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(13th Sept. 1817. ject to occasional fits of insanity. After appearing to be more acquired an ample fortune, the whole of which she has bequeathed sane than usual, he intreated his keeper to loosen the strings to her only child by Mr Braham.Mrs Hugo Meynell, sister of the of a strait waistcoat in which he was confined, that he might Marchioness of Hertford. When in the act of alighting from her sleep with the greater ease; the keeper, seeing him more cool and pbæton, at her seat in Staffordshire, she missed the footstep and fell collected than he had been for some time, incautiously complied to the ground upon her head, when the right temple coming in con with his request. Mr R. thanked him for his kind indulgence, and tact with a stone, she was killed upon the spot.-On Sunday at then lay down and pretended to go to sleep, in which situation bis Plymouth Dock, Sir John Thomas Duckworth, G. C. B. Admiral keeper left him to take some repose, and withdrew for about an of the White Squadron, Commander in Chief at that port, and hour. On his return he found Mr R. lying on his back on the bed M. P. for New Romney. He was promoted to the rank of Rear quite dead, having strangled himself with the braces of his waist- Admiral of the Blue on the 14th Feb. 1799 ; was made a Vice coat.-Georges, Chief of the Servians. Georges had gone to Se- Admiral on the 230 April, 1804 ; and Admiral on the 31st July, mendria under a false name, and concealed himself there in the 1810. On the 7th Feb. 1806, he commanded the detachment of house of a friend ; but the object of this hazardous step was no seven sail of the line, two frigates, and two sloops, which engaged, worse than that of recovering a treasure of fifty thousand ducats, in the bay of St Domingo, a squadron of French ships, consisting which he had hid before quititng Servia, and with which he now desi- of five sail of the line (one a three-decker) two frigates, and a cor. red to retire into Russia. His friend, however, was either weak or vette, which he entirely defeated, after a gallant action of two wicked enough to denounce him to the Pacha of Belgrade, who im- hours, capturing three of 74 guns each, and driving on shore mediately came to Semendria with an escort of Janissaries, arrested | L'Imperiale, of 120 guns, and Le Diomede, of 84 guns, which he Georges, and also a Greek who accompanied him, caused them to afterwards burned. Some years since a pension of £.1000 per be beheaded, and sent their heads to Constantinople.-On Sunday annum was settled on him for his services, His only son, Colonel se'ennight Signora Storace,' at her house on Herne hill, near Dul. Duckworth, was killed in one of the engagements under the Duke wich. As a singer, she ranked high in her profession, in which she of Wellington in Spain.
TOWN AND COUNTRY MAGAZINE. .
rection. These streets are to terminate near the tower
or mausoleum of the former proprietor of tbe grounds. TO THE EDITOR OF THE EDINBURGH OBSERVER.
The first, or uppermost, descends by two flights of steps It has been frequently and justly remarked of Edin- to the road which crosses from the village of the Water burgh, that its situation and surrounding scenery present of Leith. Between these stairs, which are in the middle a greater number and variety of picturesque and beau- | of the street, a shop and dwelling house are now buildtiful views than any other place in the world, and with ing. Nothing can be more singular and picturesque than the peculiar advantage which no town of the same ex- the situation of this street. Towards the north, an exCent possesses, that the student, or the man of business, tensive view of the country is attained ; while, on the can retire from bis sedentary labours, and, from what-south, there is nothing but wood, and the elevated ground erer part of the city be sets out in pursuit of amusement above, on the opposite side of the river. An approach or exercise, be can bring under his eye, in a few minutes, is also opened up to the south, by means of a wooden some of those agreeable objects wbich, contrasted with bridge, which has been thrown across the river where the busy haunts of life, soothe and gratify the contempla- the breadth is about fifty feet. It was at first intended tive mind. Several parts of the Water of Leith are ac- to construct a wire bridge here, but on a trial being cessible by a short walk, and exhibit some of the finely made, I was told, it was foued that the masonry work varied scenes now alluded to; and in no part of its course, at the ends were not sufficiently strong for the purpose. perhaps, is the view more striking and extensive than | It became necessary, therefore, to construct one of wood; from that point of the road going from Drumsheugh, when and here ! must observe, that neither from a distant the eye of the spectator first catches St Bernard's Well. || view, nor in passing this bridge, do we find mucb reason In the foreground of this fine prospect appear the rocky | to admire the fancy or taste of the builder. The effect: bed of the river, the lofty and richly-wooded banks, and is heavy and inelegant, and unnecessarily so, I think, the temple erected over the mineral spring, on the mo- from the thickness of the wooden railing. As an arch del of the temple of Vesta at Tivoli ; and in the distance is formed by four beams, which meet at the centre of are seen the Frith of Forth, with various islands rising | the fine long spars, all oscillation, however, is prevented. from its bosom, and numerous vessels gliding on its sur. The road leading from the bridge now proceeds, for se. face ; the opposite shores of Fife, and the elevated dis- veral hundred yards, along the top of the bank, under tricts of that county, closing the scene. Descending a row of beautiful beech trees, when we ascend, as on to the banks of the river, along which the road passes, the north side, a double flight of steps. But in the centre we soon perceive how much the operations of art have here an alcove is built, which produces at present a very encroached on the beauties of nature, in the erection of pleasing effect ; a direct and easy communication is in many manufactories, drawo to it for the conveniency of this way effected with the south bank, wbich must tend water, as the moving power of machinery. But still greatly to facilitate the designs of improvement which even the most careless beholder will find much to ad. have been formed. On reaching the high grounds on mire. The researches of the botanist will be rewarded this side, the first thoughts which arose in my mind rewith some plants wbich adorn the banks, and the geo-lated to the rapid and wonderful advances which are logist bas a fine opportunity of examining the distribu- everywhere made in extending and increasing our habition of the strata, which he will find traversed by a wbin tations; and I could not but feel, that of all the situadyke, or vein, a topic which has given ample occupation tions around Edinburgh, I would bave imagined that to speculative theorists.
this must have been the last which would become the Having visited, in one of my late walks, the neigh scene of the labours of the various workmen who are bouring village of Stockbridge, I was greatly surprised now employed here. The retired and elevated situaon discovering the singular change which had taken tion, and covered, as I remembered it only a few months place, on the beautiful romantic grounds of a celebrated before, with wood to the summit, produced a difficulty in artist there, since the commencement of the present year. reconciling to myself the extraordinary change which The summit of the bill westward, and opposite to St bad now taken place. But this is the age of improveBernard's Well, is now nearly covered with elegant ment and refinement; and a man must learn to make dwelling houses, in a line from north to south ; and I was his ideas keep pace with the rapid march of events. informed, that it is intended to build another street im- The propriety and beauty of the design, however, is anomediately below, in the orchard, to run in a parallel di. ll ther consideration; and here I must admit I felt a dis
(Sept. 27, 1317. position to find fault with the plans which are now exe- || head, has some folds of linen cloth thrown loosely around cuting. This is a spot which is not merely rural—it is it. Some of the other ornamental parts of the tower progrand and beautifully romantic ; and the formal unbro- bably owe their fantastic appearance to the peculiar taste ken rows of building appeared therefore not altogether of the founder, who was very industrious in collecting suited to the situation. The design which is in perfect fragments of old buildings that were removed in the procongruity with the suburbs of a city, can never be in per-gress of the improvements in Edinburgh. fect barmony with the seclusion of a woody scene. Per. It is with feelings of something more than melancholy haps the eye would bave been more gratified if, on ascend. || 1 bave ever witnessed the wanton destruction of the saneing this eminence, a number of eletached villas had been tuary of the dead; bat I here felt more sensibly than on presented to the view-or if a crescent, formed of twenty | any other occasion, when I beheld so many proofs of the or thirty houses, had appeared, with a shrubbery or an anxious care of the founder to preserve those fragments entire garden in front-the inhabitants of which enjoy- of antiquity, I may say, which now lay scattered every ing an extensive prospect of a finely-cultivated country where about; some broken, others de faced, and all daily to the eastward, while a row or two of smaller houses exposed to farther dilapidation from the vulgar and unmight still have occupied the low ground. Such were thinking. Hece lay at some distance the bust of a warthe suggestions which occurred to me on the first view | rior, whose mute form must soon be obliterated ; wbile of the plans of improvement which are now carrying for other stones, after preserving so long their form, and outward here ; but, after all, it is not improbable the pro- living, for many ages, the hands wbich had fashioned them, jector, by uniting, what must always be the first object now lay heaped one upon another, presenting the unequion such occasions, considerations of interest with the vocal mark of a rapid progress also to dust. Some masses principles of taste, has himself struck on the plan wbich of calcareous spar, which had seemingly been brought is exposed to fewest objections.
together with the utmost care, are likewise now broken, Walking to the northern parts of these grounds, I now and partly abstracted. If this maasoleum be destined to spent some time in the examination of the tower, as it is remain till another age, it is surely to be desired that it called, which was built by the late proprietor. It is a should exist entire : as an object deserving of some intersquare building, with a spiral stair on the outside, which est and curiosity, or as a termination to the elegant buildleads to an apartment that has a most commanding view, ings contiguous, it is not without its value, and its preserthough with windows to two of the sides only. This | vation consequently not altogether unworthy of attention. room seems to have been fitted up for occasional visits ; Leaving this monument of premature decay, in the hope but, judging from the number of names, and variety of in- | that its present situation will ere long attract the notice scriptions, scrawled on the walls and window-shutters, of those who may have the power to secure its preserva. must have been the resort of niany of the idle or curious. tion, I observed, in the middle of the street, at a little disThe south side of the building is almost wholly covered with tance, a very large block of free-stone, apparently about ivy. There is here a wall extending about twelve feet, two tons weight. It is somewhat narrowed at both ends, and nearly of the same height with a Gothic arched door- and seemed to present the rude outline of the human way, the use of which it is not easy now to discover.- form. It might indeed be taken for the image of an InThe whole building seems to have been surrounded, at dian deity. On making some inquiries at the workmen, as the distance of about twelve or fifteen feet, with a bigh to the history and intended use of this remarkable stone, hedge; and as the wood still remains on the declivity I learned, from one, that it had been brought from Italy, towards the north and east, its situation and appearance while another asserted that it was a block of Portland are yet sufficiently striking and picturesque. It must be stone, and a third stated that it had lain long in Leith. apparent, from a very slight examination of this tower, All, however, agreed, that it had been intended for a sta. that many of the carved stones and niches have had an tue of Oliver Cromwell. I was farther assured that it is earlier origin than that of the building itself. The lat- now intended to place the rude representative of the Proter must have been erected about forty years ago ; but tector in the centre of the wall at the south end of tbe some of the stones appear to display the workmanship of street which overhangs the woody declivity to the river, other and earlier days. It is accordingly said, that many in full view of the goddess Hygeia, in the beautiful of the carved stones on the tower and on the south wall building of St Bernard's Well. Without deciding on the were taken from the cross of Edinburgh-a singular struc- degree of credit which may be due to the traditionary acture, which was removed from the High Street in 1756. count of this stone, I greatly approve of the design of preFour of these stones, sculptured with human figures, which serving it, if not for its antiquity, at least for the mystery were placed over some of the arches of the cross, are pre- and singularity which attends its bistory. It will, bowserved in the tower. They are engraved in alto relievo, ever, perhaps be allowed that a statue of Cromwell would and tolerably executed. One of the heads is armed with have appeared with more propriety in Leith, where this & casque ; another is encircled with a turban-shaped || stone is said to have been found to stand on the mount wreath; a third has the hair turned upwards to the back or citadel which was erected by that celebrated man, but part of the head, and a twisted staff over the left shoul- | which has been swept away by the late extensive improveder; and the fourth, which seems to represent a female | ments of the barbour and docks.
Sept. 27, 1817.)
27. History and Progress of the application of Gas from Pit- the different products of the distillation are collected in coal to Economical Purposes.
separate vessels before they reach the gas-bolder. The (Continued from page 6.)
tar and the ammoniacal liquor are conveyed along cast
iron tubes of considerable length, in which they are conTo those who are familiar with the nature of the pro- densed, and received in a proper vessel; the carbonic cess of obtaining gas from coal, for the purpose of light- acid or fixed air and the sulphuretted hydrogen pass along ing streets, manufactories, and private houses, and with the tubes to another vessel, where they are absorbed by the comparative results of this mode and every other, in lime water; and thus freed from the different ingredients point of cleanliness, safety, and economy, it would be quite from which the offensive smells proceed, the carburetted unnecessary to state its peculiar advaotages; but as the bydrogen is admitted to the gas-holder, from wbence it is public in general cannot be supposed to be so well ac- distributed for the
of combustion. quainted with a subject of late introduction as to be able The tar and ammoniacal liquor being received in close to appreciate fully the improvements which it offers, it vessels, and the sulphuretted hydrogen combining with may be worth while to advert briefly to the objections ad- | the water in another vessel connected with the apparatus, duced against the use of gas lights, and some other topics the two substances which give out the disagreeable odour hinted at in the close of last communication. But here are in this manner separated from the gas ; and with a a typographical error ought to be noticed. At page 6, vers little attention in removing these matters when the col. 2d, and line 4th, “ six cubic feet of gas” should be vessels are full, it can scarcely be perceived that such a read twenty-sir.
process is going on; and thus every objection to it as a The ingredients wbith are obtained from the distilla- nuisance, on the score of the offensive smell, may be comtion of pit-coal are the inflammable air or carburetted hy-pletely obviated. But in some of the later improvements drogen, wbich is the primary object of the process, and on the apparatus and in the mode of conducting the proby the combustion of which the light is supplied, a liquor cess of distillation, a greater proportion of some of the impregnated with ammonia or volatile alkali, a portion of offensive substances is decomposed, and a greater product tar, and carbonic acid or fixed air and sulphuretted hy. of gas is obtained ; and by this fine application of sciendrogen. When mineral coal is exposed to a strong beat in tific observation to practical purposes, an advantage is close vessels, it is decomposed, and the several substances gained by the diminution of a disagreeable part of the now enumerated are driven off in the form of elastic fluids. operation. Some of them, the moment they come in contaet with a cold The danger of explosion is another objection, connected body, as the water, through which the gas to be collected with the economical application of gas, which has been passes, are condensed, and either mix with the water, or commented on by those who are ever ready to throw diffall to tlie bottom when they are of greater specific gravity. ficulties in the way of new improvements. The risk of In the first application of this gas to economical pur- accident from a burning body being brought in contact poses, the whole product of the distillation was received with a large quantity of the gas, is not greater than in in the same vessel, and from the extremely offensive smell the case of any other combustible, and requires to be of some of the substances, the operation itself, and the guarded against with a prudent degree of caution. But, combustion of the gas thus prepared, were quite intolera- should this happen, the combustion would proceed silently, ble; and accordingly, in the first trials, wben all the in- and without sudden explosion, unless, by some mismanagegredients were mixed together, and left to act on eachment of the apparatus, a certain proportion of atmospheric other, the process might well be regarded as a nuisance ; | air be admitted-an occurrence not likely to take place and therefore, in most, or in all cases where improvements without design. How few accidents of any kind have were not introduced, was soon abandoned. On the same happened in the numerous gas works which have been ground, objections are still urged to the use of the gas, or established in different parts of the kingdom ! --s0 few inrather to its preparation ; and considering it in this view, deed, that it seems scarcely necessary to waste words in the inhabitants of New - street, North back of the Ca removing the objections to which they have given rise. nongate, lately brought the subject under legal discussion, | The accuracy and neatness in the construction of the apfor the purpose of preventing the erection of the Gas paratus of the present day, almost preclude every chance Works, now going on, as a public nuisance; and perhaps of such accidents. with a less careful investigation than what took place, But another objection has been made to the use of gas this essential improvement might have experienced a se- for economical purposes, arising from an apprehension of rious interruption. But fortunately Lord Reston, who the danger of explosions from its accumulation in apartwas officially called upon to determine the question be- ments where it is used, when it happens to escape untween the parties, was at the utmost pains in making him-burned. As far as is recollected at this moment, no such self master of the subject, and not only visited the spot, explosion bas yet taken place in any of the manufactories but examined particularly the different Gas Works al. or apartment in the kingdom which are lighted with ready established by private individuals, and was thus en- gas, so that a direct appeal to the bistory of its applicaabled to pronounce a clear and decided opinion, that the tion, of wbich pretty ample experience now exists, furWorks alluded to were not to be regarded as a nuisance; nishes the most satisfactory answer to the objection. The and they are therefore now proceeding with great activity first requisite for the explosion of this gas is an apartment towards their completion.
much closer than any of those places wbere it is used. According to the improved mode of preparing the gas, In short, the room where such an accident could possibly
[Sept. 27, 1817. happen must be nearly air-tight. But this can never be also found, among wbich some leather buttons were plainly the case in an apartment with an open chimney and doors discernible. There were also found two silver coins, and windows, which are rarely so close as to prevent the weighing about an ounce each, bearing the date of 1620, escape of the
before it could accumulate and be mix- and having on one side the following inscription :-BELG: ed with that proportion of atmospheric air which renders IRI : MOARG: ERO:C ONGOE, with the following sentence it explosive. Besides, the smell of the gas would soon on the other, “ Concordia res Parvæ Crescunt.” From indicate its escape long before any dangerous mixture the state in wbich the coins were found, there was reason could take place; and to produce this effect even in an to believe they had been sewed or tied up closely in some apartment of moderate size, a large quantity of gas is re- part of the wearer's clothes. It must be upwards of 138 quired, so large that its loss could not escape observation years since the body of this poor covenanter was commitwithout the grossest inattention. A room twelve feet ted to bis lonely grave. square, wbich includes 1728 cubical feet of atmospheric The palace of Falkland is advertised, with several fields air, would require nearly 250 cubical feet of gas to pro- adjacent ; and, among other appurtenances, the “ Heriduce that mixture which is necessary to render it explo- table Office of Keeper of the Palace of Falkland, and sive ; and if gas were to escape from a large burner at Ranger of the Lomond Hills." Falkland Palace is sithe rate of four cubical feet in the bour, it would require toated near the little town of Falkland, in the west of Fifc, nearly three days for the flow of the proper proportion of at the foot of the bill called the East Lomond. It belonggas, and the room must be at the same time nearly air- ed for a long time to the Macduffs, earls of Fife, and was tight--a coincidence of circumstances which can be very then called the castle or mar of Falkland. It came to the rarely expected. It scarcely indeed can ever happen that crown in 1425, by the forfeiture of the Earl of Fife, in apartments which are lighted with gas are so imperfectly the reign of James I. From that time it was frequently ventilated as to admit of the existence of all the circum- used as a royal residence. It was much beautified and stances alluded to which are requisite in the production repaired by James V. The east front was accidentally of dangers of this kind.
burnt in the time of Charles II.
Scenes of Domestic Life. The original diamond ring of Mary Queen of Scots,
TO THE EDITOR OF THE EDINBURGH OBSERVER. upon which are engraved the arms of England, Scotland, As I have had a desire for some time past of laying and Ireland, quartered, and which was produced in evi before my neighbours and friends a few sketches of my dence at the trial of the unfortunate Mary, as a proof of life and domestic economy, I am now roused to the subher pretensions to the crown of England, was in the pos- ject, by the opportunity of finding such a medium of pubsession of the late Mr Blachford, one of the Lords of the Jication as your Magazine affords. Admiralty, at the time of his death. The history of this You must know, Sir, that I never was married-a cir. fatal ring is curious. It descended from Mary to her cumstance, by the bye, which in part may explain my grandson, Charles I. who gave it on the scaffold to Arch- failures—and that I am now in the fifty-fourth year of my bishop Juxon, for his son Charles II. who, in his troubles, age ; of a good natured, quiet disposition, only subject to pawned it in Holland for £.300, where it was bought by a sort of flurry and heat about the head when I am conGovernor Yale, and sold at his sale for £.320, supposed tradicted, and which, my friends tell me, are plainly for the Pretender. Afterwards it came into possession of marked by a flush of the face, and an odd way of distortthe Earl of Isla, Duke of Argyle, and probably from him ing my features : of very temperate habits, indeed, sister to the family of Mr Blachford. At the late sale of bis Barbara says, much too abstemious, but she and I differ effects it was purchased for ul:a Prince Regent.
about many things besides eating and drinking, as you will On the farm of Easton, parish of Dunsyre, a tradition soon find: not profoundly learned, the more to my loss, has been handed down from father to son, in a family, as the same kind creature often tells me--but this, Sir, wbo, as shepherds, have resided in the place for many ge- ought not to be imputed to me as a fault, because I well nerations back, that a certain rude stone set up in the ad. remember the parish schoolmaster saying, that I really joining moor, marked the grave of one of the covenanters, had not a head for Greek and Latin-a judgment, indeed, who, having been wounded in the battle fought at Pent which he passed so generally on my contemporaries, that land hills, died of his wouods on bis way home, and was at last it was shrewdly suspected be bad no Greek or Labaried by the great grandfather of the person from wbom in to put into them; but that was a slander, for be was we have the tradition. Accordingly, a few days ago, se- well known to possess three or four closets quite full of veral persons, desirous to ascertain the truth of this story, books in the dead tongues. My employment, till within went to the place, and having dug about two feet below the last ten years, was that of a farmer, in which I was the surface, found the remains of a skeleton. A medical allowed to excel, according to the maxims and standard gentleman who was on the spot could distinguish one of of former times, by my early rising, careful preservation the thigh bones, which was almost entire in shape, though of my dykes and hedges, and readiness always to sell on reduced nearly to the consistence of the mossy soil which a small profit ; but since that time, in consequence of the surrounded it. The scalp was found complete, covered expiration of my lease, which I was unwilling to renew with very long hair, of a wbitish colour, nearly as fresh at a vastly higher rent, even though beginning to be acand strong as in life. Several fragments of clothes were quainted with the new mode of carrying on the business,