« AnteriorContinuar »
Leller of David Hume.-On Ghosts.
[January 3, 1818.
respectful manner to Mde. de Barbantane. Let presented her with half a crown from further learn by Relation 16th, that the her know that I answered her letter long ago his “ regimental small clothes.” hand of a ghost is “ as cold as iron." This I mention, not that I looked for any answer from her. For mine required no answer.
Sometimes ghosts appear in conse- As ghosts are invulnerable, we have the But I a:n really afraid, that my letter might quence of an agreement made, whilst authority of Shakespeare for advising all have miscarried; because I put somewhat im- living, with some particular friend, that persons against any thing like bodily prudently an article of news in it which might he who first died should appear to the oppugnation ;” blows aimed at them have been the cause of its being intercepted : survivor.
being but “malicious mockery." In which case she would naturally be inclined to blame my n'gligence.
Glanvil tells us of the ghost of a per According to the best received acI hope you remember that the new year is son who had lived but a disorderly kind counts, the usual time at which ghosts approaching, and that you think of your pro- of life, for which it was condemned to make their appearance, is midnight ; mise at this time.
wander up and down the earth, in the though some audacious spirits have been On Ghosts.
company of evil spirits, till the day of said to appear even by daylight; but (From the American Port Folio.) judgment.
of this there are few instances, and they A ghost is supposed to be the spirit In most of the relations of ghosts, are mostly ghosts who have been laid in of some person deceased, who is either they are supposed to be mere aerial be- the Red sea, or elsewhere, and whose commissioned to return for some espe. ings, without substance, and that they times of confinement have expired: cial errand, such as the discovery of a can pass through walls and other solid these are said to return more troublemurder, the restitution of money un- bodies at pleasure. A particular in- some and daring than ever. It is an justly withheld from an orphan or wi- stance of this is given in Relation the established law, however, that none can dow-or in consequence of having com- 27th, in Glanvil's Collection, where one appear on Christmas eve.
This we mitted some injustice while living, which David Hunter, a sad dog, no doubt, in learn from Shakespeare: act deprives it of rest until justice has those days, was, for a long time, haunt- it faded on the crowing of the cock. been done. Sometimes the occasion of ed by the apparition of an old woman, Some say that ever 'gainst that season comes spirits revisiting this world, is to inform whom he was, by a secret impulse, o- Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated, an heir of some secret place, in an old bliged to follow whenever she appear. This bird of dawning singeth all night long: trunk for instance, or in a field corner,
And then, they say, no spirit dares stir abroad:
The nights are wholesome, then no planets as was once known to have actually considerable time, even if he was in bed
strike, happened on the eastern shore of Ma- with his wife; and because his wife No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm, ryland, in which case the title-deeds of could not hold him in bed, she would so hallowed and so gracious is the time.
Hamlet. an estate, or a will had been hidden: go too, and walk after him till day, or where, in troublesome times, the va- though, he continues, she saw nothing. Ghosts appear in the same dress which luable metals of the family had been This latter part of the story is a little they usually wore whilst living ; though concealed.
Some very conscientious incredible, because, I suspect the sight they are sometimes clothed all in white; ghosts, like the mistress of “the captain of the woman, though she might assume but these are chiefly the church-yard bold of Halifax,” cannot be at ease un the appearance of age, for reasons best ghosts who have no particular business, der the impression of having defrauded known to herself, was the very circum- but seem to appear, pro bono publico, or the sexton of his dues, and they insist stance which induced the rib to follow to scare idle apprentices from playing upon their uncanonized bones being her husband. David positively declares, pranks over their tombs. taken up, and deposited in consecrated that if a tree stood in her way, he ob I cannot learn that ghosts carry tapers ground, with all the rites of Christian served her always go through it. This in their hands, as they are sometimes burial. This idea is the remains of a I do not doubt: because women will go depicted, though the room in which very old piece of heathen superstition; through any thing, even if it be fire and they appear, if without fire or candle, is the ancients believed that Charon was water, much less a sturdy oak, to com- sometimes said to be as light as day. not permitted to ferry over the ghosts pass their end. Neither do male ghosts Dragging chains is not the fashion of of unburied persons, but that they wan- stick at trifles; as we find the king of English ghosts; chains and black vest. dered and down the river Styx for Denmark shifting his place, hic et ubi- ments being chiefly the accoutrements an hundred years, until they were ad- que, though under ground, whenever of foreign spectres, seen in arbitrary gomitted to a passage. This is mentioned Hamlet changed the spot upon which vernments. One instance, however, of by Virgil :
he stood ; following him as the shadow an English ghost, dressed in black, is
We sometimes found in the celebrated ballad of Wil. Hæc omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque pursnes the substance. turba est :
read of ghosts striking violent blows, liam and Margaret : Portitor ille, Charon ; hi, quos vehit unda, se- and that if they have not “ ample room And clay.cold was her lily hand, pulti :
That held her sable shroud. Nec ripas datur horrendas et rauca fuenta
and verge enough," they overturn all Transportare prius, quam sedibus ossa qui- Glanvil mentions an instance of this, in poetical license, used in all likelihood
impediments, like a furious whirlwind. This, however, may be considered as a Centum errant annos, volitantque hæc littora Relation 17th, of a Dutch lieutenant for the sake of the opposition of lilly to circum:
who had the faculty of seeing ghosts ; sable; or, perhaps, because black was Tum demum admissi stagna exoptata revisunt. and who, being prevented from making thought to become the complexion of
The reader will recollect, that in the way for one which he mentioned to the lady ; and every one will admit instance cited from Halifax, that the de- some friends as approaching them, was, that ghosts should be dressed to the ceived damsel withdrew in the most po- together with his friends, violently best advantage to make them look even lite manner, as soon as the captain had thrown down and sorely bruised. Wel decent.
January 3, 1818.]
201 If, during the time of the apparition, both being equally restrained by their guilty of the injustice, and haunt him there is a lighted candle in the room, it law.
continually until he be terrified into will burn extremely blue : this is so The most approved mode of address- restitution. Or they might communiuniversally acknowledged, that many ing á ghost is by commanding it in the cate with one of the worshipful judges ancient philosophers have busied them- name of the three Persons of the Tric of the orphan's court. Nor is the indiselves in accounting for it, without once nity to tell you who it is, and what is cation of lost writings managed in a doubling the truth of the fact. Dogs, its business. This it may be necessary more summary way; the ghost comtoo, have the faculty of seeing spirits, to repeat three times ; afier which it monly applying to a third person, igas we find in Hunter's case, before will, in a low and hollow voice, declare norant of the whole affair, and a stran. quoted; but they show signs of terror, its satisfaction at being spoken to, and ger to all concerned. But it is preby whining and creeping to their mas- desire the party addressing it not to be sumptuous to scrutinize too far into ter for protection. It is generally sup- afraid, for it will do him no harm. these matters ; ghosts have, undoubtedposed that they see things when their This being premised, it commonly en- ly, forms and customs peculiar to them. owner cannot : there being some per- ters into the narrative, which being com- selves. sons, particularly those born on Christ- pleted, and its requests or commands If, after the first appearance, the permas eve, who cannot see spirits. given, with injunctions that they be im- sons employed, neglect or are prevent
The coming of a spirit is announced mediately executed, it vanishes away, ed from performing the message or busome time before its appearance, by a frequently in a flash of light. In this siness committed to their management, variety of loud and dreadful noises ; case some ghosts have been so consider the ghost appears continually to them ; sometimes rattling in an old hall, like a ate as to desire the party to whom they at first with a discontented, next an coach-and-six, and rumbling up and appeared to shut their eyes; sometimes angry, and at length with a furious down the stair-case like the trundling the departure is attended with delight- countenance, threatening to tear them of bowls or cannon balls. The majesty ful music. During the narration of its to pieces, if the matter is not forthof Denmark is made to "jump" at the business, a ghost must by no means be with executed ; sometimes terrifying dead hour of micnight ; no doubt be interrupted by questions of any kind. them, as in Glanvil's Relation 26th, by cause he was hopping mad at the little Such incivility is attended with danger; appearing in many formidable shapes, stir which his tame animal of a son if any doubts arise, they must be stated and sometimes even striking them viomade about his suspicious death, and after the spirit has ended its tale. Ques- lent blows. Of blows given by ghosts the sudden nuptials of his mother. I tions respecting its state, or the state of there are many instances, and some understand the passage in this sense, any of their former acquaintance, are of which have been followed by incurable because immediately after, when Mar- \fensive and not often answered ; spirits, lameness. cellus endeavours to strike at the ghost perhaps, being restrained from divulg. It should have been observed, that with his partisan, we find the old gen- ing the secrets of the prison-house. ghosts, in delivering their commissions, tleman skipping about with the nimble Shakspeare says expressly that they are in order to insure belief, communicate ness of a mountebank :
forbidden. Occasionally spirits will to the persons employed, some secret,
even condescend to talk of common oc- known only to the parties concerned Hor. Tis here !!
currences, as is instanced by Glanvil, and themselves, the relation of which Mar. Tis here !!!
in the apparition of Major Sydenham to always produces the intended effect. But in general the door flies open, Captain Dyke, Relation 10th, wherein The business being completed, ghosts and the ghost stalks slowly up to the the major reproved his friend for suf- appear with a cheerful countenance, sayfoot of the bed, and, opening the cur-fering a sword which he had given ing they shall now be at rest, and will tains, looks stedfastly at the person by him to grow rusty, saying, “ captain, never more disturb any one. They rewhom it is seen ; å ghost being very captain, this sword did not use to be kept turn their thanks to the agent, and somerarely visible to more than one person, This attention to the state of arms was some secret relative to himself, which
after this manner when it was mine.” times reward him by communicating although there are several in company. It is here necessary to observe, that it a remnant of the major's professional nothing will ever induce him to reveal. has been found universally by expe- duty when living.
When any eminent person is about to rience, as well as affirmed by divers
It is somewhat remarkable that ghosts enter their regions they make a great
apparitions themselves, that a ghost has do not go about their business like per- noise, like women in Philadelphia, at a not the power of speaking until it has sons of this world. In cases of murder, fire in the night-time. been addressed. Thus Bernardo tells a ghost, instead of going to the next jus- In the most high arad palmy state of Rome, his friend Hamlet,
tice of the peace, or to the nearest rela- A little ere the mightiest Julius fell,
tion of the deceased, appears to some The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted “ It would be spoke to." poor labourer who knows none of the
dead Thus, notwithstanding the urgency of parties, draws the curtains of some de-Did squeak and jabber in the Roman streets. the business on which it may come, crepid nurse or alms-woman, or hovers Sometimes ghosts appear, and disturb every thing must stand still, until the about the place where the body is de- a house, without deigning to give any person can find courage to speak to it; posited. The same circuitous mode is reason for their trespass. It is never an event that sometimes does not take pursued with regard to the redressing known that an action of ejectment has place for many years. It has not been of widows and orphans; in which cases been sustained, though the main points, found that female ghosts are more lo- it seems that the shortest and most cer- the entry and ouster are matters of noquacious than those of the male sex, 'tain way would be, to go to the person toriety to the whole neighbourhood :
Ber. Tis here!
On Ghosts.--Fine Arts.
[January 3, 1818.
por can an ordinary sheriff's jury take the learned masters of the law, quære de ced by a few abrupt and rapid gleams cognizance, because the entry itself be- hoc.
of description, touching, as it were, with ing unlawful and against the consent of
fire, the features and edges of a general the affrighted owner, there is no holding
mass of awful obscurity ; but in paintover to complain of. The shortest and
ing, such indistinctness would be a dethe only way is to exorcise or lay them.
fect, and imply that the artist wanted Whether this sort of action has ever been
Death on the Pale Horse.
the power to pourtray the conceptions tried in America I know not; but in The exhibition of Mr. President of his fancy. Mr. West was of opinion, England, it has been used time whereof West's picture of Death on the pale horse that, to delineate a physical form, which the memory of man runneth not to the con- has commenced at his gallery in Pall in its moral impression would approxi. trary. The process is to issue a sum- Mall. This picture has been long ex- mate to that of the visionary death of mons to his worship, the parson of the pected by the public, and we venture to Milton, it was necessary to endow it, if parish, and another to the butler of the anticipate for it--that which rarely oc- possible, with the appearance of supercastle, who is required (by duces tecum) curs after the mind has been nearly tir- human strength and energy: he has, to bring him some of the best ale and ed out with long expectancy--the most therefore, exerted the utmost force and provisions which he can find in his mas- complete and unqualified approbation perspicuity of his pencil on the central ter's larder. The jury is composed of As Titian descended in the vale of years, figure. He has depicted the king of all whom curiosity or the love of good his perceptive powers yielded to the terrors with the physiognomy of the cheer can collect. After having suffi- wreck of nature, and the spell of his dead in a charnel house, but animated ciently fortified themselves against the colouring was gone, but our venerable almost to ignition with inextinguishable approach of the spirit, he is met and president has now crowned his 80th rage, placed on his head the kingly discomfited with ease by the parson in year with the composition and execu- crown, and clothed the length of his a Latin formulary: language that tion of a work which will do lasting ho- limbs with a spacious robe of funereal strikes the most audacious ghost with nour to his name and country. sable. His uplifted right hand holds no terror. What would be the effect of The picture of Death on the pale horse sceptre, but is entwined with the ser, Greek, or wild Irish, or the American is in size 27 feet by 16. The subject, pent, who first brought death into the Choctaw, is not yet known. A ghost our readers must be aware, is taken from world, and he launches his darts from cannot be laid “ for ninety-nine years, the opening of the first five scals in the both hands in all directions with a mer. renewable forever," but he may be for sixth chapter of the Revelation. It is, ciless impartiality. His horse rushes any term less than a century, and in we believe, more than twenty years forward with the universal wildness of any place or body, full or empty ; as a since Mr. West made a sketch from this a tempestuous element, breathing livid solid oak—the pommel of a sword, a subject. This sketch was at the time pestilence, and rearing and trampling but of beer, if an alderman—a pipe of very generally admired, and the object with the vehemence of unbridled fury. Madeira, if a gentleman-he may be of many commendations from David, Behind him is seen an insidious demon, rolled up in parchment, if a lawyer, or and the other French artists in Paris, bearing the torch of discord, with a confined to the garret, if an author. where it was exhibited in the year 1802. monstrous progeny of the reptile worldBut of all places the most common, and If our recollection of that sketch be cor -“All prodigious things, what a ghost least likes, is the Red rect, the picture before us differs very Abominable, unutterable, and worse sea; it being related, in many instan- materially from it in composition, at Than fables yet have seigned, or sear conceived, ces, that ghosts have most earnestly be- least the artist, in his more mature con
Gorgons and hydras, and chimeras dire." sought the exorcists not to confine them ception, has extended his view of the “ The next character on the canvas is in that place. It is nevertheless con- subject considerably, and embraced the rider on the white horse, who represidered as an indisputable fact, that more of the seals than he originally in- sents the gospel, going forth" conquerthere is an infinite number laid, perhaps tended, and also varied the character of ing and to conquer,” who leads the from its being a safer prison than any some of his figures; we merely say this train to the glorious region, wherein is other, nearer at hand, though neither from a loose recollection of the sketch seen “ the souls of them that were slain history nor tradition gives us any in- in Mr. West's private gallery, and for for the word of God, and for the testistance of ghosts escaping or returning the purpose of complimenting the artist mony which they held.” The third of from this kind of transportation before on his second view of the subject, which the apocalyptical characters is the rider their time. Shakspeare had this sea in is by far the more suitable one.
on the red horse, armed “ with the great his mind's eye, when he made Prospero The general effect proposed to be ex- sword.” He is advancing in the same talk about calling " spirits from the vas- cited by this picture, the artist tells us, direction as the gospel, or Messiah, ty deep, i. e, the Red sea. I have not is the terrible sublime, and its various thereby intimating, as the artist tells us, leisure to inquire whether this repug- modifications, until lost in the opposite that those wars which accompanied the nance arises from any old grudge be- extremes of pity and horror. We can progress of the Christian religion are a tween the Egyptians and the ghosts. not forbear copying the following ex- part of the divine scheme for effectually The former may, perhaps, claim the tract from the printed description of the diffusing it throughout the whole earth. privileges of pre-occupancy, and not be picture, as it conveys in forcible terms After these comes the rider on the black very civil to the new comers. This cir- something like an adequate notion of horse, who bears the scales in which cumstance, and the length to which the intention of the artist in painting “ mankind are weighed, and found these researches have been extended, this picture.
wanting." -Despair and famine are seen induce me to conclude in the words of “ In poetry the same effect is produ- | before him. In the foreground is a do
January 3, 18:18.]
203 mestic groupe, in the formation and ar- for here it is not the apprehension of professional opinion upon some of the rangement of which the painter has at-danger that appals us, but the reality minor details of this picture. tempted (as he expresses it) to excite which stares us full in the face, and There is a melancholy peculiarity the strongest degree of pily, and to con- absorbs all our other faculties in the with the subject in the moment when trast “ the surrounding horrors with contemplation of the general ruin. We this picture happens to be exhibited. images of tenderness and beauty.” The hardly know any thing in poetry more The sudden operation of death has been mother is represented as having expir- descriptive of such a scene than this terribly felt among us and the crowd ed in the act of embracing her child picture ; it has all the fire of imagina- that has flocked to see the picture, ren, and the woe of sudden death is tion and severity of judgment which formed, in dress and manner, no un.still more emphatically expressed in the Virgil amassed in his invocation to the fit accompaniment to the subject of lovely infant that has fallen from her“ subterraneous gods,” and all the hor- which it was composed. We may say breast. The husband deprecates the rors which are to be found in Lord By- with the poetwrath of the hideous spectre (Death on ron's poem on “ Darkness.” There is
“ Obscure they went through dreary shades the palc horse) that advances over them something terrific in the countenance of all, while the surviving daughter catches Death, as the artist has represented it-Along the waste dominions of the dead." hold of her mother, sensible only to the it is indescribably grand and awful
Should this picture, or rather the loss which she has sustained by the in the colouring of the pale horse there style of it, meet general admiration, as death of a parent. In the other groupes, is uncommon delicacy, and, if we may we think it ought, we hope the public in the right division of the picture, the use the expression, character. It is not taste will at length turn round from the artist has shewn “the anarchy of the an ordinary paleness, but a transparent patronage of "trading subjects in art," combats of men with the beasts of the bloodless hue-a waxed livid colour, and give that encouragement to works earth.” This portion of the picture re- finely characteristic of the swollen eye of high genius and standard excellence, presents, in conformity with the divi- and distended nostrils of the animal
, which we are afraid they have not his sion of the subject, an atmosphere torn who emits a pestilential breath. In therto received to the extent of their asunder by lightning.“ The principle contrast of character it is impossible to merit. We have seen the strong origiof destruction is exemplified through find any thing finer than the severity of nal conceptions of Fuseli's pencil, and every part of the subject.”
the principal figure, and the beauty and of Haydon's, overlooked in an exhibiSuch is a brief outline of the com- exquisite tenderness and expression of tion, (until, perhaps, latterly, when ponent parts of this extraordinary pic- the domestic groupe which falls as vic- there was more of ostentation to see ture-we say extraordinary, for it is the tims before it. In contrast of colour them than desire to purchase them), first instance, we were inclined to say, in nothing can exceed that of the white when works of a very different descripthe history of the art, but most certain horse as compared with the pale one. tion were popular, and in demand " in ly in that of the arts of our country, in while the latter contains no tint but the market” —we say, “ the market," which a work abounding with so much that which is calculated to aid in pro- for we hardly know a fitter term to apenthusiasm, and replete with so much ducing a terrific sensation; the former ply to the sort of sale which exists for of imagination and vivid feeling, was has a creamy richness, a fleshy vigour, works of art.
A picture like this of executed by an individual who had more akin to that of nature and life. Mr. West's is calculated to effect a great greatly passed the period allotted to the Again, the contrast is striking and beau-purpose, and we hope its influence will life of man.
tiful between the glowing and aerial be universally felt. The first sensation we felt on enter- richness, on the one side, of the.“ souls ing the gallery where this picture is in the glorious region,” and the wither
NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. placed, was a complete exemplification ing and dreadful variety of mortality of what Mr. Burke calls “ the passion which is exemplified in the stormy ele- Description of a series of Specimens from the caused by the sublime”- astonishment, ments, at the other side of the picture. Plastic Clay near Reading, Berks : with 06. that state of the soul in which all its mo There may be faults in the execution servations on the Formation to which those beds tions are suspended with some degree of and handling of this great work; the
belong; by the Rev. William Buckland. horror. The figure of Death in this pic- lion and lioness in the “ combats be Having an opportunity to visit Readture at once unnerves the spectator; it tween beasts and men,” may be thought ing in July 1814, I collected a series of is not a skeleton or bony fragment, but in their ferocity more to resemble the specimens. The pits whence they were a living body of desolating properties ; creeping and vicious rage of the tiger, obtained are at the Catsgrove hill brickthere is nothing left for calculation, in- than the bounding energy of the great kilns, distant about half a mile from the ference, or deduction. It has all the animal of the forest. But these, if they town of Reading, on the south-west, force of Milton's description of Satan, be really 'blemishes, are comparatively where the works have been carried on with the dignity of the passage trans- trifling and unimportant, when compar- for more than a century, and at this time formed into horror ; we may say ed with the general subject—which, as present the following section, beginning
“ He above the rest, a whole, is grand and subline in the from the lowest upwards. In shape and gesture proudly eminent, highest degree, and, we repeat, does Stood like a tower."
Section of Catsgrove Hill.
country which he has made the sphere No.
1. Chalk containing the usual extrane. 6. In dim eclipse disastrous twilight sheds
The strong feeling of
ous fossils and black fints........unknown Oli half the nations ; and with fear of change this general excellence precludes us 2. Silicious sand mixed with granular Perplexes monarchs ;"
from attempting to submit our own un particles of green earth, and cons
Thickness in Feet.
[January 3, 1818. taining both rolled and angular are filled with granular particles of the ground that lies between Newhaven chalk-flints, oysters, and many small green earth and silicious sand of the in- and Seaford, dividing the beds of the and nearly cylindrical teeth of fish
from a line to an inch in length.... 3 cumbent stratum. The whole of these plastic-clay formation at Newhaven from 8. Quartzose sand of a yellowish colour,
beds above the chalk at Reading (those their outlying fragment at Chimting, with a few small green particles, at Catsgrove as well at David's-hill) ap- with which they probably were connectand containing no pebbles or or pear to be subordinate parts of one ed before the excavation of the valley of ganic remains.........
formation, the next in order of succes- the Ouse. 4. Fullers' earth.........
3 5. White sand used for bricks.......
sion above the chalk, older than the In the cliff of the Castle-hill at News 6. Lowest brick clay of a light grey co
London clay and calcaire grossier of haven the following section is presented, lour mixed with fine sand, and a Paris, and contemporaneous with the shewing beds of the plastic-clay formalittle iron-shot...........
5 lowest strata of the plastic-clay forma- tion above the chalk. 7. Dark red clay, mottled with blue and tion nearest the chalk.
Section of the Castle Hill at Newhaven, commentoccasionally a little iron-shot. It is used for tiles..........
cing from the lowest bed. 6
Near London these beds occur with 8. Bed called the white vein. A fine
well defined characters ; at Blackheath, 1. Chalk, containing alumine in hollows ash-coloured sand mixed with a Lewisham, Charlton, Woolwich, and on
on its surface..........
50 small portion of clay, and in some the east of Plumsted. In all these 2. Breccia of green sand and chalk Aints, parts passing into loose white sand. It is used for bricks...................... places the thin bed next above the chalk,
the latter covered with a ferrugi5
nous crust................................. 1 9. Fine micaceous sand laminated and which at Reading contains fishes teeth
3. Sand, varying from yellow to green partially mixed with clay, and oc and oysters, is seen composed of a simi and ash-colour..........
20 casionally iron-shot. It is used to lar substance of loose green sand mixed 4. Series of clay beds containing coaly make tiles.....................................
4 with chalk Alints, both rolled and angu matter, selenites and fibrous gyp10. Light ash-coloured clay, mixed with
lar, and generally coated with a dark sum, also leaves of plants, and sulvery fine sand of the same colour.
20 It is used for bricks............. 7 green crust, but here they contain no
5. Foliated blue clay containing cerithia, 11. Dark red clay partially mottled and organic remains, and seldom 'exceed two
and cyclades, and a few oysters..... 10 mixed with grey clay.......... 4 feet in thickness. Above this thin bed In this clay is a seam of iron pyrites 12. Soft loam, composed in its upper re is a thick stratum of fine-grained ash
about an inch thick with pyritical gion of fine yellow' micaccous sand, coloured sand, destitute of shells or peb- 6. Consolidated argillaceous rock full of
casts of cyclades and cerithia. mixed with flakes of a delicate ashcoloured clay, which become more bles, and varying in thickness generally
oysters, with a few cyclades and abundant in the deeper portions of from thirty to forty feet.
5 the stratum, and having its lower A similar deposition of sand to that of 7. Alluvium full of broken chalk-flints regions much iron-shot, and occa
mixed with sand........................ 10 Reading, containing a breccia of chalk sionally charged with ochréous con. cretions, and decomposing nodules flints as its lowest stratum (about three
116 of iron pyrites. It is used to make feet thick) was noticed by the Honour
These insulated portions of strata of soft bricks for arches..........
1814, between Newhaven and Beachyo noticed at Seaford and Newhaven, and Total 57
head, in the cliff at Chimting-castle, half other places at the south base of the 13. Alluvium composed of clay, sand, and
a mile on the east side of Seaford. The chalk hills of the South Downs of Susgravel, the gravel chiefly consisting of chalk flints, both rolled and an
sand here is fawn-coloured, passing into sex, appear to be outlying fragments at gular, with a few pebbles of quartz, olive with flakes of mica almost a line in the eastern extremity of the great series and of brown compact sandstone. diameter, and occasionally contains ir- of depositions above the chalk in the This alluvium is covered by vegetable mould.............
regular veins and masses of tubular con- south of England, which Mr. Webster
cretions of iron-stone. Its greatest describes as extending from near DorThe oysters of No. 2 are remarkably thickness is under fifty feet. Mr. War- chester by the Trough of Pool and the perfect when first laid open, and seem burton informs me that he has seen New Forest to Portsmouth, Chichester, to have undergone no process of mine- similar concretions in the same stratum and the flat coast on the south-east of ralization ; they soon fall to pieces by of sand at Sudbury in Suffolk, in imme- Arundel. Here they enter the English exposure to air and moisture.
The diate contact above the chalk. Under Channel, and, just touching the coast chalk flints contained in it are many of this sand at Chimting the breccia of the with their outlying fragments at Newthem in the state of small rounded peb- lowest bed forms an ochreous pudding-haven and Chimting-castle, appear again in others the angles are unbroken. stone composed of sand and chalk flints,
on the opposite shores of France in the Both varieties are covered with a crust (the latter both rolled and angular), the
same relative position. of greenish earth of the same nature whole being strongly united by a ferru.
Viewing it on the great scale, then, with the green particles in the sand. ginous cement, and the fints covered
we may consider this formation, which The angular Aints appear to have been externally with a green coating like has been characterized by the title of derived from the partial destruction of those in the oyster bed at Reading plastic-clay, as composed of an indefithe bed of chalk immediately subjacent, Specimens of this breccia have been pre- nite number of sand, clay, and pebble of which the upper surface in contact sented to the society by the Hon. H. G. beds, irregularly alternating. Of these, with the sand is considerably decom- Bennet. At Chimting-castle there is the sand forms in England the most exposed to the depth of about a foot, and but a small insulated portion of these tensive deposition, in which the clay its-fissures and numerous small tubular strata immediately incumbent on the and pebbles are interposed subordinatecavities (the latter derived apparently chalk. This chalk rises suddenly to a ly and at irregular intervals. from the decay of organic substances lofty cliff on the east side of the flat
(To be continued.)