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212
Voyages and Travels--Remarks on England.

[February 7. 1818. science and philosophic knowledge in England ; | poleon had the basin dug, and every thing here., sengers. The rudder was put in motion by which it takes occasion to compare, pretty fully, ) is his work. Yet notwithstanding all these means of a little wheel. A plentiful breakfast with the progress of the same liberal studies in works, it is still difficult to enter or go out of the was prepared in the dining-room, but nobody Germany. We are glad to see our country take harbour ; it may be easily imagined, therefore, would venture to touch it, for fear of sea-sickthe lead in such matters, and become the object how much time it would have taken for so many of comparison. It is at the same time honour-vessels to go out singly. All the flat-bottomed We weighed anchor : the sky was serene. able and beneficial for England, as it contributes boats were built in the port and the river, where There being some wind, all the sails were spread. to support that reputation, on which depends they remained: two-hundred-thousand men en- During the passage over, one does not lose sight much of that jealousy which so strongly excites camped on the heights. Of all these mighty pre- of the two opposite shores. At three o'clock we the envy and jealousy of our rivals.

parations, the only vestiges now left, are the re- arrived in Dover-roads. The almost black mains of the fortiñcations, the works of the har- houses give the town a melancholy appearance.

bour, which are not kept in repair, and a couple As it was low water, it was necessary to use VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. of half rotten flat-bottomed boats. This is all the long boat to go into the port

The quaya, that remains of that vast undertaking, wlich and the whole shores, were covered with a mul

cost France above three hundred millions of titude of people. The first impression that is REMARKS UPON ENGLAND, extracted from the livres !

experienced in this country, is not to be describe Journal of Their Imperial Highnesses the

The question whether the landing in Eng. ed. One fancies oneself transported into a new Archdukes John and Lewis of Austria.

land wouid have been possible, has been fre-world; nothing resembles what one has seen On our arrival, (says the traveller who keeps quently discussed, and answered both in the ne- elsewhere. Buildings, carriages, horses, people, the journal) on the 21st of October 1815, at gative and the affirmative. So much is certain, dresses, features, every thing is different from Boulogne, we took up our abode at the hotel d’An- that it would have encountered great obstacles. what one has been used to see. In the common gleterre. Our first business was to inquire after The embarkation could not have taken place people is observed a certain elegance, both in the captain of the royal yacht, which was in- unperceived; the vessels niust have gone out of their form and dress; their features, even when tended for our passage. T'he yacht lay in the the port one after another, placed themselves in large numbers stand together, retain an expresroad, and our departure was fixed for the next a line in the road to attempt the passage, dur-sion of composure and cheerfulness. morning; but a storm arose during the night, ing which they must have resisted the English The carriages prepared for us conveyed us to which obliged the vessels to leave the road. fleet, to land afterwards on a rocky coast. Who- the inn from which we enjoyed the prospect of Thus we found ourselves obliged to put off our ever knows the advantages which a large ship the barbour. It was covered with many vessels. departure for a day, which we employed in view. has at sea over small vessels, cannot doubt the At low water it is dry. The entrance is narrow, ing the environs.

issue of the battle. To this must be added, that and is impeded by a sand-bank, so that one can The port is formed by the little river Lianne days on which there is no wind, are rare; and only enter with the tide. and a newly dug basin. Two dams, or moles, ex- that such a one must have been chosen to de- We visited the new citadel. The town lies tend into the sea ; the eastern one is prolonged prive the British feet in some measure of its ad- on the sea, and at the entrance of a valley. by an arm to a wooden battery, resting on piles, vantages ; lastly, the passage on a stormy day, The old castle of Dover stands upon the east, and on the western is a battery close to the dam. in open vessels, would have been difficult.

and the citadel on the west, both on the The steep coast is formed by a line of hills, From all these considerations it appears, that chalk hills. We were struck with the handthe chalky strata of which are quite visible. A only a kind of miracle could have rendered the some bricks of which the citadel is built. The sand-bank extends into the sea, and this circum- landing in England possible; and what immense very obliging captain of engineers who was our stance made the prolongation of the two stone difficulties would have occurred in the country attendant, informed us, that the clay of which piers necessary, to facilitate the passage out, and itself! Of these no one can form an accurate the bricks are made, is mixed with the ashes of to prevent the entrance from being choaked up. idea who has not seen and examined England. coals; this was confirmed to us in London. The

At low water the vessels lie on dry ground. A This, however, is not the place to enter into chalk found here is made into lime for building. sand-bank is above the water for an extent of a particulars on this subject.

The prospect from the eminence is magnificent; bove two hundred toises. · The women at this If the ruin of England was Napoleon's object one can plainly distinguish the coasts of Boutime collect shells upon it, The high tide brings in this enterprise, he wholly failed in attaining logue aud Calais. the water to the height of 14 feet in the port, it, because the extraordinary armaments

Oct. 23. We left Dover at nine o'clock. and against the eastern pier. We were witness- which he compelled his adversary, proved fatal The post horses are excellent, the roads admios of the difficulty of the entrance. A ship that | to himself in Portugal and Spain. It seems as if rable, the postilions steady, and the travelling could not make it with the wind, was forced to he had felt the obstacles to the execution of his extreniely quick. The country is much better put back into the open sea.

plan, as he eagerly seized an opportunity to em cultivated than France, which gives it a pleasBoulogne contains 13,000 inhabitants. The ploy his forces in another quarter, where he ing appearance, though, properly speaking, it is town is irregularly built, on the slope of the hills, might reasonably expect better success.

not beautiful. The chalky soil is mixed with on the right bank of the Lianne. The houses are There were several packet-boats in the har- gravel. built of a greyish stone, which, together with the bour, two of which sailed at noon with a favour- Before almost all the houses, are seen little dry neighbouring hills, gives it a gloomy and able wind. We envied their swelling sails, flower beds, with southern plants and flowers, mournful appearance. Trade and fishing are the while etiquette obliged us to wait for our yacht. which remain uncovered during winter, and chief employment of the inhabitants; the herring At lengti, at four o'clock, it appeared in the give a favourable idea of the mildness of the clifishery is very considerable, and brings in, as we road; but the captain would not sail till the mate. There are numerous windmills, water were assured, a million and a half of francs an- next morning, because the wind had become being scarce. Numerous country-houses, in a nually. It is carried on in the channel, along the stormy, and because, as he said, he had received peculiar and pleasant style of arehitecture, are English coast. Packet-boats sail for Dover daily, orders to land us at Dover by day-light.

surrounded with little parks: meadows of the and this passage is preferred to that from Calais. Oetober 22. The fine morning promised us most brilliant green, pretty flocks, fields sur

The remains of Napoleon's eamp are still vi- a happy passage. The white chalky clults of the rounded with green hedges, and planted with sible. On the east coast of the harbour are for- coast of England soon presented themselves to trees, render the landscape pleasing and pictutifications and batteries, which cover each other, our view. At ten o'clock in the forenoon we resque. and from which this coast obtained the name of went on board of our yacht, which was a hand- Canterbury, sixteen miles from Dover, is the the iron coast. On the northern extreme emi- some little vessel. As it was the property of the first stage. The city lies in a valley, and its nence of Boulogne was placed the principal te- Admiralty, it was elegantly fitted up. It con- fine cathedral rises magnificently above the houlegraph, which communicated with others along tained a drawing-room, dining-room, and a kit- ses. As we had resolved not to stop, we put off the coast. The scaffolding for the pyramid, which chen. The two former had pannels of nrahoga- | the view of the city till our return. The postwas to be erected, is still standing. Napoleon ny, ornamented with gilding, and the furniture office is at the same time an inn, which is often reviewed his troops on the beach,

of the drawing-room was of blue satin. At one the case in England as in Germany. The western hills are fortified. On both sides and of it was a handsome stove of polished steel, As we proceeded, we were struck with the are redoubts, which, at high water, are washed and at the other end a lamp, which threw its number of turnpikes, at which travellers must all round by the waves: they are of stone, and light on the pilot's compass. Two adjoining pay. They consist of two small houses, between ale erected in many places along the coast. Na- rooms contained every requisite for sea-sick pas- which the road is closed by a gate; on each side

to

ance.

February 7. 1818.] Remarks on England--Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey.

243 is a narrow way for foot passengers, and in which employs a hundred and twenty persons, arms under the Sultan Orchan, and his immethe middle a scale, which shews the weight has joined to it a sehool for the children of his diate successors, and conjectured what might of the carriages. The repair of the roads work-people.

soon be the fate of Constantinople itself, they is undertaken by private persons, who pay We arrived pretty late in the evening at sent a deputation to thc sultan at Bursa, in Asia a certain sum to the government, and are autho- Beech-wood, a bcautiful seat of Six **** Sc- Minor, carrying a present of 14,000 sequins, and rised, by act of parliament, to take toll, for the bright. The owner is a great agriculturist, who begging, that when his victorious arms had tapurpose of keeping the roads in order. The gave us a particular account of the agricultural ken possession of the seat of the Greek, empire breadth of the roads is just sufficient for two processes followed in England, and particularly the caloyers might be left in the full enjoyment carriages to go abreast, and on both sides are those employed by himself. As soon as the wheat of their religious privileges, and in the exclusive foot-paths raised two or three feet. The roads is got in, the field is ploughed, then it is harrow possession of Mount Athos." The Turk accepted are kept in good repair with gravel,

ed, that the weeds may shoot in spring; it is the bribe, promised all they wished, and gave It was dark when we rcached Daitford, and afterwards ploughed again three times; the last them a charter, which is said to be still preserv. we arrived in London at eight o'clock in the time it is manured, and in June sown with tur- ed among the arehives at Chariess, the metro. evening. The house of the duke of St A***, nips, which stand during the winter. The sheep polis of the peninsula. The Turkish sultans where we lodged, is agreeably situated in the graze' off a part, and the other part is used suc- however, have since made this faithless body pay handsomest part of Westminster, near the parks. cessively to feed the cattle in their stalls. This dearly for their treachery to their own Christian Everything had been provided which could repeated ploughing, after the weeds have shot, monarch --; and instead of being for ever make our residence pleasant and convenient. cleanses the land admirably. In the second year exempted from tribute, as they had expected, The succeeding days, to the 3d of November, they sow barley or oats, mixed with 'clover; in they now pay annually 113,000 piastres to the were employed partly in visits of ceremony and the third and fourth the clover is cut, and in the Porte, besides occasional contributions in time others, and partly in collecting information for fifth wheat is sown again: but as in this manner of war, and other demands; one of which, in our intended tour through the provinces, for the same field would bear clover too, the half is the preceding month, amounted to forty-eight which we were not sufficiently prepared; we often sown with oats, white clover (trifolium re- purses, or 24,000 piastres. In consequence of also dressed ourselves in the English fashion, pens) and rye grass. The turnips of Beechwood these perpetual extortions, the convents have that we might be able to walk about the city gow to an enorinous size. Sic **** Sebright been obliged to borrow large sums, for which more at our ease.

told us, that he had once sent his sister nineteen they give from four to eight per cent. according On the 5d of November at eight o'clock in partridges in the hollow of a turnip.

to the urgency of the moment, or the piety of the forenoon, we lett London. The suburbs of

Catimné p. 274.

the lender. The general debt is supposed to an this capital are continually extending. Houses

mount to a million of piastres, or nearly eigut and streets are built on speculation, and easily | Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic thousand pounds sterling.” find inhabitants. When you leave the suburbs, Turkey. By ROBERT WALPOLE, M.A. As they cannot raise even the interest of this you see villages before you. Sometimes the coun

sum, a bankruptcy is likely to ensue. The po. try rises, and the hills, covered with mansions The readers of this work will find it highly pulation of the peninsula is not clearly ascerand gardeus, give it a very picturesque appear- interesting; and as a specimen we select the tained.

From this side, too, when the weather is ninth chapter, which is from the pen of Dr It pays charatch, or capitation-tax, for clear, there must be the finest prospect of Lon- Hunt, and consists of an account of the monas- 5000; but the actual number of resident cadon. The road, which only a year ago led over tic institutions and the libraries on the Holy laycrs, including the labourers, workmen, her. a pretty steep hill, is now nearly level; the hill Mountain.

mits, is calculated at 6000."---,' The temporal has been cut through, and by these means the It appears from a preceding chapter, that a- affairs o fthe Holy Mountain are thus managed: road is made considerably shorter, and much less mong the other inquiries valuable to literature the twenty monasteries (which constitute its fatiguing for the horses. Another road passes and the arts, undertaken under the auspices of religious republic) are divided into four classes, over this artificial defile, by means of a bridge, Lord Elgin, a strict examination was instituted of five each, according to their respective sizes, 60 or 70 feet high. The country is every where through all the libraries, mosques, schools, col- and one convent of each class, by rotation, anwell cultivated. Gravel and chalk occur fre- leges, convents, &c. within the influence of the nually sends a deputy to Chariess, This council quently. The latter is strewed upon the fields ambassador, to discover such ancient MSS. and of four deputies settles all the business of the to make the soil more loose.

works of classical research, as have long been peninsula, and regulates the proportion of money . Chipping-Barnet is the first stage, and St thought to be preserved in those receptacles. which each convent is to give on extraordinary Alban's the second : we alighted at the White After sifting the establishments at Constanti-contributions. Their office is annual; they live Hart, a very good inn, where we found, as is nople to little purpose, Professor Carlyle and Dr with no external pomp, and they receive but a every where the case in England, very clean Hunt sailed, on the 3d of March 1801, with the trifling salary for their trouble.” apartments, and good provision, as well as polite design of investigating the libraries of the Greek The chief benefits derived from this hive of and obliging treatment.

convents in the peninsula of Athos, in Macedo- drones (who subsist on the precarious donations The abbey of St Alban's is a building remark- nia. Contrary winds obliged them to land in of pilgrims, and on the alms collected by traable for its antiquity. The chureh stands upon Asia ; they traversed the Troad, ascended mount velling brethren in Russia, Moldavia, Wallaan eminence, and was built at three different Ida, viewed the ruins of Assos, and finally arri- chia, and other countries professing the Greek periods, for which reason it appears very irregu- ved at the convent of Batopaidi on mount Athos. creed,) is its helping to preserve the language lar. The Anglo-Saxons are said to have begnn It resembles a fortress more than a monastery of Greece from being superseded by that of her the work; the second period is Gothic, and the The lofty walls are flanked with towers, and conquerors, and checking the defection of Christhird near the reformation. Henry VIII, and many cannon appear in the embrazures. The tians to Mahometanism, in European and Asi. Queen Elizabeth, when they were obliged to monks, however, were polite and hospitable, and atic Turkey. Almost all the Greek Didascaloi, leave London on account of the plague, held with them our travellers remained five days. schoolmasters, and the higher orders of their clertheir poblic courts of justice in this church. It Before particularizing any of the circumstances gy, aro selected from this place; and Dr Hunt contains the tomb also of the patron saint of related of this convent, and its Athoan brethren, proceeds: England. On a little cminence to the south of it may be worth while to lay before our readers “ Ifit sometimes hides a criminal who has fled St Alban's stood the old Roman town of Verula. a general view of the remarkable district itself, from public justice; yet that criminal most promium, of which some ruins may still be traced. of which we may well say Chariess is the capi-bably reforms bis life, in a residence so well cal.

In a neiglibouring valley near a rivalet, is si- tal, since it is the only town in the peninsula, culated to bring his mind to reflection. The tuated Mr Woglam's manufactory for spinning and situated near its centre.

oath of a person who becomes a caloyer on Mount silk. The machinery is like that for spinning Of the early history of the religious commu- Athos, is very solemn and simple; it implies an cotton. The silk passes through twelve opera nity of Athos, little is certainly known. They absolute renunciation of the world, enjoining the tions. All the machines are put in motion by pretend to great antiquity, and refer their found person who makes it to consider hinuself as quite water. We found in the whole process two new ation to Constantine the Great, Arcadius, and dead to its concerns. Some are so conscienti. improvements : by means of one, the machine Honorius; but no records exist anterior to the ously observant of this vow, that they never afstands still of itself, as soon as a thread breaks time of Nicephorus Pbocas, who reigned in the terwards use their family name, never correspond upon a reel;, and by means of the other, the sitk year 961.

with any of their relatives or former friends, and is divided upon the spindle more equally than in “ When the crafty caloyers (monks, says our decline informing strangers from what country the usual nuode. The owner of the manufactory, author) adverted to the progress of the Turkista or situation of life they have retired! By ilac

244
Remarks on England -Memoirs on Navigation.

[February 7. 1818. rules of the institution, every convent on Mount | and horror found it filled with' piles of skulls of tain. Eugenius, who translated the Æneid into Athos, and indeed throughout the whole Turkish such monks and caloyers as have died within the Greek hexameter verse, and was afterwards creempire, is ordered to shew hospitality to stran. walls of the convent. A little church dedicated ted bishop of Chersonésus by the Empress Can gers who present themselves at their gate, whe- to all the saints, is placed over this awful re po therine was forty years ago master of an acadether they be Greeks, Heretics, or Infidels; nor. sitory of mortality. By the canons of the order, my at Batopaidi, from which he retired in disare they permitted to ask for payment from any no caloyer or monk can eat meat except in case gust, and it has since fallen into decay, from ha pilgrim, or other visitor, for the provisions which of great and extreme illness. He must also ab- ving two hundred students of respectable families they may give them."

stain from eggs, oil, and fish, on all Mondays, from Greece Germany, Venice and Russia. Within the holy precincts of this monastic Wednesdays, and Fridays

. The food on those We shall conclude with one extract more, clo territory, not only is no woman allowed to enter, days is restricted to bread, salted olives, and ve- sed by an anecdote of considerable pungeney. (gens eterna, in qua nemo nascitur) but all fe getable soup. This is made of dried pease, The whole country now presented a beautiful male animals are rigorously prohibited, and beans, or other pulse; onions and leeks: the appearance, looking like a garden, and adorned cows, ewes, she-goats, and even hens, are ba látter grow to a most extraordinary size. The with hawthorns, roses, and the Judas tree. In a nished from their sanctified abodes. Some of Hegoumenos (prio or abbot) assnred us they retired vale, surrounded by forests, is the little the monks, indeed, asserted that no 'she crea- sometimes weighed an oke, or 2 lbs, avoirdupois, convent of Constamoneta. In their charch we ture could live three days in the atmosphere of each. Our inquiries respecting the library of found a manuscript copy of Æschylus, The SeMount Athos, but our travellers doubted the the convent were always evaded, and at length ven Chiefs at Thebes, and part of Hesiod. fact, as they saw pigeons, swallows, and other we were told that that the manuscripts were Though the sun was setting, and the road to the birds, breeding under the noses of the fraternity, merely rituals and liturgies of the Greek church, next monastery long and dangerous, yet we rebesides the vermin, which were abundantly pro- and in very bad condition. On pressing our resolved to proceed rather than pass the night with lific about their persons and cells Milk, butter, quest to be admitted to see them, and adding so rude and inhospitable a body of caloyers, as we cheese, and eggs, are imported from Thasos that it had been the primary object of our visit, found at Constamoneta. Their Hegoumenos, or and Lemnos, or from Macedonia, across the we were shewn into a room where these old tat- abbot, is a native of Maina, the ancient EleutheIsthmus.

tered volumes were thrown together in the grea ro-Laconia. A beggar, passing some months ago The whole twenty convents were visited by test confusion, mostly without beginning or end, by the door of this convent, asked the accustonthe British scholars. They contain, according worm-eaten, damaged by mice, and mouldy with ed alms of bread and wine : on which the porter to their classification, from 40 or 50 to 500 monks damp, Assisted by three of those whom I have told him, that the abbot had strictly forbidden in each, and bear the following names, -Bato- mentioned (three of the best informed monks) him to distribute any more, as the convent was paidi, Coutlouroussi, Pantocratoras, Slavronike- we took an aecurate catalogue, examining each poor, and scarcely able to support its own memta, Iveron, Philotheo, Santa Laura, Caracalla, mutilated volume separately and minutely. We bers. In the course of conversation, the beggar Xeropotama, St Paul, Dionyno, St Gregorio, found copies of the New Testament not older asked him how the convent became so poor, and Simopetra, Xenophou, Docheiriou, Lografou, than the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and a on the porter's not being able to give a satisfacChiliantari, St Bazil, Sphighmenon, Constamo- variety of theological works, of Chrysostom, Basil, tory answer, he replied, I will inform you. There neta. There are, besides, numerous and filthy Gregory of Nazienzen, and others, and an infini. were two brothers who dwelt in this convent at hermitages. The reception at Balopaidi, where ty of liturgies, canons, and church histories. The its first foundation, and on them its happiness there are 250 priests and friars within the walls, only interesting manuscripts we saw were two solely depended. Your tyrannical abbot forced and 250 more in the farms, gardens, and vine- tragedies of Æschylus, the liad, a copy of that one of them into exile, the other soon fled, and yards, withont, may serve as a sample of the very ancient poem the Batrachomyomachia ; the with them your prosperity. But be assured, that whole, and of the manners and customs of the works of Demosthenes, Athenæus, Lysias, Ga- until you recal your elder brother, you will condistrict :

len, some parts of Aristotle, Hippocrates, and tinue poor. What were their names ? said the “ The behaviour of the monks in general was Plato; two copies of the Apocalypse, and the wondering caloyer: The expelled brother, replihospitable and and polite ; and during our resi- Jewish History of Josephus; but none of them ed the beggar, was called Aidols

, and the name dence of five days among them, they seemed to bore marks of remote antiquity."

of him who followed was Aetnolla. (Give, and regret, that the concourse of uncivilized and The libraries of other convents were similarly it shall be given unto you. Luke vi. 38.) noisy pilgrims, assembled for the holy week, pre- unproductive : not one of them producing a co vented them from being more attentive to us. py of any inedited fragment of a classical author. M. de Rossel, of the Royal Academy of SciOn Easter day there were about fifteen hundred When the learned Greeks fled from Constanti. ences, read the following Memoir of the Propeople, who dined in the court-yard of this con- nople in 1453, they took with them to western gress and State of Navigation, at the Genevent, principally Albanian, Bulgarian, and Wal- Europe their most valuable MSS. those which they ral Annual Sittings of the Four Academies lachian Greeks. It appears, as soon as the op-left were probably secreted in monasteries ; but of the Institute, on the 24th of April 1817. pressed Christian peasants in the neighbouring from this search it appears, either that Constan- If the arts and sciences ought to excite an inTurkish provinces have saved a little money, or tinople and Mount Athos are not the conserva- terest proportionate to the advantages we derive when pirates and freebooters have made a suc- tors of these desired treasures, or that they are from them, what art deserves, more than Naviga. cessful sally, they set out on a pilgrimage to this still (which does not prima facie appear to be tion, to fix our attention? It is that which estabholy mountain, where they not only get a plena- the case) hid from the longing eyes of European lishes an easy commmunication between the most. ry absolution, by giving up part of their gains, investigation. Some of these convents had MSS. distant nations, which introduces civilization an but enjoy the luxury of hearing a perpetual din in the Servian and Illyric dialects, chiefly per- mong the most barbarous people, and enables us. of bells, and the sight of splendid churches, pic- taining to the church.

to participate in the riches which Nature produtures of saints, and wonder-working reliques. The country possessed by this monastic socie- ces in every part of the earth. No other art calls

Our principal object being to examine ty, is wild and beautiful. Mountain torrents, and forth more largely the faculties of man, it teachthe ancient MSS. we found we could not have forests, and shrubs, and flowers, variegate its fea- es bim to brave numberless dangers, and gives arrived at a more unpropitious moment. The tures. But it is not our purpose to enter into him the means of surmounting them; it enlarges attention of the whole convent was directed to these details, nor even to remark upon the ho- his ideas in shewing him Nature, under all her the different caravans of pilgrims, who were ar- noured beards of the caloyers, one of which grow- aspects, and humanity in all its conditions, from riving at every instant; they were in general ing on the face of a certain Father Joachim, ri- savage life to the highest degree of civilisation. well mounted, each of them armed with a nus- valled the leeks of Batopaidi, for it reached “ The men who have the most contributed to. ket, a pair of pistols, and a sword. After dinner, bout an inch below his knees!” This venerable perfect it are almost all our contemporaries, and their mirth became extremely noisy, and my com- caloyer, by the way, had travelled as a mendi- it will be permitted to touch but slightly on anpanion, Mr Carlyle, who wished much to know cant of his order over almost all European Tur- cient times, without dreading the reproach of the subject of their songs, found they were very key, and the shores of the Black Sea. “On diffe- having committed an historical infidelity. We similar to the old border songs in England, do rent visits to the Fanal at Constantinople, he know that the navigation of the ancients, confiscribing either the petty wars of neighbouring had paid his homage to twenty-four patriarchs : ned to the coasts of the Mediterranean, never agas, or the successful opposition on the part of namely, fourteen grand patriarchs of the Greek extended much beyond them; in effect, what the Albanians to pashas sent from the Turkish church, four of Alexandria, and six of Jerusalem; could it be previous to the use of the compass, court.

such is the rapid succession to those envied dig- when they yet dared not altogether to lose sight " In one of our rambles near the monastery, nities. Our countrymen met two of the ex-på- of land ? we went to a small building, and to our surprise triarchs among the residents of the Holy Moun- The maritime states of Italy, charged to CON

245

it.

February.7. 1918.]

Voyages and Travels, duct our fathers to the Holy Land, establish- lumbus, who aspired after unknown lands, and pression, seemed very casy; it was this point, ed factories on the coasts which their armies was about to isolate himself

, as it were, from the however

, which most exercised the sagacity of bad conquered; and commerce, as well as navi- rest of the world, would necessarily be destitute the learned. gation, acquired new strength. The Italian mer- of this kind of comparison. He turned his eyes Newton, in discorering the laws of universal chants penetrated in the course of the crusades towards the heavens, and conceived the idea of gravitation, taught the means of calculating asinto the eastern countries, and prepared new comparing the position of his vessel, lost in the tronomical lables; henceforward it was easy to sources of commerce.

vast extent of the seas, to the position of the predict the places which the planets ought, at The travels of Marco Paulo, wbich approaches stars. The first idea of referring each point of each instant, to occupy in the heavens; and renearly to the period of the last crusade of St. the surface of the globe to that which corres- duce lo practice the method of the distances of Louis, marks the first epoch of modern geogra- ponds with it in the celestial sphere, is due to the moon from the sun and stars, which he had phy. Although the names of the nations, provin- Hipparchus. Ptolemy afterwards adopted it in indicated as the best means of obtaining the laces, and towns, are strangely disfigured in the his Geography, and ranged the places mention- titude at sea. The best instruments known are relations which we have of them, the places the ed therein by their latitude and longitude. Chris- also due to the genius of Newton; it was he most distinguished by their position or their im- topher Columbus, in applying this to navigation, who had the first idea of adapting mirrors to portance, are still recognizable. The isle of Ci-has so intimately allied this great art to astro- those which serve to measure these distances. pangu, for instance, can be no other than that of nomy, that nothing henceforward can separate This invention was afterwards executed by Had. Japan; for it is said, that it is placed to the east- them, and seamen will for ever seek in the hea- ley with the greatest success; the instrument ward of the coasts of China The geographers of vens the position which they occupy on the which this latter has invented, is, if we except the day consequently placed this discovery far earth.

some slight modifications, the same which is still beyond the spot where Ptolemy had fixed the The voyages which Christopher Columbus in general use. eastern boundaries of the known world of the an-made, subsequent to the first, completed the dis- The art of watch-making, scarcely risen from cients.

covery of that chain of islands which traverses its cradle, could no longer confine itself to the It was nearly about this period of travels of the mouth of the gulph of Mexico, and that of a egulation of the occupations of our lives; it Marco Paulo that the compass was first used. portion of the coasts which encircle them. It is dared to time the movements of the celestial boIts origin is uncertain; various nations pretend also from the period of these great navigations dies. It made such great progress. that it dito the honour of this fine invention; but the most that the Spaniards date their establishment in rectly attacked the problem of longitude, and its probable opinion is, that it comes to us from the New World.

success far exceeded our expectations. The mathe Chinese, who had long been acquainted with Similar successes caused a general movement rine watches, (time keepers,) which they con

in navigation. The Portuguese resumed the pro- struct at present, preserve, for entire .months, The use of the compass gave to navigators ject of penetrating into India, and finished by es the hour of the first meridian. the means of directing themselves in all wea- tablishing themselves there. Thence they pur- As soon as the mariners bad the means of dethers, and inspired them with the courage neces- sued their discoveries as far as the isles of Sun- termining with precision their situation on the sary to quit the coast. They first sought the di- da and the Moluccas on one hand, and on the globe, they delayed not to lay down the position rection which they ought to follow, in repairing other as far as China and Japan. France and of the places on the coasts which they had ocfrom one place to another: they afterwards in England engaged some Italians in their service, casion to visit Navigation underwent a second vented methods calculated to give them the re- who opened to them the road of extended navi- revolution ; it was no longer solely destined to lative position of their vessels with these two gations.

support industry and commerce ; it took a more places. This first step removed the art from its The sciences were, at this period, still in their elevated flight, and contributed to the progress long infancy. Commerce assumed a new flight; infancy among all the people of Europe. . Astro- of human knowledge. Hydrography, on which and, towards the end of the fourteenth century, nomy had only begun to be cultivated in Germa- the safety of vessels peculiarly depended, was it extended itself beyond the Mediterranean; on ny in the first years of the fifteenth century. In the first object of its cares. The most learned the coasts of Portugal; of France; and even in the time of Christopher Columbus, it must have men undertook voyagos by sca, and mariners cul. to Flanders. The Italians, soon the most skilful been in the state in which we find it in the books tivated the sciences. The voyages of La Caille, navigators of Europe, instructed the other na- of Ptolemy. It required to be enlightened by a and of Maskelyne, introduce the practice of as tions by their lessons and by their example. long train of observations previous to its present tronomical observations into navigation ; and 0

The Portuguese were the first to profit by them; state of perfection; and thus it remained more ther yoyages, undertaken to observe the passage the vessels of their nation which discovered the than a century in the same state. Tycho Brahe of Venus over the sun's disk, accelerated the procoasts of Africa, as far as Sierra-Leone, were prepared, by his observations --- the best which gress of astronomy itself

. The services which conducted by Italians. They were not long ere had till then been made.--the Discovery of the navigation has rendered, extend to all the brau they were able to conduct them themselves, and Laws of Kepler; Newton at length appeared, ches of our acquirements. I still behold the place they advanced along the coasts of Guinea, of Be- and submitted the movements of the heavenly which Bougainville, whose name cannot be pronin, and of Congo ; at length, Bartholomew Diaz bodies to the combinations of geometry, and the pounced without awakening sentiinents of adecdoubled the Cape of Good Hope in 1486; but calculations of analysis. His genius rendered tion, occupied in this assembly. He is the first he arrested his course when he was on the eve to the science the same service which that of Frenchman who made the voyage round the of penetrating into the Indian seas,

Columbus had rendered to the art two centuries world, and his name is allied to a great number We are now come to that grand epoch which before; and navigation perfected itself at the of very important discoveries.' It was not until has changed the face of the world; the glory of same time as astronomy.

after bis voyage, that Harrison constracted the having operated this great change was still re- The mariners obtained the lalilude by the me- first marine time-keeper. served for the Italians. Italy produced Christo- ridional height of the stars, which, in the com- Fleurien tried, in 1768, two of these new time pher Columbus, who, by the force of his genius, mencement, they observed with the astrolabe. keepers, executed in France by Ferdinand Bereffected, in the art of navigation, a revolution, The use of less imperfect instruments was after-thoud, and he established the proof of their utilithe influence of which has extended itself to every wards introduced, but none of them approached ty. To him we owe the first application of them part of human knowledge. those which are now in common use.

which was made to geography, and the first rules History informs us, it was in placing China As to the longitude, they calculated it by the which were given to navigators for their use. aud Cipangy, of which Marco Paulo had spoken, space which the vessel had made, and they were Who, among us, does not recal to mind the beyond the most eastern land of Ptolemy, that deficient in the means of observing it. History, immense services which Borda has rendered to Christopher Columbus persuaded himself that he however, mentions an eclipse observed by Chris- the science ? Equally skilful as a seaman and a should have but a third of the circumference of topher Columbus; but, it appears, that no navi- a geometrician, he has procured to navigation the the globe to traverse, if he bent his course in a gator imitated him. It is known that the longi- reflecting repeating circle; and to astronomy acontrary direction to that of Marco Paulo, that tude is measured by the diurnal movement of the nother instrument, which, in very small dimenis to say, if he directed his course straight west- earth, and that it can be calculated in time as sions, has, by its exuculude, surpassed the greatward. Thus reduced, the distance was still up-well as in degrees ; in this case it is equal to est instruments till then known. wards of two thousand leagues, and surpassed the the difference of hours which are reckoned at tbe It would have seened that navigation, after means of navigation at this period. The naviga- same instant in the spot where the vessel actual- having been enriched with so many instruments, tors were wont, as we are told, to compare their ly is, and in the first meridian. The only ques- and such a variety of rigorous methods, could pruposition on the open sea, with that of the places tion, then, was, to ascertain those two hours. ceed no further. But the mind of man, capable which they were desirons of attaining ; but Co- The problem, thus reduced to its simplest ex- of distinguishing the degree of perfection which

246
Voyages and Travels.

[February 7. 1818. bis works are deficient in, always makes new ef- coasts and of the island of the great ocean; tbe of the coasts of Tartary, and has enriched hy: forts to attain it.

ice of the two poles alone arrested his discoveries. drography with some very precious charts. Geometry has unmasked, in its profound works, The voyages of Vancouver and of Flinders, Three years elapsed without any news of him the last secrets of the science; and it is sufficient although less brilliant, possesses not a less inte arriving ; the resolution was taken to send in to designate it. Have not, also, all the geome- rest ; and they have enriched geography with a search of La Perouse. The king charged M, de tricians and astronomers, assembled in this place, greater number of useful discoveries.

Entrecasteaux to follow his course, and to restore contributed, either by their learned works, by the France, in which we have successfully perfect him to his country, as well as his companions. most delicate operations of geodosy, or by equally ed the art of navigation, undertook a second The coasts which La Perouse was to have recontico astronomical observations, to give to the re. voyage round the world, shortly after Cook's last noitred were visited with the greater care, as sults of the science a precision previously un- voyage. The desire of knowing the sources which they were obliged to observe them narrowly, in known ? It is to their combined works that na- commerce might find on the north-western coasts order not to suffer any evidence to escape which vigation owes the perfection which it has attain- of America, and on those of Tartary, gave rise might announce the presence of our unfortunate ed in our days.

to the voyage of La Perouse The instructions countrymen. Unhappily, these researches had no But I must not terminate what I have to say, which this skilful navigator received, relative to other result than to sink our hopes for ever. It without recalling the labours of the most illus- savage nations, shew the extent of the acquire- ) is but too probable that the two vessels of La trious navigators who have advanced our geogra- meuts of the monarch who had dictated them. Perouse encountered, during the night, one of phical knowledge.

“ Occupy yourself,” says be to him, “ in con- those rocks which abound in the great ocean, beThe voyages of the immortal Cook are those, ciliating their friendship; prescribe to your com- tween the tropics, and that they perished there wbere, for the first time, we gathered the fruits panions in the voyage, to live in good intelligence together. of the efforts made upwards of two centuries, for with them; treat them gently; seek to amelio- All the means by which navigation had been the perfection of the sciences. His vessel offers rate their condition in teaching them to cultivate enriched in these latter times, were employed us the type of the tie which unites all the human the plants and trees you carry to them; but, during the voyage of M. de Entrecastcaux. He sciences, and of the alliance which those who above all, do not make known the superiority of completed our knowledge of a great extent of cultivate them ought to contract Navigators, our arms, except for your own safety. I shall coast, and procured a collection of charts, reastronomers, naturalists, all united to concur to regard it as one of your most brilliant successes, markable by their exactitude. This voyage, unthe same end; and the names of Banks and For- if the voyage can be terminated without costing dertaken in 1791, was terminated during the ster, are associated by history with that of Cook, the life of a single man.”

storms of the revolution : the misfortunes of the wlrose glory they shared. This great navigator has The first part of his voyage, published after his times retarded the publication, and it only ap... brought us acquainted with the greater part of the own journals, bas preserved to us the fine survey peared in 1809.

Poetry.

SONNET
The streams, which through them once their ma-

LINES
BY G. F. ZAPFI,
zes wound,

Addressed to my Sister, on the 21st Anniver. -
And now no longer make their murm'ring sound;

sary of her Birthday.
On the Colossal Statue of Moses by Michael The lakes, refusing to the thirsty flocks
Angelo
The wish'd-for draughts, resisting, firm as rocks;

When thou wert in thine infancy,
The anxious shepherd, who, with pity mov'd,

And sported in our native bow'rs,
Sculptur'd in stone, what Giant form sits here,

And I thy playmate us’d to be
Looks on the cattle whom he e'er has lov'd,
Excelling all renown'd that Art affonds,
And strikes the ice; but soon the weak’ning blow

In that gay round of life's young hours;
Whose lips so pregnant and alive appear,
That I, unconscious, listen for his words?

Shews he must cease, and all his task forego. This was the blithest day we knew,
Well does his flowing beard declare the name,

Far other scenes that on th' expanse appear Which in thy book of years display'd
And double rays of glory on his brow,

Than thirsty flocks or weary hunted deer; Another spotless leaf to view,
Of MOSES ---such as from the Mount he came,
The glassy surface spread on every side,

Where all life's passing scenes were laid.
Bends to the skait or forms the easy slide;
His face yet beaming with celestial glow:
Such was he, when the vast and sounding wave
Crowds fly along, the sportive race is run,

Those days of childhood now are fled;

Thy years of youth have glided on:
Round him retir'd rebuk’d, ---such when it By many lost, and by as many won :
flow'd

The book of time again is spread;
The grass which droops and lies upon the plain,

Its leaves are turn'd to twenty-one.
O'er the Egyptian host,-
,-a whelming grave ! -

Or dead, or dying, ne'er to rise again ; And you his flock to a base Calf have bow'd;

The clod so hard, which breaks the driven plough; Come, let us trace the record through, Have rais'd its image equal to this, sublime,

The sharpen'd axe, which fells the lifeless bough: Up to this age of perfect youth :
Which to have worship'd had been less a crime. But leaving these—the cheerful blazing fires ; How spotless is the tablet's hue;

The young's gay gambols round their smiling How bright with innocence and truth.
The mazy dance, the song, the bursting cries

Together love and duty stand,

Fair written in thine early age;
Of merry laughter which each moment rise;
ON THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE YEAR.
The feasts which are o'er bending tables spread

With peace and meekness hand in hand,
The sky which lowers black, the winds which That we, Oh happy mortals ! may be fed;

Enchanting move in every page: drive

The starving robin who so longs to taste, Here artlessness and mirth are seen ; The shepherd to his cot, the storms which strive And at our windows chirps for what we waste ; There pity marks ber tender name: And rend the air, with dreadful ruin fraught, The tim'rous hare who shrinks from piercing cold, Good temper with a smiling mien, And threaten to reduce us into nought; While the hot sportsman drives her from her hold; And winning look that knows no shame. The snow, whose waving flakes come show'ring The sportsman who now runs where once he light,

Here prudence with reserve unites

rang'a And cover all things with their lovely white; At leisure, wond'ring how bright Nature's

Improvement, industry, and care ; The frost-bound earth, whose moisture all is gone, chang'd;

And each domestic virtue writes
Whose ev'ry landscape now appears forlorn; Nature herself, who smil'd in fair array ;

Her name to live unfading there.
The seas, which dash with never ceasing roar The hours which bring the speedy close of day; And, above all, sublime and bright,
Against the rocks, or chase the yielding shore; The night which casts a gloom so dark, so drear- Thy guide in childhood, hope in youth;
'the woods, of all their cheerful green bereft, All, all remind me of the op'ning year. Like stars from heaven diffusing light,
With not a beauty but their branches left;

G. J. B. Js piety with zealous truth.

sires;

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