord Amherst not to higher opinion of the English than other na. started from their sockets, and on his cheeks, thwart the emperor in his expectation of bows tions ; in fact, that he deemed them of import. much distended, the blows were struck. His and genuflexions, and his lordship resisting ance." This was modified by Yin; who added, crime was said to be robbing from the baggage them as judiciously as he could. Neither falseas a reason for this consideration, that they came boats. The executioner, and those concerned in hoods nor oaths were spared by the Chinese, from a great distance to manifest their respect. the punishment, seemed to delight in his suffer. who throughout these transactions shine as the • The Chinese (it is here observed) are well ings."

most lying varlets that ever monarch employed sized, but those we have seen do not seem mus. The only other remark which Mr Ellis makes for special purposes. They swore that Lord cular. Both the mandarins are advanced in life, upon the people on his first glance, which oc Macartney performed the ceremony, and even the youngest being fifty-five. Yin brought his curs to us as worthy of repetition, is on the in. had the impudence to appeal to Sir George son, a fine boy of eleven years of age, on board decency of the dress of the lower orders. Staunton, the living witness of its scandalous with him, who readily made acquaintance with Though their garments are by no means more want of truth, for the veracity of their asseryoung Amberst. The boy, on being presented scanty than those of the inhabitants of India, tion. They suffered an admission to escape by his father to the ambassador, knelt down they take no care to avoid the grossest exposure them, however, which we are surprized the with much grace and modesty ; this is the usual of their persons, and are, in this respect, little commissioners did not lay hold of as conclusive salutation of children to their parents, and of in better than the most savage tribes of Africa. evidence against their argument on the score of feriors to superiors. We have all reason to con This day they reached Tien-sing, eighty miles precedent; namely, that the native princes and cur with Mr Barrow's description of the Chinese up the river, where they expected to meet the nobles were much displeased because the English as a frowsy people ; the stench arising from the prime minister ; but the account of the country stood while they prostrated themselves; yet rumbers on board was not only sensible but op. becomes here so picturesque, that we must be even after this confession, they contended that pressive ; it was the repose of putrifying garlic 'more liberal with the words of our author. the English had also performed the prostra. on a much-used blanket.”

" It is very difficult to describe the exact im tions! Of this controversy we need notice no. In other places, they are represented as beast. pression produced on the mind by the approach thing more, at present at least, but that Lord ly gluttons. A Chinese host is gratified with the to Tien-sing. If fine buildings and striking lo- Amherst offered to bow nine times. The mana saine symptoms of excessive eating in his guests calities are required to give interest to a scene, darins asked him to kneel on one knee, which

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