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8. d.

Parliamentary debates. As a controversial wri. 120 Deaths--Markets-High Water at Leith.

[November 8, 1817. VI.; and, in consequence of a marriage with a ter, he engaged in a paper war relative to the

Dalkeith, Oct. 30. rich heiress, several large estates accrued to his slave trade in the disputes concerning Warren The supply of wheat at this day's market was descendants,who also attained considerable Hastings' conduct in India and in the political | large ; fine samples sold readily at fully higher wealth by alliances with the families of the squables between the two great parties in Par- prices ; best 50s. 6d. ; inferior heavy sale, at for. Earls of Derby, Powis, Shrewsbury, &c. liament. We wish it could be added, that he mer prices. Barley a large supply, and mostly Sir John Arundel, knight of the Bath, who had always taken the part prescribed by jus- of secondary quality ; best 31s. ; current 265. was beheaded in 1552, for conspiring the death tice, and a love of liberty : yet there was an Oats nearly at the former market ; best 29s. ; of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, also apology perhaps, but certainly no excuse, in the current 24s. per boll. brought an ample estate to his family, by his wants of a young and increasing family, who

Wheat. Barley Oats. | Pease. Beans. marriage with Margaret, daughter and co-beir had no other means of support than what pro First 50s 6d 31s Od | 298 6d 283 Od | 283 Od of Lord Edward Howard, third son of Thomas ceeded from the labours of their father's pen.. Secd. 40s Od | 28s Od | 22s Od 26s Od | 26s Od duke of Norfolk, and sister to Queen Catherine, He was seventy-one at the time of his decease. Third 30s Od | 24s Od | 16s Od | 24s 0d | 24s Od fifth wife of Henry VIII., The family was en In Africa, Capt. Campbell, the able and zealous

Dalkeith, Nov. 3. nobled in the person of Thomas first Lord Arun. commander of the late unfortunate expedition to The quantity of oalmeal at market was nearly del, in 1605. James Everard Arundel was born explore the interior of Africa. A letter from the same as last week, as also the prices; best March 4, 1763; and succeeded his first cousin, Sierra Leone states, that Captain Campbell was 268. 6d. current 253. 6d. inferior 24s. per boll ; Henry, the late lord, Dec. 4, 1808. In 1783 he reported to have died of a broken heart, and that retail Is. Bd. to ls. 9d. per peck. married Mary Christiana, eldest daughter of the expedition was in consequence expected to

Edinburgh, Nov. 4. Heory Arundel, the late lord-by whom he has return. The second naval officer in command, This day there were 416 bolls of oatmeal in left issue : he has also issue by a second wife. who had been left at Sierra Leone on account of Edinburgh market, whicb sold, First 28s. Od. Being of the Roman Catholic persuasion, he was ill-health, but was recovered and on his way to Second 27s. Od. per boll.-Retail price per peck excluded both from Parliament and any employ join the expedition, returned to Sierra Leone, of best oatmeal ls. 100.-Second Is. 9d. There ment in the service of his country. His lordship, hearing of Captain Campbell's death, to consult were also 59 bolls of pease and barley meal, a man of amiable manners, died at Bath, July the governor, upon the future conduct of the ex which sold at 18s. 60.-Retail price per peck, 14, 1817, in his 54th year.

pedition. We suspect these expeditions were ls. 4d. William Thomson, LL.D. This indefatigable unprovided with air-balloons, with which to re Price of Butcher Meat, fc.-Nov. 4. Scottish author was a native of Perthshire, and connoitre fifty or sixty miles around.

8. d. received the first rudiments of his education at At Madrid, after a short illness, the wife of Beef, lb. 0 4 a 07 Quartern Loaf..... 10 a little provincial school, whence he was remo. Bartholomew Frere, Esq. secretary of embassy Mutton, 0 4 0 0 7 Potatoes, per ved to the chief town in the county. Soon af- at the Ottoman Porte. Her marriage had been Veal, . 10 a 0 12 peck of 281b.0 8 a 0 0 ter this he was sent to the University of St Ansolemnized by proxy, according to the usual Pork, .. 0 5 0 0 6 drews, and was the contemporary and class-fel. forms; but Mr Frere, having been detained at Lamb, qr.2 0 a 2 6 Weigh House. low of Lord Erskine; he afterwards became the Constantinople by the business of the embassy, Tallow,st. 11 a 11 6 Butter, lb. 0 0 3 14 contemporary of Mr Dugald Stewart at Edin during Sir Robert Liston's absence, never saw Hides, ..60 a 7 0 Salt, do. Ib. 0 0 14 burgh. As his family was unable any longer her since their union.

Calf Sk.lb.0 7 a 0 8 Do. st...... 0 0 a 21 O to support the expense of his education, it was At Amsterdam, the Dowager Marchioness of Sheep sk. 3 0 a 4 0 Eggs,hund.0 0 a 12 2 his good fortune, while at St Andrews, to ob- Sligo : ber ladyship was expecting in that city Lamb sk. 2 6 a 0 0 Do. doz....00 a 10 tain the patronage of the late Earl of Kinnoul, Sir William Scott from Switzerland, in order to

November 5. a nobleman who possessed a fine taste for liter. return with him to England. She was the

There were 942 sheep in the Grassmarket, ature, and was desirous to encourage men of youngest daughter and co- heiress of the late Earl Edinburgh, this morning ; which sold at from merit. At the age of eighteen he was received | Howe. In 1787 she was married to the late

10s. to 27s. per head, (some left unsuld.) There into the family at Duplin, in quality of libra- Marquis of Sligo, by whom she had a son, the were also 168 black cattle in the market, which rian, and was destined by his patrún for the present marquis ; and to her second husband, sold at from 68. to 7s. 6d. per stone, sinking church. Having been ordained, he was appoint- Sir W. Scott, about five years since. Her lady offals (fat sold brisk.) ed assistant to an aged clergy man, with a toler. ship was in the remainder of the Barony of

Edinburgh Corn Market, Oct. 29. able salary, and soon after he became a mem Howe, now possessed by her eldest sister, mar

We had a short supply of all kinds of grain ber of the General Assembly. But Mr Thom. ried to the Hon. Pen. Asheton Curzon. This to-day, and sales in general quick, and on the son suddenly left Scotland, and repaired to Lon. lady possessed many literary accomplishments.

advance. Top price of wheat ls. lower than last, don; where he engaged in literary pursuits, and The celebrated General Kosciusko, at Soleure, but averages considerably dearer; best 51s. curto such an extent, and on such various subjects, on the 15th of October, closing, by a peaceable

rent 40s. to 50:. Barley 26s. to 33s. Oats 25s. that he was uninterruptedly employed for many death, a life full of virtues and brilliant with

to 30s. Pease and Beans 24s. to 30s. years in the composition of treatises on law, di- glory. He had lived some time in a tranquil Wheat. | Barley

Oats. Pease. Beans vinity, history, and metaphysics: novels, ro. retreat, where he had become an interesting ob

First 51s Od 33s Od 30s 6d 30s 0d 30s Od mances, voyages, and travels, were also occa. ject of respect and veneration, surrounded by

Secd. 45s Od 29Od | 278 6d 27s 6d 27s 6d sionally undertaken by him; and, with an ex some faithful friends, and the poor, of whom he

Third 40s Od | 26s Od | 258 Od | 24s Od 245 Od ception to poetry alone, every other known was a constant benefactor. He had recommend.

Glasgow, October 29. mode of writing was practised by him in succes. ed that the greatest simplicity should be obsery.

SUGAR-Dry brown, 755. !0 788. Middling. sion. He was also frequently employed in re ed at his funeral, and ordered that his remains

78s. to 80s. Good ditto, 80s. 10 84s. Fine, 84s, vising the labours of others; in harmonizing should be borne by the poor.

to 88s. Very fine, 88s. to 92s. discordant materials; in arranging obscure ma,

Cotton Wool.-Bowed, 214d. to 22d. nuscripts ; or in composing works for the press

MARKETS

West India, 224d. to 23d.-- New Orleans, 22d. from loose and desultory materials--some of

Haddington, Oct. 31.

to 23 d.-Maranham, 2s. 1 d.-Demerara 2s. which were afterwards published under the

to 2s. 2 d.-Sea Island, 2s. 6d. to 2s. 10d. names of those who wished to be deemed au A good supply of wheat in market ; which thors at a small expence of pains. The first sold briskly; prices considerably higher than last work in which Mr Thomson engaged was a day; best old 45s, current prices from 37s. to

Iligh Water at Leith from November 8. to continuation of the history of Philip III., which 43; best new ditto 50s. current prices from 33s.

November 22. obtained for him the degree of LL.D. from the to 47s. Barley 2s. higher than last day; best

Oats Is. 36s. current prices from 27s. to 34s.

Morn. | Even. NOV. Morn. | Even. University of Glasgow; and the success atten

Days H. MH. M. dant on his labours, upon this occasion, tended lower than last day ; best 29s. current prices

Days 2. M. H. M, 8 1 14 1 37

Sa. 15 7 27 37 not a little to produce both celebrity and liter from 21. to 28s. Fease and Beans from 259. to 298.

9 2 0 2 23 Su. 16 8 12 8 48 ary employment during the greater part of his

Wheat. | Barley. | Oats Peas & Beans. M. 10 2 46 3 7 Mo. 17 9 25 9 59 life. In addition to what has been already men

First 50s Od 365 Od | 29s Od 29s Od Tu. 11 3 31 3 54 Tu. 18 10 28 10 54 tioned, it may not be unnecessary to state, that

818 Od 258 Od
Second 42s Od

27s Od We 12 4 18 4 43 We. 19 11 21 11 45
employed as a critic, as a
Third 38s Od 26s Od 20s Od 25s Od Th. 13 5 6 5 32

Th. 20 | 12 412 24
Average.........£2 ,1 , 4 , 5-12ths. Fr. 14 6 0 1 6 30 Fr. 21 | 12 42 12 59

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J. Ruthden & Sons, Printers, Merchant Court, Edinburgh.

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Journal of an Excursion to Loch Katrine, the following description.—“The very time after, of a handsome range of of

by the Western Highlands of Perth- act of looking down when there is a ficės appertaining to it, and in the Goshire.

flood in the water, must appal a stran- thic style ; on the left, a fine range of (Concluded from page 100.)

ger, unless his nerves be uncommonly stables, with a clock, overhung by a The shadows of night were begin- strong, by reason of the altitude of his turret, in the form of a Turkish mina

situation, the deepness and narrowness ret. ning to thicken over us, as we entered

The country around was in a Callander. Having passed through a

of the ravine on either hand, the wind. high state of cultivation, but there was neat, slated street, we came to the com- around him, the blackness of the pools Downe castle appeared. Arrived at

ings of the glen, the gloomy precipices nothing more to arrest attention, until 'modious inn, erected for the better accommodation of the many travellers

below, and the roaring of the different Downe about half past twelve. Schil. who visit the lakes, by Francis Mac- and successive falls."* Every one has ler, in his terrible tragedy of the Roba Nab, Esq., where we had an excellent

felt, that, when expectation is raised too bers, has depicted an old man, preying

high, we are so much the more liable for hunger on his own arm; and acsupper, and enjoyed a sound sleep, after the fatiguing march of the day.

to be disappointed,---such were ours, cording to the opinion of some physioTuesday 25th. After inserting our ed, that there are strangers of stronger tion of the gastric juice, on the empty

and such was the result: it was prov- logists, hunger is caused, by the operanames in the album of the inn, and chasing copies of a small work on the nerves than the above writer is aware stomach ; but, whatever its effects have

of. In our opinion, it is inferior to the been, or whatever its causę may be, scenery near Callander, we set out, at half past seven, to visit “ Bracklinn's waterfall near Loch-Earne-head, which we, at this time, in no small degree thundering wave,” which the pam- condescended to mention.

several travelling tours have not even felt the cravings of nature, which we phlet just mentioned gives an enticing Bracklinn, with the idea, that we had quant

. suff
: of toast

, tea, and eggs.

We left at last satisfied, by rather more than a and magnificent discription of: it was especially so to us-hunters in search paid too dear for our whistles,+ and, We were delayed till two o'clock by of the picturesque. We accordingly the road to Downe, which lay about ning to clear, we again set forward, and

by a nearer way, we again entered on the rain, at which time, the sky begins passed across some grass parks, and after scaling some inclosures, and thrust

six miles distant. The first object that when about a half mile from the town ing ourselves through a very thickly presented itself to us was the postman, we approximated Downe castle, whose planted oak and fir wood, the whole riding hastily to Callander, of a charac- noble appearance declared it to have up hill, we came to the valley, where ter, or, at least, in a condition very dif- been once put to nobler purposes than this grand object was to be seen; the ble Cowper. With his bag full of let- Lloyd's sonnet, on Craigmillar castle, bridge is obscured, until we are close upon it, by fine, old spreading trees,

ters, and his heart full of joy, he stop arose to my recollection, for here while many and immense spiculæ of ped short to inform us, that Bonaparte

-the rent watchtow'r bowed its grassy had surrendered himself to Captain head, rock present themselves to block

up

Maitland of the Bellerophon, or, as he The dark damp caverns breath'd mystepathway, and obstruct the approach of

rious dread, called it, the belle ruffian; to find the visitors. This, however, did not lower

Haply still foul with tinct of ancient derivation of which term, would puzzle Bracklinn in our estimation :the Cer

crime berus of Acheron, and the Dragon of antiquaries a little more, than that of Hesperides no doubt occurred to mind,

the belle sauvage. I We next had a Proud tow'r ! thy halls now stable the with the moral maxim, that nothing of Sir John Murray; and, in a short view, on our right, of the beautiful seat lean herd,

And musing Mercy smiles that such thou truly great is to be accomplished, with of Sir John Murray; and, in a short

art ! out great labour ; the period, we ima

It is surrounded by fine trees, and gined, might be rendered at least more

Scenery near Callander, p. 9.
+ Vide the Whistle, by Dr. Franklin.

verdant banks, resting on which, we sonorous, by adding,—nor any thing

“ A very beautiful woman, who was

took a sketch of it, from the south west. truly magnificent in nature to be seen, found in a wilderness, and is called in, the The road ascending a little, we enjoyed without bodily exertion. N. B. Mr. French, La Belle Sauvage.” Spectator, No. the beautiful prospect around us :

:-- the Brydone sprained his ancle on Mount 28. It has, however, been since asserted, blue mountains upheaved their gigantic Etna. Our obstacles were luckily over

that the sign of the Bell Savage Inn was ineome, however, without such, or any

tended as a rebus on the name of a lady,

whose property it was,-Lady Arabella Sa. similar occurrence ; and we gained the Vide the curious article, Appellation, Poems by S. T. Coleridge, C. Lloyd, and bridge ; but what reality could surpass in the Edinburgh Encyclopædia.

C. Lamb, 1798, Sec. Edit,

the

vage.

122
Journal of an Excursion to Loch'Katrine.

[November 22, 1817. heads “ far in the north ;” Stirling these subjects the utmost weight, who house are converted into barracks; the castle on its ledge of stone was also in are continually railing against the de- appearance of the latter is very much view, with two abrupt hills, very like generacy of modern times, and the de- hurt by having been lately white-washsome of the smaller Trosachs,--the south- cay of taste. Yet, in literature, at least, ed. The view, from the north-western ern of which we learned was the Abbey this appears to me far from being ap- rampart, of the windings of the Forth bill, from the abbey of Cambus Ken- parent; and, in the principle of taste, is very fine, and has been much, we neth in its neighbourhood ; on the o- especially, if we may be allowed to form think justly, admired by travellers ; ther, the residence of Colonel Hamil- our estimate by comparison, they are proceeding to the western side, a noble ton is situated; with beautiful cultivat- greatly our inferiors. The giants and view of the immense plain called the ed valleys, on either hand, forming an dwarfs of Gothic romance may amuse Carse of Stirling is obtained, the proagreeable contrast with the highland the fancy, but they make no lasting im- spect terminating with the clouded tops sterility, and bare rocks, which we had pression on the heart. The age of of Benlomond, Benledi, and their gieft behind us; but here again Cowley was an age of genius, thrown gantic brethren: beneath us was the

away on quaintness and conceits. Of old race course, and the ring for tourthe water wraith was shrieking,

it Waller adopted the poignant spark- naments; modern fashion retains the And, in the scowl of heaven, each face Grew dark as we were speaking.*

ling; but he threw away the tedious- former, but the days of chivalry are

ness, and the prolixity of detail. Den- Aed for ever. A little more to the The road to Stirling winded ser- ham added vigour to his sweetness ; northward was pointed out to us the pentinely round the town, so that we and Dryden concentrated both these small hill on which the followers or had it always in view,—like the fox and qualities in himself. Yet even Dryden Prince Charles posted themselves in the grapes,—though we could by no must be owned to have a great deal of the vain hope of making themselves bye road reach it. It was as well that rubbish ; and, many of his verses, are masters of this fortress. Opposite to we attempted none ; as we afterwards too like“ prose lines, cut into ten sylla- this is the window where the murderfound, that the windings of the Forth bles.” No poet of either ancient or ed Earl of Douglas was thrown over, were the occasion of it. We stopped modern times,-no poet, from Homer but as it is now walled in, we could at the bridge of Allan, where we regal- to Byron, has less dross in his compos- not approach the spot. The governor ed ourselves, and had some excellent itions, or, in other words, has written occupies the apartments to which it gooseberries. Delayed till five o'clock, with more taste, than our own country- belongs. Having walked through a when we again set out," the pelting of man and co-temporary Thomas Camp-long dark passage, ou each side of the pitiless storm” continuing without bell. Almost every mind has an amia- which were crevices formerly occupied intermission, until we were just upon ble veneratiou for antiquity; and the as dungeons, we again emerged into Stirling :-our entrance into the an- Castle of Indolence, the Minstrel, and light. There are 34 cannon on the cient capital was no doubt, therefore, Childe Harold, together with Mr. ramparts. Before leaving the castle, in rather a traveller like manner. From Scott's earlier productions, derive no we inserted, according to custom, our the bridge, the prospect of Stirling re- small part of their interest and beauty, names in the album. tains some of the magnificence of for- from the adoption of the phrases and After walking through and surveymer times ;-on the left hand was the dialect of our Celtic and Saxon pro- ing the town, we returned to the inn, abbey of Cumbus Kenneth, and, on the genitors : but, even without the veil of where supper awaited us, and enjoyed right,

eld, these would have been eminently ourselves, over the glass, until the lead-twined in links of silver bright, beautiful :-for such machinery is ridi- en god began to stretch out his potent Her winding river lay.

culous, but in the hand of a master: rod over us, and to weigh down our Lord of the Isles, Canto VI.

with others, when we scour off the an- eyelids by his slumbrous influence. After refreshing ourselves, at Mason's

cient rust, we find, as in the case of After a short repose of four hours Inn, the sky having cleared, and the Scriblerus’ shield, a shabby modern and a half, we got up to procure sun now beginning to gild the scene

sconce below. It was, no doubt, from our passages by the steam-boat. with crimson radiance, we set out to vi- the knowledge of this tendency in our The morning was delightful, and the sit the castle : on our way upwards, we

nature to venerate antiquity, that Chat- sky covered with those white undu. had a sight of the old abbey, which is a terton was induced to commit his li-lating clouds which form what manoble fragment of the magnificence of terary forgeries; and that the public riners have fancifully termed a macGothic architecture. I must confess, had unpublished manuscripts of Shake-kerel horizon, from the supposed rethat to me, the architecture of the an

speare
thrust
upon them at the end of semblance to the back of that fish.

Having crossed the Forth in a small cients appears infinitely superior to that the eighteenth century. of the moderns. In statuary and paint. of Stirling castle, the sentinel procur- the moderate charge of a halfpenny

Upon proceeding to the outer gate ferry-boat which was in waiting, for but in any other of the arts, and in ali ed one of his comrades to point out its each, we walked for nearly a mile over the sciences, we may claim superiority ;

curiosities ; but these I shall not at a very disagreeable clayey road, until yet there are many, whose talents and tempt to describe; as, to avoid the im- the river again came into view. The acquirements give their authority on putation of ignorance, our conductor steam-boat was quite new, and well

gave names to, and anecdotes of, things painted. The windings of the Forth + Campbell's Ballad of Lord 'Ullin's which, evidently, he knew nothing are truly extraordinary ; and Alloa, Dauguter.

about. The palace and parliament which is but 7 miles distant from Stir

November 22, 1817.]
Journal of an Excursion to Loch Katrine.

123 ling by land, is 17 by water. Another Craigs, and the Calton-hill, surmounted attended the meetings which were called steam-boat was in readiness here to by Lord Nelson's monument. Arrived in London, for the purpose of taking join us, for the purpose of a race; and, at New haven about 12 ; and were just it into consideration,—the Waithmans, for some time, the contest was very are in time to see the last heat of the race the Woollers, and the Hunts, who exduous and very equal; but at length on Leith sands for his Majesty's plate. pressed themselves desirous of getting we got and kept a-head, till our com- After refreshing ourselves, and leaving rid of any scheme for ameliorating the

iminua petitor stopping at Kincardine to take Mr. C. Bat his quarters, Mr. T. P-distress of the country, as the in passengers, we almost lost sight of Mr. M. B—and their journalist, pro- tion of the public distress, it was inher. The crew of our boat were much ceeded eastward to their country re- genuously confessed, might serve to elated with their success, as it had sidence.

weaken their pleas for a reduction of commenced sailing in opposition to the

the taxes. A farther diminution of the other. While pondering on deck over ON THE POOR LAWS.

amount of the taxes, no one will deny, the notes to “ the Lady of the Lake," To the Editor of the Edinburgh Observer. but certainly this was neither the oc

would be a very desirable measure; I was surprised to hear the skipper call out, “in the fulness of his heart,". The late great changes in the poli- casion nor the place for urging the ar." Well done Lady of the Lake!" which tical relations of this country, with the guments for the attainment of such turned out to be the name of the ves- sudden return, at the same time, of so an object. A writer of distinguished sel. Our opponent was the “ Morning many thousands of soldiers and sailors talents, one of the brightest ornaStar,” the subject of an imitation of one to the peaceful occupations of life, are ments of our church establishment, of our esteemed living poets. Being

occurrences which must be sufficient has entered at some length into the but six in the morning, the air was to account for the great distress which consideration of this subject, in a late very chill when we set out, and was has been felt among the labouring poor number of the Edinburgh review. But rendered more so by the exhalation of in every district of the country ; but few, I imagine, have perused the elathe copious dews which had fallen this distress, great as it is acknowledged borate article in question, without some during the night; but the sun was now to be, must have been deeply aggravat- feeling of disappointment. This genshedding forth a more genial and pow- ed, if the plan of some of our econo- tleman endeavours to prove what few erful influence ; and the

atmosphere was

mists for disbanding at once the entire now will doubt, that a public charity so pure, that we could see the towns, number intended to be reduced of the necessarily creates more poverty than and hills, and woods, on either side, navy and army, had been adopted. it provides for,—that the aggregate to a great distance, with the utmost The poors rates, besides, in England, mass of happiness among the common distinctness.

at least, had previously reached a height people would have been greater than

which seemed to require, at a period it is at present, if the poor laws had There was no breeze

on the summer seas, not very far distant, a review of the never existed. There is, at least, little And the sky above was blue, Save here and there a tiny cloud

laws upon which they were founded. to be learned from such sentiments, after Of the lucid amber's hue :

The calamitous situation of the country, an acquaintance with the doctrines, of Around us sported the little waves, therefore, must be viewed as the na. Mr. Malthus, and the train of reasoning They murmured on the strand;

tural effects of causes that had been by which they are supported. The plan From Greece to Greenland's icy caves, No sky o'erhangs, no ocean laves

long exerting an influence which, it which is here proposed, is not altoge More beautiful a land !

may be said, was progressively increas- ther equal to the high reputation of the

ing, while the crisis was accelerated writer, or deserving of the pomp with We passed within a mile's distance by the entire change of system which which it is ushered into notice. He of Inch Colm, and its famous druidical the termination of the war necessarily proposes that our present assessments ruins, which we could have much wish- involved. It must be unnecessary, in for the support of the poor shall be ed an opportunity of visiting ; and here this place, to expatiate on the misery (employed in building churches and again we had another distant view of which followed to the mechanic and places of instruction; and that the vo• Dunfermline grey." After passing the labouring poor, or to refer to the luntary contributions alone shall be "Inch Garvie and Cramond Island, we temporary expedients of relief, which made to suffice for the support of the saw before us Inch Keith, North Ber- were employed by different public bo-poor. It is obvious that this plan could wick Law, and the Isle of May, with dies. The subject was brought before not be carried fully into effect at once ; the blue summit of the Bass. Above Parliament, when a report was prepar- but it is expected that the knowledge of the Queensferry, we saw the Earl of|ed by a committee of the House, and such a limitation of the provision for Hopetoun's principal seat; and, on the various plans, as might naturally be the relief of the poor, with the growing opposite side, that of the Earl of Moray: expected, have been offered, on the independence and industry of the people, In a short time we came in sight of

part of individuals, for the education from improvement in morals and a bet“ the Queen of the North,” with its and relief of the poor. Of Mr. Owen's ter education, would soon bring it to castle, the spires of St. Giles', St. An- plan I shall not at present say any that point. He also proposes an increase drew's, St. George's, and the West thing, as I observe the subject has al- in the number of elders, and some o: Church ; with Arthur's Seat, Salisbury ready been brought before your readl-ther arrangements, for attaining a better

Vide « The Morning Star, or the steam. ers, farther than to observe, that it acquaintance with the circumstances boat of Alloa, by J— W- in the Poetic Mir. seems to have been received in the most and character of the poor. ror, or the Living Bards of Great Britain," illiberal manner, by the persons who The great error of this gentleman, I

124

On the Poor Laws.

[November 22, 1817.

think, was to limit his views to instruc- was intended to remove. 2dly. By the founded on their inability to procure a tion. Every man who contemplates tendency of such establishments to in- return for that industry which they are plans for changing the condition of the crease population beyond what is re. able to exert, every reasonable claim labouring poor should begin, like the quired, in place of allowing population will be satisfied, if they are presented missionaries of some particular sec- to be regulated by the demand for la- with an object for their industry, and taries, with providing, not food and bourers. I am willing to allow the a return for its exercise. It were well clothing, but the means of obtaining fullest weight to these objections ; but if they themselves were forced to seek them,--to furnish employment and the would naturally expect that every esta for the one, and, like the inhabitant of implements of industry. In the same blishment of the kind now proposed, every other country, to take the market way, I would propose that establish would be carefully limited to that point value of the other. But the greatness ments should first be formed for tak- which circumstances imperatively re- of our manufacturing population, the ing away all pretexts for idleness, and quired. If a place could be formed sudden decrease of our commerce, the then proceed with plans of moral and where the persons admitted should re- increase of our numbers, long use, and religious instruction. I am so far from ceive no more than three-fourths, or the dismissal from the service of the state undervaluing the importance of educa- two thirds, or even a half of the market of thousands who were formerly maintion and good morals, that I think the price of their labour, we should never tained by it, render a return to this na. happiness and the security of society be in danger of finding such asylums tural state impraticable for the present, depend on the progress which its mem-increasing unnecessarily, to the detri- and will probably render it so for as bers have made in good morals. But ment of any other class of society. It long a time as any of this generation to talk of instruction to a man who may be true, as Mr. Malthus asserts, has to live. Necessity, therefore, will feels the gripings of hunger, is to in- that society is not bound to support all its impose on the cornmunity the burden sult his sufferings. We cannot re- members, but I think it is no less evi- of affording support to those who are move from mankind the temptation to dent, that every individual ought to have destitute of the means of obtaining emdo

wrong, but we should, at least, en- an opportunity of providing himself with ployment; but neither necessity nor deavour to remove from every one the the means of subsistence, and then we humanity call upon the public to mini. necessity of committing crimes, or of might say with the apostle, without any ster, as hitherto, to habits of vice and dying of want. It is impossible to violation of our feelings of charity, -He excess, and to cherish idleness by an walk a few miles into the country with that will not work, neither shall he indiscreet profusion. Our fatal desire out being assailed by the voice of sup- eat. With these remarks I shall lay be- to promote the comfort of the poor has plication, and of having our sympa- fore your readers the substance of a plan already rendered every eighth person a thies awakened by some tale of misery. for the relief of the poor, which was beggar, in a country where the demand I am far from maintaining that full sometime ago laid before Parliament, and reward for industry have been credit is due to every such representa- and which I believe is not so well greater than in any other in Europe. tion of poverty, though it is probable known as it ought to be.

If a method could be devised, cheap, at this time, at least, they too fre

simple, and of easy execution, to afford quently have their foundation in truth.

to every person, of either sex, and of Substance of a Communication which was There

may

be instances of fraud ;
many

made soinetime ago to the Chairman every age, who was capable of labour, but in supplying work to the honest

the of the Committee on the Poor Laws.

means of finding employment, we and industrious, the impostor will be

should far to lay the axe to the root detected. Both Mr. Colquhoun and Mr. Of the two classes of people, who, of all this monstrous system of abuse Malthus are of opinion, that indigence is by usage or the law, are the subjects of and error. 'Tis then the two classes the principal cause of the increase of parish support, the one consists of those of poor would be entirely separated; crimes. If there be any truth in this re- who are disabled by age or natural in- no one whom nature had not unfitted mark, I am afraid it will be found that firmity from earning to themselves a for toil could be held to have a claim little progress will ever be made in re- subsistence; the other, of those who for public support; and the whole ob. forming the manners of the poor, unless possess the physical power, but who ject of the laws would be confined to a a plan is adopted of a somewhat more are supposed to be destitute of the part of the poor which does not, percomprehensive nature than that which means to obtain that return for their haps, exceed one-fifth of those to whom has been recommended by some writers. labour which will afford them a livli. assistance is now afforded. These

Mr. Colquhoun and Mr. Owen have hood. The first deserves all the sym- things are necessary, if we would aceach of them laid before the public pathy which is due to age and misfor- complish this great work : the labourplans for giving employment to the tune ; and though it would be well that ing poor must be contented to receive poor. The principal objections to esta- the task of relieving their wants were the market value of their labour, as blishments of this kind are two,—1st. exercised by those on whom nature im- they would be forced to do in any The difficulty of finding a market for the poses it as a duty, yet, in the present country but their own; and if the comincreased productions of labour, with corrupt state of this part of society, we munity shall supply them with objects out throwing into idteness those who cannot always intrust those unhappy of industry, they must look for no betare at present employed, and thus, by persons to kinsmen, who may be un- ter return for it than will afford them depriving a certain number of work- just and cruel, and whom custom has food and raiment, which we may conmen and their families of the means of long released from a natural obligation. sider as the minimum rate of labour in support, to aggravate the evil which it But of those whose claim to support is a prosperous country. The communi

go

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