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Diarch 7, 1818.)
The Impostures of History.

255 William Wrny. In the same church. performed a miracle. In a word, his country, will give so very opposite an Here lyeth, wrapt in clay,

tory may furnish illustrations, and well. account of the passing events of the The body of William Wray,

written works of fiction; novels, for in. day, that a stranger might well suppose I have no more to say.

stance, may do the same; but natural they were adverting to two different

sagacity, sharpened and guided by ex- eras-to two different classes of perImpostures of History.

perience in the ways of men, and quick sons-and, indeed, to the affairs of two

as intuition to avail itself of every ad- distinct commonwealths and govern(From New York Portfolio.)

vantage that arises, can alone make the ments. To the splentic man who derives gra. statesman, and this the knowledge of A work of considerable utility to tification from comparing the infirmi- all the histories in the world cannot young readers in particular, who are ties of his fellow creatures with the supply; though a too great reliance u- naturally bribed into credulity by their comfortable estimate he has made of pon the information they impart, might love of the marvellous, was written I his own endowments—to the satirist thwart and defeat its operations. Not believe some time in the sixteenth cenwho feeds upon the exposure of human all the magnificent train of volumes tury, in the Italian language, and pubfoibles, as the worm does on putrid from Herodotus to Gillies could have lished by the abbé Lancelotti, a philoflesh, the inordinate encomiuns which made a Ximenes, a Cromwell, a Riche- sopher, an historian, and a critic of the candidates for fane in political science lieu, or a Perigord. On the contrary, first eminence. It-went to expose in, have pronounced on the uses of history, it would be difficult to find a series of perhaps, too minute detail, the falseand the mighty consequence which transactions in the whole, by the imi- hoods of history. In the beginning of some-and those not inconsiderable-tation of which, as furnishing rules for the last century it was translated into statesmen, annex to the study of it, their conduct, those sagacious politi- French by the abbe Oliva, well known may perhaps afford matter of triumph. cians would not have defeated and ut- by his connexion with the celebrated He, however, who sincerely cultivates terly ruined their own projects. I Montesquieu. It contains a view of the interests of letters, while he urges should be obliged to the historical various historical impostures, from which the perusal of history as a liberal ex- book-worm who would point out any I have selected a few that are well calercise for the mind, will season his re- thing in the records of the earth, bear- culated to afford at once entertainment commendation with such reflections as ing even a distant analogy to the French and instruction to the reading part of may occur to him that have a tendency revolutions, within the last five-and- our conmu

munity. to guard readers against an implicit twenty years, or even to our own more “ Zaleucus,

says the abbe, “ the faith in even the most authentic histo- familiar and less complicated condition prince and legislator of the Locrians, ry, as a source of instruction, or a di- at the period that we live in. How made a law that those who were conrection to practical conduct in the ma- idle-how mischievous then must it not victed of adultery sbould have their nayement of human affairs,

be, for mere closet-formed, book-read eyes put out. His son was the first Man is a creature of so nice and politicians to trust to their own shallow criminal, and he chose that he should complicated a texture-his dispositions pedantry in tampering with affairs of suffer the rigour of the law; but the noand desires are so infinitely varied and state.

bility and people in general solicited capricious-his habits so subject to These truths are suggested upon the him so earnestly in the young man's change the circunstances and situa- hypothesis that histories are good au- favour, that he was unable to maintain tions in which he may be placed are thority for all they assert ; but how his resolution. However, he found out often so entirely independent of ante much stronger are they when it can be an expedient to satisfy and support the cedent events, and the accidents to made appear that in that circumstan- dignity of the law. He gave up one of which he may be exposed so little to tial detail, in which alone they can be his own eyes, and took away one of his be foreseen, and so unsusceptible of be- supposed to furnish instruction, they son's." ing comprehended within any one act are not at all, and especially ancient The abbe's remarks on this story are of generalization, that the rule of con- histories, to be depended on. We too puerile to be noticed. The story, duct deduced from the experience know, that even in times which compa- however, certainly an imposture. It of yesterday may to-day be inappli- ratively may be called recent, facts have is taken from Valerius Maximus. lleracable, and the experience of to-day been very differently represented. We clides, of Pontus, tells us that this was prove but a very fallacious light for the know that some of the most enlighten the Locrian punishment of robbers, and guidance of the morrow. This is more ed writers, living on the spot, furnished | Cicero doubts the very existence of Zaleuespecially the case in political matters, with all the documents that can be ob-cus. respecting which he who should shape tained, interested by honourable prin- Such is the reputation of Demohis conduct by historical analogies, ciples of zeal in the investigation of critus," says the abbe again, “ that alwould bave little more chance of suc- truth-indeed, many of them, the most most all the world is persuaded he put cess than a painter who should attempt learned men in Scotland, the seat of his eyes out upon moral and honoura. to draw a likeness of a child from a per- erudition, essentially differ in their o- ble principles. Aulus Gellius assures fect intimacy with the physiognomical pinions and representation of one soli- us that he took this resolution, in order lineaments of its father and mornother; tary unfortunate woman-Mary, queen to concentrate his ideas, and to enable --a certain remote resemblanci inight, of Scots. We know that two historians, him more effectually to contemplate perhaps, exist, as is fouod to preside contemporaries of each other and of the those mysteries of nature into which his more or less in all familjes; but if the times on which they write-Bisset and eyes did not suffer him to penetrate. picture were even a tolerably good like. Belsham-disagree; and we know that He quotes the verses of Laberius, ness, the pianter might be said to have two men taken from our parties in this wherein he says that Democritus lost


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We Impostures of History.

[March 1, 1818. his sight by looking too steadfastly on who wrote the man's life not even al., a young man of Tuscany, named Sputhe sun. But, according to that philo- luded to.

rina, who was so singularly beautiful sopher, Democritus had a different view " If,” continues the Abbé, “we were that the Tuscan ladies, even to a wo. in parting with his sight, which he suf- to credit all said about him by high man, were dying for love of him. The fered, in order that he might not be historians, we cannot be astonished at youth, however, disfigured his face in mortified with looking on vicious men. the cruelties and follies of Xerxes, and such a manner as to render himself as Plutarch, who had mentioned this be at the same time believe him to be the much an object of aversion as he had fore Aulus Gellius, considers it as an pink of humanity and of every heroic before been of love and admiration, The imposture. The assertion, says he, that excellence. Seneca in his noble piece historan alleges that he took this method Democritus deprived himself of sight by De Ira, informs us that an old man, to preserve his morals, the reputation looking on a burning-glass, is certainly named Pythius, had five sons whom of which he preferred to that of beauty false; yet it is true that those who ac- Xerxes ordered to the wars. The fa- and love. " There is not a syllable of custom themselves to mental labour, ther begged one for the support of his truth in this story, (says the Abbé) and find the senses rather troublesome than age. The monarch gave him his choice, St Ambrose has said so before me.” useful. For this reason the retreats of but immediately commanded the son Another imposture of history is the study, and the temples of the muses, who was selected to be cut asunder, story of Hezegias, whose eloquence is are generally in solitudes; and, proba- and the parts to be laid on each side of said by his historians to be so powerful, bly, it is for the same reason that the the high way, for the expiation of his that when he spoke of the evils of life, Greeks call the night Euphrona, that army. So much for the barbarity of his audience voluntarily put themselves is, “ the good thinker," because the the man, now for his folly. He com- to death. Less impossible, but still time that is least subject to dissipation manded the sea to be beaten with rods, very like impostures, are the stories reand variety is most favourable to thought. and cauterized with hot irons ; and he lated of the assassins sent to murder Thus Pluturch is persuaded that the wrote a letter to Mount Athos. Such Mark Antony and Marius, being overman who cannot see has a considerable are the tales and contemptible incon- powered by the eloquence of the foradvantage in point of meditation ; and gruities foisted upon mankind under mer, and the dignity of the latter. it was undoubtedly under this idea that the name of history-read in the first Ælian relates that the Celts looked Pythagoras shut himself up a whole universities in the world, -noted, illus- upon flight as, in every instance, so in. winter in a subterranean cave.

trated, and commented upon by the supportably disgraceful, that they would “ Lactantius, on the other hand, says learned, and, with most simple faith, not fly from a house that threatened an that the mind decerns the object through credited by many. There are many immediate fall, or that would in a the medium of the eye, as through a other stories about this noise-making few minutes perish in the flames. « Pli. window. It is so essentially there, that personage, Xerxes, such as his army ny (says the abbe) tells us that the rats through the same medium you may drinking up rivers,-- leaving the Lissus, and spiders will leave a house that is read what passes in it.”

the Chidorus, and even the Scamander about to fall. What a contemptible « Upon the whole,” says the Abbe, 1 dry; and, above all, the story related opinion must the Celts have entertained " it is evident that this story of Demo- of the cattle of the prodigious army of of those pusillanimous creatures ? eritus is a mere imposture. 'How could this prodigious king, being so nume- Pliny's accounts of the Thrasyme. he possibly think of putting out his rous that they exhausted a lake of five nian lake being on fire, and of Anaxar. eyes, when those organs are the medi. miles in circumference. Yet this is chus's biting off his own tongue-deum by which knowledge passes to the history!!!"

serye no quarter. understanding. Might he not, with In some cases the gravity with which Herodotus, Athenæus, and NichoPythagoras, have shut himself up in our honest Abbé reasons upon these las Damascenus, tell incredible stories darkness. If his aversion to the sight monstrous absurdities, is as ridiculous of the excessive fattery of courtiers, of vicious men made him destroy his as the stories are incredible. Ap in who, to ingratiate themselves with eyes, it was indeed very extraordinary. stance or two may be given by way of princes, have imitated them in their Tertullian, however, tells a different amusement:

greatest absurdities. If the prince was story," which may be conjectured by Cicero (says the Abbé) speaking of lame, his whole court was lame-if he those who have read of the sacrifice of the music of the spheres, says that the broke a limb, they underwent the same Origen, or remember why Dr Johnson reason why we do not hear it, is owing punishment." The incredulous abbé abstained from going behind the scenes partly to its continuance, and partly to disbelieves this; but we are far from of Drury-lane theatre.

its loudness. “ Thus," says he, the peo- thinking it improbable. “ It certainly was a most unphiloso- ple who live near the cataracts of the Pliny and Arrian mention a tree phical proceeding on all parts, if we Nile, hear nothing at all.” Here the that spread its shade over five acres of take the facts from Tertullian ; since, good Abbé seems angry. “ Hear no- ground. though the eyes were put out, the im- thing ! (says he very gravely) Why the So far I have gone along with the abbé agination was still alive. Cicero great-d- should they choose to live in such Lancelotti, in his exposure of the imly doubts this passage in history. Cur a place ? How could the business of postures of history; and now I would hæc eadem Democritus, qui, vere falso commerce and government be carried fain have an answer from some of your nequeremus dicitur oculis se privasse. Did they converse by signs?" correspondents to this question, "Is it

« Here then is a fact stated of a man Utrum Horum? Of the ancient fool or true that Hannibal cut his way across by a very high historiari, denied by on the modern, the writer of the text or the the Alps, as historians relate with thers, by Cicero, Plutarch, and Valeri- commentator, which is more ridiculous? FIRE, IRON, AND VINEGAR--and if so, us Maximus, and by Diogenes Laertius, Valerius Maximus records a story of how did he apply the vinegar?' C. R.

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March 7. 1818.)
Sketches of Society-Manners of the English in the Sis'eenth Century.

257 Sketches of Society.

He falls very foul on Holland shirts, / soine of this fashion, and some of that, and some

and ascribes infirmity and short life to of this colour, and some of that, according to the MANNERS OF THE ENGLISH IN THE fine linen. Hosen follow according to variable funtasies of their serpentine mindes. * *

Another sort of dissolute minions and wanton SIXTEENTH CENTURY. custom.

sempromians (for I can terme tiem no better,) From “ The ANATOMY OF ABUSES ; Contain- In tymes past kynges (as old historiographers are so farie bewitched, as they are not ashamed

ing a discoverie or brief summarie of such in their bookes yet extant doe recorde would not to make holes in their eares, whereat thei hang notable Vices and Imperfections as now raigne disdain to weare a paire of hosen of a noble, tenne rynges, and other jewels of gold and precious in many countreyes of the world, but (espe- shillynges or a marke price, with all the rest of stones. But what this signifieth in them, I will ciallye) in a famous ISLANDE called AILG- their apparell after the same rate, but now it is hoide my peace, for the thing itself speaketh sufNA; together with most fearefull examples a small matter to bestowe twentie nobles, tenne ficiently. There is a certaine kinde of people of God's judgements executed upon the wic- pounde, 20 pounde, 40 pounde, yea 10a pounde in the orientall part of the world, as writers ked for the same, as wel in AILGNA of late as on one paire of Creeches (God bee mercifull unto assume, that are such lovers of themselves, in other places elsewhere. Very godly to us,, and yet is this thought no abuse neither.” and so proude withall, that havyng plentie of be read of all true Christians, but most needfull to be regarded in England. Made dia. duced to one of these Princes whose setting therein these precious stones, to tije ende

As the reader may like to be intro. precious stones and margarites amongst them,

thci cutt and launce their skinnes and fleche, logue wise by PHILLIP STUBBES, Seen and allowed according to order. Printed at Lon- dress was not worth more than them- thei maie glister and shine to the eye. So, exdor, by Richard Jones, 16, August 1683." selves, we shall quote him Othello, act cept these women were minded to tread their ii. scene 11.

pathes, and folowe their direfull waies in this It will not require an (Edipus to de

cursed kind of pride, I wonder what thei meane. laco. Oh sweet Englande.

* You heare not the tenth part, for no pen tect the geographical situation of this

King Stephen was an a worthy peer, is able so well to describe it, as the eye is to de“ famous ilande' called Ailgna ;” but His breeches cost him but a crown, scribe it. The women there use great ruffes and should guessing not serve, dull wits

He held them sixpence all too dear, neckerchers of hollande, laune, camericke, and will be much assisted by reading the

With that he called the tailor lown.

such clothe as the greatest threed shall not be so word, like Hebrew, from right to left. This stanza is from an old song to be big as the least haire that is, then least thei Sir Egerton Brydges would have no found in “ Relics of Ancient Poetry." in the devil's liquor, i meane starche; after that

should dealings with such libellous matter, but Dial. IV.

A particuler description of the dried with great diligence, streaked, patted, and honest Phillip Stubbes has nevertheless Abuses of Womens Apparell in Ailgna. rubbed very nicely, and so applied to their goodnot lived to this time without honour.

I trust I shall not be unrewarded at their ly necks, and withall underpropped with supChalmers notices him, and Stevens, in

handes, if, at the least, to be called a thousand portasses (as I told you before, the stately arelies J. and S.'s Shakespeare, Vol. II. p. 257. knaves be a sufficient guerdon for my paines. fetche, notlyng inseriour to the rest, as pamely

of pride! beside all this, they have a farther refers to this work in the following pas

It maie bee perhappes a corrosive to sage :-" During the reign of Queen their hautie stomackes, and a nippitatum to their three or fower degrees of minor rufles placed gra

, one beneath Elizabeth, plays were exhibited in the tender breast in to be are their dirtie drenges ript maister

devill rufie ; the shirts then of these up, their diamond faces. The wopublic theatres on Sundays as well as men (many of them) use to colour their faces great rufles are long and side, every waie plated,

and crested full curiously, God wot. on other days in the week, in which with certaine oyles, liquors, unguentes, and waStrype, in his additions to Stowe's Sur-, ters made to that ende, whereby thei thinke their We then have a very horrible story vey of London, says, the churches were beauty is greatly decored: but who seeth not forsaken, and the playhouses thronged.” brought deeper into the displeasure and indigna that their soules are thereby deformed, and thei and how the devil came to assist at her

of a young lady who cursed her maids, The reference subjoined is probably to tion of the Almightie, at whose voyce the yearth toilette, and how he kissed her, and how these words :-" You shall have them doeth tremble, and at whose presence the heavens she turned all “ blacke and blewe.' flocke thether thicke and threefolde, shall liquefie and melt away?

* It How further she was taken out of her when the church of God shall be bare an artificer or craftsman should make any thing coffin, and they found " a blacke catte

belonging to his arte or science, and a cobler verie leane and deformed, sittyng in the and emptie.”

should presume to correct the same, would not The first dialogue is between Spu. the other thinke hymself abused, and judge hym coffin, setting of great ruffes, and frizdens and Philoponus.

The latter is re- worthie of reprehension ? And dooe these wo- lyng of haire, to the great feare and turned from his travels, and undertakes men thinke to escape the judgement of God, wonder of all the beholders.” Their to describe Ailgna. Dialogue H. is who hath fashioned them to his glorie, wlien their “ a particuler description of Pride, the reth to alter and chaunge his workmanship in sweeping condenination of “their skirtes

great and more than presumptuous audacitie da' gowns do not escape, and there is a principall abuse in. Ailgna, and how them? Doe they suppose they can make them- trailying on the ground, and cast over nifold it is." He holds dress to be a selves fairer than God that made us all? their shoulders like cowe tailes.” Petgreat sin, «

apparel and pride” being These must needes bee their intentions, or els ticoats are also not without their trimis collaterall cosins.” After the fall, "it with such sibbers-awces. thei would never goe aboute to colour their faces

ning. “ So that,” says he, “ when

Then fol was given us to cover our shame wtihall

, loweth the trimming and trycking of their beddes, they have all these goodly robes upon and not to feed the insatiable desires in laying out their haire to the shewe, wbiche of them, women seem to be the smallest of mens wanton and luxuriouse eyes." course must be curled, frisled, and crisped, laid part of themselves, not naturall women,

out (a world to see) on wreathes and borders but artificiall women, not women of Dual. III —“ A particuler description of Ap- from one eare to another. And least it should feshe and bluid, but rather puppits of parell in Ailgna. by degrees.

fall doune it is under-proped with forks, wiers, To begin firste with their hattes Soinetymes and I cannot tell what, rather like grim, sterne

mawmets, consistyng of ragges and thei use them sharpe on the croune, pearking up monsters, than chaste christian matrones. Then cloutes compact together. like the spere or shaft of a steeple, standing a on toppes these stately turrets (I meane their After all this, when they have attired themquarter of a yarde above the croune of their goodly heades, wherein is more vanitie than true selves thus, in the middest of their pride it is a heades some more, come lesse as please the phan philosophie now and then stand their other ca- worlde to consider their coinesse in gestures, tasies of their inconstant mindes. Other some be pitalle ornaments, as French hood. hatt, cappe, their minsednesse in woordes and speeches, their dat and broad in the croune, like the battlements kercher and such like, whereof some be of vel gingernesse in tripping on toes like young goates, of a house.”

vet, some of taffetie, some (but few) of wooll, their demure nicitie and babishnesse, and with:








Sketches of Society,--Manners of the English in the Sixteenth Century, Sc.

[March 7, 1818. their hautie stomackes, and more than Cyclopi: I players, painted sepulchers, and double, and expressedly because it was consical countenances, their fingers must be decked dealyng ambodexters.” The rise in the dered as symbolical of the spiritual ilwith golde, &c. Thei must have their lookyng price of admission to theatres would lumination of the Gospel. glasses carried with them wheresoever they goes. And good reason, for els how could thei see the, have put him into a pelting chafe, for From Candlemas to Hallowmas, the . deri to them?"

he quotes Augustin to tell us that pe- tapers which had been lighted all the DAL. VI.-Ghittonie and E.rcesse. cunias histrionibus dare, vitium est im- winter in cathedral and conventual Ass me be over largeous, so others some are mane, non virtus... To give money to churches ceased to be used; and so spare inough, for when any meate is stirring players is greevous sinne, and no ver- prevalent, indeed, was the relinquishthen locke chei up their gates, that no man may tue.” come in. An other sorte have so many houses,

ment of candles on this day in domestic that they visit them..not once in seven years; DIAL. XVIII.—The horrible Vice of pestiferous life, that it has laid the foundation of many chimnies, but little snoke, fair houses, but


one of the proverbs in the collection of smali hospitalitie.

Mr Ray;

“ On Candlemas day throw Thei are not ashamed to erect schooles of DJAL. VII.-Drunkenness.

dauncing, thinkyug it an ornament to their chil-. Candle and Candlestick away." "On this Every countrey, citie, toune, village, and other dren to be expert in this noble science of hea- day likewise the Christmas greens were places, hath abundance of alehouses, taverns, and then deviltie ; and yet this people glorie of their removed from churches and private innes, which are so fraught with maltwormes Christianitie, and integritie of life. Therefore to houses. night and day, that you would wounder to see conclude, if of the eggs of a cockatrice maie, be dered as the contemporary of Shak

Herrick, who may be consithem.

made good meate for man to eate, and if of the DIAL. VIII.-Covetousnessc.

webb of a spider can be made good cloth for mans speare, being five-and-twenty at the Landlordes make merchandize of their poore body to weare, then maie it be proved that daun period of the poet's death, has given us tenants, racking their rents, raising their lines, cing is good, and an exercise fit for a Christian a pleasing description of this obserand incomes, and setting them so straight upon

man to follow, but not beforeWherefore, God, vance; he abounds, indeed, in the histhe tenter hookes, as no maa can live on them. of his mercie, take it awaie from us.” Besides that, as tho' this pillage and pollage were

tory of local rites, and, though survive sot rapacious enough, thei take in, and inclose Dial. XXVII.—Readyng of wicked Bookes. ing beyond the middle of the sevencommons, moores, beathes, and other common He is very indignant that “ John teenth century, paints with great acpastures whereout the poor commonalitie were Foxe” and all good books are little re- curacy the manners and superstitions wont to have all their forage, and feedyng for

He has paid their cattell, and (whiche is more) corne for verenced, “ whilst other toyes, fantas- of the Shaksperean era. themselves to live upon; all which are now in ies and bableries, whereof the world is particular attention to the festival that inoste places taken from them, by these greedy full, are suffered to be printed,” And we are describing, and enumerates the puttockes, to the great impoverishyng and utter he puts this question, which may be various greens and Aowers appropriat- ; beggeryng of many whole townes and parishes.” answered in the affirmative or negative, ed to different seasons, in a little poeiu "Lawyers (he remarks,) purchase landes and

entitled fordshippes, and what not, and al upon the pol- but which we are really not at present lyng and pillying of the poore commons. * prepared to say—" are they not in* If you have argent, or rather rubrum un- vented and excogitat by Belzebub,

CEREMONIES FOR CANDLEMASSE EYE guentum, í dare not say golde, but redde oint- written by Lucifer, licenced by Pluto,

Down with the rosemary and bayes, ment, to grease them in the fist witball, then

Down with the misleto; your sute shali want no furtherance; but if this printed by Cerberus, and set 'abroach

Instead of holly, now upraise liquor be wantyng, then farewell cliente, he maie to sale by the infernal Furies them

The grecner box (for show.) goe shoot the goose, for any good successe he is selves, to the poysoning of the whole

The holly hitherto did sway! to hare of his matter. world."

Let box now domineer, The worlde is suche, that he who hath money

Until the dancing Easter-day, inough, shall be rabbied and maistered at every

On Easter's eve appeare. worde, and withall saluted by the vaine title of

Candlemas and Shrovetide..

Then youthful box which now hath grace, worshipfull, tho' notwithstanding he be a dung

Your houses to renew : hill gentleman, or a gentleman of the first lead,

Among the common people, the fes- Grown old, surrender must his place, as thci use to terme them." tivities of Christmas were frequently

Unto the crisped yew.
Dial, IX.--Usaurie.
protracted to CANDLEMAS-DAY. This

When yew is ont, then birch comes in,
O cursed caitive, no man, but a devill, no was done under the idea of doing And many flowers beside ;
Christian, but a cruell Tartarian and mercilesse honour to the Virgin Mary, whose pu-

Both of a fresh and fragrant kinne, Turke; Darest thou looke up toward heaven, or

To honour Whitson tide. canst thou hope to bee saved by the death of rificationis commemorated by the church

. Green bushes then, and sweetest bents, Christ , that sufferest thine owne fleshe and bloud, at this period. It was generally, re

With cooler oaken boughs; tiune owne brethren and sisters in the Lorde, and marks Bourne, “ a day of festivity, and

Come in for comely ornaments, 199 which is more, the fleshe and bloude of Christe more than ordinary observation among

To re-adorn the house. Jesus, vesselles of saivation, coheires with hym of women, and is therefore called the his supernall kingdome, adoptive sonnes of his grace, and finally sainctes in Heaven, to lye and Wives' Feast-day.The term Candle

The usage which we have alluded rot in prison for went of payment of a little drosse, mas, however, seems to have arisen from to, of the preserving the Christmas which at the daie of doome shall beare witness a custom among the Roman Catholics, cheer and hospitality to Candlemas, iş against thee, gnawe thy tieslie like a canker, and of consecrating tapers on this day, and immediately afterwards recorded and

condemn thee for ever! The very stones of the bearing them about lighted in proces connected with a singular superstition, * prison walles shall rise up against thce, and condemne thee for thy crueltie. Is this thy love? Is sion, to which they were enjoined by in the following poems under the titles this charitie? Is this to do to others as thou an edict of Pope Sergius, A. D. 684 ; of wouidest wish others to doe to thee; or rather as but on what foundation is not accuratethou wouldest wish the Lord to doe unto thee." ly ascertained. At the Reformation,

Kindle the Christmas brand, and then Dial. XII –Of Stage-playes and Enterludes, among the rites and ceremonies which

Till sunne-set, let it burne ;
with their wickednesse.
were ordered to be retained in a con-

Wbich quencht, then lay it up agen,
He rails mightily at the “ makyng | vocation of Henry VIII. this is one,

Till Christmas next returne.



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March 7, 1818.)
Sketches of Society-Shakspeare and his Times.

255 Part must be kept wherewith to tecnd * hen,” says he, “ is hung at a fellow's The third line of this song appears The Christmas Leg next y tre;

back, who has also some horse-bells a to have been proverbial, and of consiAnd where tis safely kept the fiend

bout him; the rest of the fellows are derable antiquity ; for Adam Davie, Can do yo mischief there

blinded, and have boughs in theịr hands, who flourished about 1312, has the End now the white-loafe and the pye, with which they chase this fellow and same imagery with the same thyme, in And let all sports with Christmas dye. his hen about some large court or small his Life of Alexander :

enclosure. The fellow with his hen and To the exorcising power of the Christ- bells shifting as well as he can, they

Merry swithe it is in halle, mas brand is added, in the subsequent follow the sound, and sometimes hit

When the berdes waveth alle. effusion, a most alarming denunciation him and his hen ; at other times, if he And the subsequent passage, quoted against those who heedlessly leave in

can get behind one of them, they thresh by Mr Reed from a writer contempothe hall, on Candlemas Eve, any the one another well favour'dly ; but the rary with Shakspeare, proves, that it smallest portion of the Christmas greens. jest is, the maids are to blind the fel. was a common burden or under song in

lows, which they do with their aprons, the halls of our gentry at that period : CEREMONY UPON CANDLEMAS EVE..

and the cunning baggages will endear“ which done, grace said, and the table Down with the rosemary, and so Down with the baies and misletoe;

their sweet-hearts with a peeping hole, taken up, the plate presently conveyed Down with the holy, ivie. all

whilst the others look out as sharp to into the pantrie, the hall summons this Wherewith ye drest the Christmas ball : hinder it. After this the hen is boil'a consort of companions (upon payne to

with bacon, and store of pancakes and dyne with Duke Humphrie, or to kisse That so the superstitious find

fritters are made. She that is noted for the hạre's foot,) to appear at the first No one least branch there left behind : For look now many leaves there be,

lying in bed long, or any other miscar. call: where a song is to be sung, the Neglected there, maids, trust to me, riage, hath the first pancake presented under song or holding whereof is, It is So many goblins you shall see.

to her, which most commonly falls to merrie in haul where beards wng all.

the dog's share at last, for no one will The Serving-man's Coinfort, 1598, sign The next important period of feast- own it their due.” Mr Hilman con- C. ing in the country occurred at SHROVE- cludes his comment on the text with a The evening of Shrove- Tuesday was Tide, which among the Roman Catho- singular remark; “ the loss of the a- unusually appropriated, as well in the lics was the time appointed for shriving bove laudable custom, is one of the be- country as in town, to the exhibition of or confession of sins, and was also ob- nefits we have got by smoaking to dramatic pieces. Not only at Court, served as a carnival before the com-bacco."

where Johnson was occasionally emmencement of Lent. The former of

Shakspeare has twice noticed this ployed to write Masques on this night, these ceremonies was dispensed with at

season of feasting and amusement; first, but at both the Universities, in the prothe Reformation ; but the rites attend-in All's Well That Ends Well, where he vincial schools, and in the halls of the ing the latter were for a long time sup makes the Clown tell the Countess (a gentry and nobility, were these the aported with a rival spirit of hilarity mong a string of other similies,) that his musements of skrovetide, during the The Monday and Tuesday succeeding answer is « as fit as a pancake for days of Elizabeth and James. Warton, Shrove Sunday, called Collop Monday Shrove-tuesday," and in the Second speaking of these ephemeral plays, adds, and Pancake Tuesday, were peculiarly Part of King Henry IV. he has intro- in a note, “ I have seen an anonymous devoted to Shrove-tide Amusement ; the duced Silence singing the following comedy, AproLLO SHROVING, comfirst having been, in papal times, the song :

posed by the Master of Hadleighperiod at which they took leave of flesh,

school, in Suffolk, and acted by his or slices of meat, termed collops in the Be merry, be merry, my wife's as all; scholars on Shrove-Tuesday, Feb. 7, north, which had been preserved through For women are shrews, both short and tall;

1626, printed 1627, 8vo. published, as the winter by salting and drying, and

'Tis merry in hall, when beards wag all, the second was a relic of the feast pre

And welcome merry shrove tide.

it seems, by E. W. Shrove-tuesday, as Be merry, be merry, &c.

the day immediately preceding Lent, ceding Lent; eggs and collops there

was always a day of extraordinary sport fore on the Monday, and pancakes, as

* Reed's Shakespeare, Vol. viii, D: 272 and feasting.–Some of these festivi. a delicacy, on the Tuesday, were duly Warner has also noticed this culinary article as if not religiously served up.

appropriated to Sbrove Tuesday in his

Albion's ties,” he proeeeds to say, “still remain England c. xxiv where, enumerating the feasts in our universities.

In the PERCY Tusser, in his very curious and en- and holidays of his time, he says, they had “At HOUSEHOLD-Book, 1512, it appears, tertaining poem on agriculture, thus fasts eve pan puffes " Shrove, or Pancake Tucsnotices some of the old observances at day, is still called in the North, Fasters, or Fas that the clergy and officers of Lord PerShrovetide :

tern s E cn, as preceding Ash Wednesday, the cy's chapel performed a play“ before his

first day of Lent and the turning of these cakes lordship upon Shrowftewesday at night.At Shroftide to shroving, go thresh the fat hen, and skill. of the pancake-bell which used to be which, until lately, was a diversion pe.

in the pan is yet observed as a feat of dexterity The cruel custom of cock-throwing, If blindfold can kill her then give it thy men Maids, fritters and pancakes, ynow see yerung on Shrove Tuesday, Taylor, the Water Poet, sculiar to this day, seems to have origimake,

has given us the following most singular account:

Shrove Tuesday, at whose entrance in the nated from the barbarous, yet less saLet slut have one pancake for company sake.

morning all the whole kingdom is unquiet, but by vage, amusement of cock-fighting ; al. For an explanation of the obsolete that time the clocke strikes eleven, which (by I though it cannot be ascertained at what custom of " threshing the fat hen,” we nine, then there is a bell rung called pancakes throwing. The great moral painter,

the help of a knavish sexton) is commonly before period this degenerated into cocka are indebted to Mr Hilman. “ The bell, the sound whereof makes thousands of people

distracted, and forgetful either of manners or bu- Hogarth, was the first who effectually * Teend, to kindle.

manitic." See bis Works, folio, 1630, p. 115. satirized this infamous sport; his be

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