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265 rectness of the drawing, and taste of The researches made here, have now and the whole has the aspect of a dethe execution, are really wonderful for for their object, the clearing of the sert; yet here rise majestic oaks, aloes, so rude an era. This singular relic, re- whole city, and its walls, which is part- and cypresses; the soil is rich, and markable as a monument of ancient ly accomplished. In the course of the vegetation is thriving. Scattered rutimes, is preserved at Aurich.

last four years, the extent of the exca- ins seen from time to time, some RoTripoli --Recent accounts from Mal- vation is much enlarged; a whole quar. man, some Gothic, are enveloped in ta state, that the Weymouth store-ship, ter of the city is cleared, with another fig trees; and among these vestiges had sailed from that island for Tripoli, gate of entrance. In a few years more stray, now and then, shepherds armed to receive on board the curiosities col- the whole of the town will be brought with lances, who watch the motions of lected at Lebida, (the site of the ancient to light, and Pompeii will revive from their Hocks. No solid residence affords Carthage,) and destined for the Prince the tomb, in which it has been enclos- them shelter ; a few huts of reeds Regent by the Bey. They are repre. ed during almost eighteen centuries. are all their resort, and silence reigns sented as highly valuable and curious, Every thing remains as left by the Ro- around both day and night. After long consisting of massy columns of porphy-mans, its late masters. Every thing perseverance in these unwholesome ry, statuary, and other fragments of denotes their customs and habitudes. plains, the horizon presents to the traancient art. This collection has been It may be said that we live with them ; veller's observation, indications of solimade under the direction of Captain that we use their furniture; that we tary edifices, long respected by time. Smith, of the Royal Navy, who hasteat at their tables; that we inspect These enlarge as the spectator apbeen some time employed in surveying their decorations; that we read their proaches, and disclose massive colonthat part of the African coast, and is manuscripts. An intelligent travel ades and regular forms. They are the frequently with the Bey, by whom he ler lately spent some hours in watch three temples of Pæstum, and are usuiis allowed a guard of Janizaries in his ing the progress of the labourers em- ally the termination of travellers' ex. several journeys through the coun-ployed. They threw clods of clotted cursions. Of all the ruins extant in try. At one of his audiences the aslies into the wheelbarrows, for the Italy, these temples are the most anBey of Fezzan was present; and purpose of being carried away. They cient, and the most awful; they date he related to Captain Sinith, that opened on the wall of a house painted from a period of which we know so litabout seventeen years since, an Eng. in fresco. Little by little appeared tle, that we describe it as the heroic lishman travelled with him to the prettily painted devices, representing ages. Certainly civilization was in no southward of Fezzan, and was taken ill Bacchantes and boy cupids. The con- decripid state when those unknown on the road of a fever, which caused tinued labour, by clearing the apret- nations who built the Cyclopean walis his death, and he afterwards saw him ments, brought to light a charmingly in Italy, as well as in Greece, perburied. This person, there can be no elegant bronze, a candelabrum, in the haps at the same time raised in Edoubt, was Mr F. Horneman, the son form of a tree, resting in a vase of the gypt the wonderful pyramids and the of a German clergyman, employed by same metal, the fruits of which formed avenues of sphinxes. Those people the society for making discoveries in lamps, with projections for holding the have left behind them proofs of inthe interior of Africa. As in the case wicks. By the side of this bronze was conceivable skill, though now they of Park, no intelligence of this traveller found a bust of Marius. These labours serve only to shelter a few straggling had been received during the period are continued till the approach of night buffaloes. Their colonnades have de before mentioned; and as he was known obliges the workmen to cease.-Be-fied the effects of ages, and will long to have been in the direction stated by yond Pompeii, the fields no longer shew defy them. Who, then, and what the Bey of Fezzan, no doubt of his the effects of the ravages caused by e- were they? History gives us some death exists, especially as the period ruptions of Vesuvius. Nature, in all her light on the inhabitants of Pompeii, of his disappearance exactly corres. freshness, young, beautiful, and vigo- and on the fate of their city; on the ponds with the alleged time of his de- rous, intermingles olive-trees, mulber- city, of whatever description, con

ry-trees, vines, and orange trees. The nected with the temples of Pæstum, Pompeii. From the extent and mag- plain of Sorrentum is perhaps the only it is silent. These three edifices, placed nitude, we might say magnificence, of part of the kingdom of Naples in which on a line, were neither so placed by acsome of the works projected and an- the action of an enlightened and lively cident, nor were they erected without nounced on the subject of Pompeii, it industry may be distinguished. In this design :--but, what was that design, is clear that our countrymen, who since highly favoured country the peasants and to gratify whom they were built, the peace have visited that ancient city, have attempted, with great success, to we know not-Could they be erected have attached an interest and impor-extend the cultivation of cotton. At a by any but a powerful people? Would tance to its remains, much exceeding very few miles distance from the plainsot a powerful people inhabit countries so what previous reports had given reason Sorrentum, distinguished by its fertili

. dangerous to the health of their citito expect. In fact, it is an instance of ty," (which ends at Salerno,) begins a zens? Have these countries become the resurrection of a city, such as it was marenna, or country afflicted with a dangerous since their former inhabi. in the first century of Christianity. It pestilential air, an unhappy quality fre. tants were ejected, perhaps destroyed ? was covered with ashes, (probably wa- quent on the shores of the Mediterra- Were they once flourishing, populcus ter was mixed with them,) rising and nean, but rare on those of the Adriatic rich, polite, learned, and ingenious ? rolling from the crater of Vesuvius. gulf. On entering these districts, the How many questions multiply upon us ! For many ages, the upper walls of the high-ways lose themselves in the turfs to which the only answer is that of houses appeared above the soil, so of the commons; the property of the these forsaken plains--a dead silence. slightly was it covered in some places. soil is in the hands of a few proprietors, Equally expressive the silence of Poni





[March 7, 1818. peii and that of Pæstum. Here we see not remarkable, except for its fine cone , a silver road of office, of which the pecuthe marks and evidences of civilized partments. In the second is seen, in liar use is not yet ascertained. The work, life, of busy traffic, of learned leisure, the middle, a Greek Menander, sur- manship of the crown and sceptre are of military ardour, of scenic amuse- rounded by stars, differing from each highly elegant, and in good taste; the ment, but no inhabitant: none to another by the enamel of their colours. sword being a present from Pope Julius swer a question; none to explain a sin. In the third, besides the merit of the to James IV. is of a pattern correspondgle particular. And there we contem- Mosaic, there is in the centre Ulysses ing to the excellence of the arts of Italy plate temples, raised, no doubt, to be bound to the mast of a ship ; on a shoal at that classical period. thronged, to be adorned, to witness li- is placed a rower, and a syren with a The CROWN is of a very elegant bations and hecatombs,—but priests lyre in her hand. On the other side, form, nine inches over, and weighs and people have disappeared; the Scylla having the upper part formed with the cap about four pounds. The festive rites have ceased; the assem- like a woman, and the lower terminat bonnet is of crimson velvet, bound with bled multitudes have left no represen- ing in three dogs' heads, which devour ermine; has suffered little from being tative ;--all we know is here was Pæs- three carcasses : she has an ear in her so long shut up. The lower part of tum; as all we knew before, · was hand, and beats these animals. On the the crown is a circlet, ornamented with here was Pompeii.

right of Scylla, a little cupid is flying emeralds, rubies, hyacinths, &c. A. An Ancient Crown discovered in Scla- on a tiger ;a woman pointing to above this rises a second circle, compose vonia.On the 23d of last March, in sea-monster, holds a veil in her hands, ed of fleur-de-lis, tipped with large making a road at Mallier, a little vil- which, inflated by the wind, floats over pearls, and alternated with figures, lage in Sclavonia, as the wife of a sol- her head. In the fourth, numerous termed by heralds crosses fleuries, the dier, named Gasparowich, was turning fish, of different species, adorn the points of the cross being marked with up a clod with her pickaxe, she found, Mosaic, which is inclosed in a border, pearls. These two circles, forming the about two inches deep under ground, handsomely ornamented. Ulysses is a- diadem, are of pure gold, and supposed a piece of metal rolled up, which she gain seen; the magician Circe appears to be very ancient. The circlet, or took for iron, and threw it into the to him : it seems that the hero has for- “ golden round of sovereignty," is sure road. At a second stroke she disco- gotten Penelope. At the four angles mounted by four arches, which meet vered the basket-formed vessel ; which, are little subjects alluding to the adven- and close at the top in a globe again in the opinion of all who have consider tures of Ulyses: and on the four sides surmounted by a cross. They appear ed it with attention, is supposed to be a are represented birds of differentspecies. to have been tacked on to the circle at crown. It consists of two parallel cir- Antique Ring.-The Roman Gazette a later period, probably by James V. cles of strong gold wire twisted toge- relates, on the authority of letters from whose initials appear on the cross. ther, which are about four inches asun- Greece, that a countryman in the neigh- The crown rests on a square and tassel. der, and connected by a spiral orna- bourhood of Corinth lately struck with led cushion of crimson velvet. Some ment in this form H. The inside of his ploughshare against a metal vessel, of the stones are said to be extremely the crown, shaped like a hat, con- which contained several ancient coins, curious, and the oriental pearls are of sists of a braid of the same kind of and a ring, with an agate of the size of the most extraordinary quality and size. gold, which surrounds a net button in half a saldo. On this agate the naked eye The sceptre is an elegant piece of the middle, in rose-shaped braids.- could discover nothing but some very workmanship, of a hexagon form, diThe whole weighs a little more than small strokes. A learned traveller vided by three buttons or knosps, and 24 ounces. The diameter is equal to purchased the ring, and by the aid of adorned with curious antique embellishthat of a small hat.

à microscope discovered a most ad- ments. At the top of the stalk there is a As the workmen's attention was at. mirable work of art. On the upper small capital on which are three images tracted to this valuable relic, it was side of the stone he found a group of placed close together, of the Virgin and soon discovered that the whole mass was gods, distinguishable by their attri- Child, of St Andrew, and of St James. gold. By chance a corporal came up, butes ; and on the lower side, Achilles They are about three inches high. who

gave notice of it to the captain. dragging the dead body of Hector be. The figures of three dolphins uniting Immediately on the following morning, hind his chariot. This discovery af at the top so as to form an arch, form the ground in that place was dug up fords a fresh proof of the great superi. an open shrine in which the images five or six fathoms, and carefully ex- ority of the ancients to the moderns in stand. The whole is surmounted by a amined; but nothing farther was dis works of this kind. .

crystal ball or globe, above which is a covered. Since the 25th of October, The Scottish Regalia. The examin- small globe tipped with a large oriental the crown has been at Vienna, and it ation of the Crown-room took place on pearl. The swORD OF state is about is not doubted but that this curiosity the 4th February. Nothing was found five feet in length, the pommel constiwill be delivered to the Imperial trea in the room but a large oblong oaken tuting about fifteen inches. The handle sury or museum.

chest, secured by two strong locks, for is of silver gilt, with space for placing Mosaic Pavements. The Duchess of which no keys had been found. The the two hands. The traverse of a Chablais having employed workmen to chest was forced open with some diffi- cross where the blade issues from the dig in search of antiquities at the coun- culty. It was found to contain the hilt is fantastically yet beautifully try-set which she inhabits, near Rome, crown, SCEPTRE, and SWORD of wrought into the representation of two they have discovered, on the summit of State of Scotland, answering, in the dolphins. The scabbard is of crimson a hill

, four square chambers, of differ- most minute particulars, to their des- velvet, adorned with rich fillagree ent sizes, adorned with Mosaic pave cription in the Instrument of Deposita- chasing of silver gilded, representing ments. In the first, the pavement is I tion, 26th March 1707. There was also oak-leaves and acorns.



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March 7, 1818.]
Literature,--New Publications.


submit their children to the developement of our 50 strongly, was for ever withdrawn from the acute and masterly delineator. His images are sum of human existence."

equally vivid, whether drawn from the desk or Among the finest pictures of this excellent NEW PUBLICATIONS.

the heath, the busy hum of men, or the solitude book, we must notice that of the “ Laigh Kirk.” Rob Roy. 3 vols. 12mo.

of deserts. But not one of the characters has at Glasgow, and the sacred service performed This long-looked-for novel, by the anthor of delighted us more in the pencilling than Bailie there, which occurs in the second volume. It Waverley, Guy Mannering, Antiquary, and, we Jarvie of Glasgow. If M'Wheble gave the hint is inimitably good, and gives prodigious effect to may add the Tales of My Landlord, has at last for this admirable likeness, it is so full

, so finished, the incident which takes place in those waste made its appearance.

and so thrown out by circumstances, that it leaves regions of oblivion," where “ dusky banners, and In some respects it seems inferior, and in some us little to wish for. But we question whether tattered escutcheons, indicated the graves of superior to its precursors It is inferior in the any but Scotch readers will be able to appreciate those who were once, doubtless, ' Princes in Isgeneral style and composition; which, though the perfection of this sketch. The mixture of the rael;' where inscriptions, which could only be highly wrought in many parts, are yet carelessly pride of birth, though connected with an out-read by the painful antiquary, in language as enough slurred over in others : and it is, perhaps, law, and the opposite habits of a nenufacturing obsolete as the act of devotional charity which inferior in depth of interest to Waverley. As a education; the combined qualities of the son of they implored, invited the passengers to pray for picture of manners, and as affording distinct Deacon Jarvie, honest man! Heaven be merci- the souls of those whose bodies rested beneath." portraits of characters, it is equal to the best ful to him! and the cousin of Rob Roy, for whom The scenery of Northumberland and of the Highwhich have gone before. And in adapting the a hempen cravat is so surely predestined; the pa- lands is painted with a force and colouring equally particular story to a frame-work consistent with cific and yet bold, the sober yet eccentric, the faithful. An artist would need no other studies the nature of the times and state of the country prudential yet generous acts of the worthy Glas- to enable bim to transfer its features from the in which the scene is laid, we think Rob Roy gonian, constitute a tout ensemble of the richest paper to the canvas. superior to all its predecessors. The plots and order. Even in the minor characters, there is a Some of the characters have great blemishes, intrigues preceding the rebellion of the year degree of variety quite Homeric. The family of while others, it must be apparent to every read. 1715, afforded admirable ground for much more Osbaldistone are forcible examples of this. Per- er, want originality. In Dei Vernon there is a of the marvellous than our authoi needs to em cival, Thorncliff, John, Richard, and Wilfred, great share of extravagance and caricature. As ploy in the construction of his volumes, which are all alter et idem; and Rashleigh, the young- she falls in love at first sight, it may be thought, are so often distinguished for their historical est brother, a masterly portraiture of villainy. perhaps, that she is justified in throwing off all truth and accuracy of delineation. The same Morris, a cowardly employe of government, is reserve, but she is not always delicate in her lanpower of delusion belongs to Rob Roy. It is another specimen of the skill of the author : bis guage. Rashleigh, it has been said, is a bad coimpossible to fancy any part of it a fable. The subserviency, and his lamentable catastrophe, py of Fielding's Blitil. To the hero himself there men and women of its dramatis personæ live be- present an useful lesson to mankind. The de-are some objections not less striking. In his fore us; the scenery is perfect nature; the in- scription of his death, indeed, is one of the most meeting with Osbaldistoke, in Glasgow, there is cidents are identical history. The accession of touching and dreadful that we ever read. He is too much of preparation. He voluntarily enters the house of Hanover; the attempts of Jaco- treacherously left as a hostage for the safety of the tolbooth, though an immense sum is offered bites ; the existence of a country called Scot- Rob Roy, who is thus betrayed into the hands of for his apprehension, and walks out again with land, do not seem more undeniable than the his foes. Brought a prisoner to the wife of the the greatest facility,-he throws himself into the whole train of facts herein related ; and the ac-chieftain, immediately after she has been excited most imminent peril, to serve those he has no liv. tual being of the Osbaldistones, Jarvies, M'Gre- to fury by a sharp contest with, and victory over ing reason to be attached to; and wherever they gors, &c. who people the world created by the a party of the military, whom Dougal misleads are involved in difficulty, he is Rob Roy here, writer's imagination, and perform the things he into a dangerous pass among the mountains, on Rob Roy there, and Rob Roy everywhere. has told us they performed. Not Shakespeare the borders of a lake, we are told by Francis Os. himself has been more true to his characters. baldistone, who is also a prisoner.

On the ORIGIN and VICISSITUDES of LITERAThe plan of this work consists of the adven- “She gave a brief command in Gaelic to her TURE, SCIENCE, and Art, and their Influence tures of Mr Francis Osbaldisfone, the son of a attendants, two of whom seized upon the pros- on the present state of Society,- A Discourse rich London merchant, who, refusing to engage trate suppliant, and hurried him to the brink of a delivered on the opening of the Liverpool in commercial pursuits, as desired by his father, cliff which overhung the flood. He set up the Royal Institution, 25th November 1817. By is sent to an uncle's in Northumberland, almost most piercing and dreadful cries that fear ever WILLIAM Roscoe. 4to. disinherited. In his journey to the north, he uttered, -I may well term them dreadful, for Most of our readers, we believe, are acquaintfalls in with Robert Campbell

, a cattle-dealer, they haunted my sleep for years afterwards. As ed, that, since the commencement of the prealias Rob Roy, and by a skilful connexion of the murderers, or executioners, call them as you sent century, in addition to the various public their fates, they become from that period inter- will, dragged him along, he recognised me even edifices which previously adorned the metropolis, woven with each other. Sir Hildebrand Osbal- in that moment of horror, and exclaimed, in the several establishments have been formed for the distone (the uncle) and his six sons, form a mas- last articulate words I ever heard him utter,

-diffusion of literature, science, and the useful arts, sive group in this canvas, and the chief light is O, Mr Osbaldistone, save me ! save me!' which are known by the name of Institutions. By found in a relative, who is living at Cubhall, I was so much moved by this borrid spoc- means of these establishments, a correct taste Miss Diana Vernon, on whose character the au- tacle, that, although in momentary expectation for literature has been diffused ; while the various thor has exerted all his energies. The only of sharing bis fate, I did attempt to speak in his courses of lectures on the different departments of other female who figures in the piece, is the wife behalf; but, as might have been expected, my science have imparted to many the knowledge of Rob Roy: a ruthless and desolate-hearted interference was sternly disregarded. The vic- of those brilliant discoveries, which it is the gloAmazon. The chieftain of the clan Gregor bim-tim was held fast by some, while others, bind-ry of Britain that her sons have made. It was self is admirably drawn, though in him there has ing a large heavy stone in a plaid, tied it round therefore with much pleasure, we learned that been less of invention necessary than in others. his neck, and others again eagerly stripped him Liverpool, the second commercial port in the He seems only less barbarous, or, we may say, of some part of his dress. Half-naked, and thus British empire, has added to the various literary more civilized than common fame has handed manacled, they hurled him into the lake, there establishments she already possesses, a Royal him down to us. A Scotch gardener, Andrew about twelve feet deep, drowning his last death- Institution, upon the plan of those already existFairservice, is well depicted ; a worldly, time- sbriek with a loud halloo of vindictive triumph, ing in the metropolis. Nor could any person be serving, selfish fellow; neither overburthened above which, however, the yell of mortal agony more appropriately selected to pronounce the diswith sense nor principle ; but yet contriving, by was distinctly heard. The heavy burden splash-course at its opening, than the elegant historian his officiousness, to occupy a conspicuous station ed in the dark-blue waters of the lake, and the of Lorenzo de Medicis and Leo X. in this drama. A Highland follower of Rob Highlanders, with their pole-axes and swords, After adverting to that recent calamity which Roy, named Dougal, and a Macgregor, forms a watched an instant to guard, lest, extricating has carried grief and consternation into every contrast to Fairservice. He is faithful, brave, himself from the load to which he was attached, private family, and in consequence of which the and devoted, cunning, shrewd, and dexterous. he might have struggled to regain the shore. opening of the Liverpool Royal Institution was Owen, the principal clerk of the house of Os. But the knot had been securely bound; the vic- for a short time postponed; and referring his baldistone and Tresham, is another portrait of tim sank without effort; the waters, which his hearers to the official report of the Committee unassuming pretensions, but of exquisite fidelity. fall had disturbed, settled calmly over him, and for a detail of the various objects it embraces, The great city, and the wild hills of Scotia, alike the unit of that life, for which he had pleaded Mr Roscoe proceeds to enquire into the causa





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Literature. New Publications.

[March 7. 1818. of the rise and progress of Letters, of Science, distinction, to honour, to wealth, and to impor- | necessary to intellectual improvement. But these and of Art, and to trace the vicissitudes which tance, is open to all, and the success of every are only negative advantages. Though the blosthey have experienced; at the same time taking individual will, in general, be in proportion to soms may escape the blight and the mildew, yet notice of their bearings upon the more important his vigilance and his talents.

warm suns, and timely showers, are requisite beavorations of life, and on the prosperity of those “ The studies of literature are only a reflec-fore they can expand and ripen their fruit. It countries in which they have been encouraged. tion or shadow of the transactions of real life; would, in fact, be in vain to expect that the arts We had marked a variety of passages, with and he who is a stranger to the hopes and fears, and sciences should flourish, to their full extent, which we were not more delighted than in to the passions and emotions which agitate the in any country where they were not preceded, or structed, in this elegantly written discourse ; mind in the affairs of the world, however he may accompanied by a certain degree of stability, but want of room limits our extracts to the fol- be conversant with words and modes of expres- wealth, and competency, so as to enable its inhalowing, paragraph, on the influence of govern- sion, will only repeat, perhaps in a more elegant bitants occasionally to withdraw their attention ments, and of a state of public insecurity on lite- form, the ideas of others, but will never attain from the more laborious occupations of life, and rury pursuits, and on the connection between that originality and strength of thought, which devote it to speculative inquiries, and the pleacommerce and intellectual improvement. is only derived from close examination and long sures derived from works of art. Whenever any

According to the degree of confidence which observation of actual life. Wherever we turn state has attained this enviable pre-eminence,
any goverument has in its own stability, will, in our eyes on the annals of literature, we find its and enjoys also the blessings of civil and political
general, be the liberty allowed to the expression brightest ornaments amongst those who have re- Kberty, letters and arts are introduced---not in-
of the public sentiment, and in proportion to this tired from the field, from the senate, or from the deed as a positive convention of any people, but
liberty will be the proficiency made in literary bar, to bend the strength of their well exercised as a natural and unavoidable result. Nor has the
pursuits. Nor must this freedom of opinion and and indefatigable minds towards the pursuits of cultivation of these studies been injurious to the
expression be confined to particular subjects. science or the cultivation of taste. It is they prosperity, the morals, or the character of a peo-
Few governments, however arbitrary, have at- who have not only supplied the materials of his ple. On the contrary, they have usually exhibit-
tempted to restrain enquiries purely scholastic, tory, but have taught the right use of those ma- ed a reaction highly favourable to the country
the studies of classical literature, or the pursuits terials. In their works we see the living pic- where they have been cherished, not only by
or scientific curiosity; but this is not sufficient ture of mankind, such as he has been in all ages, opening new sources of wealth and exertion, but
for the interest of letters. Debarred of expati and in all his variations. It is they who have by exalting the views, purifying the moral taste,
ating at large on those more important subjects, given animation and reality to these studies, enlarging the intellectual and even the physical
which involve the regulations of society, in poli- which without their frequent interference and powers of the human race, and conferring on the
ties, in morals, in manners, and in religion, the powerful aid, would long since have degenerated nation where they have once flourished, a rank
human faculties become contracted, devoted to into puerile und efteminate amusements. and a distinction in the annals of mankind, the
minute and trivial discussions, and unable to o- “ Among the external causes that deaden the most honourable and the most durable that can
perate with vigour and effect even upon those operations of the intellect, and destroy the vital be attained.
subjects which are permitted to their research. principle of exertion, few have been more effectual “Of the connection that has, from the earliest

" It has, therefore, seldom been in the power than a state of public insecurity, and the long ages, subsisted between commerce and intellec-
of an absolute monarch, whatever may have been continuance of desolating wars. When the mind tual improvement, the records of the human race
his celebrity, to afford a degree of literary liber- is agitated by apprehension, when the means of bear constant evidence.
ty equal to that which the people enjoy under subsistence are proearious, when domestic at- “ The perfection and happiness of our nature
a mixed or popular form of government; and, tachments are endangered, and the duration of arise in a great degree from the exercise of qur
indeed, with whatever liberality it may be gran- life itself is uncertain, how is it possible to turn relative and social feelings; and the wider these
ted, it cannot be for a moment forgotten, that it to those studies which require uninterrupted lei- are extended the more excellent and accomplish-
as a bare concession of the sovereign, existing sure, and a perfect freedom not only from the ed will be the character that will be formed. The
only during such time as his own interests may severer calamities of life, but from the casual first step to commercial intercourse is rude and
appear to him to admit of it, and accompanied interruptions of society? The circumstances in selfish, and consists of little more than an inter-
with such conditions and restraints as he may which all Europe was placed during the middle change, or barter of articles necessary to the ac-
think proper to prescribe. Hence, it is neither ages, when, for a long course of time, one spe. commodation of the parties; but as this inter-
so certain in its duration, nor so extensive in its cies of desolation was followed by another in course is extended, mutual confidence takes place,
effects, as that which is founded in right, and quick saccession, and the world was thinned in habits of acquaintance, and even of esteem and
defined by known and established laws. In a its numbers by famine, by pestilence, and by the friendship are formed, till it may, perhaps, with-
government legitimately constituted, the free sword, or debilitated and exhansted by oppres out exaggeration, be asserted, that of all the bonds
dom of enquiry and of expression is a permanent sion in every variety of form, exhibit too certain by which society is at this day united, those of
principle, interwoven with the existence of the a cause of the deep debasement of the human mercantile connection are the most numerous and
state ; in an absolute monarchy it is temporary mind, and of the almost total relinquishment of the most extensive. The direct consequence of
and accidental, depending upon the character liberal studies. Even independent of the mise- this, is not only an increase of wealth to those
and will of the prince, and may be suppressed or ries occasioned by war, whether unsuccessful or countries where commerce is carried on to its
extinguished whenever he may conceive that his successful, its long continuance is hostile and de- proper extent, but an improvement in the intel-
interest or his safety requires the adoption of structive to letters and to arts. The ferocious lectual character and a superior degree of civili-
such a measure. The consciousness that this spirit whichit excitesis highly discordant with that zation in those by whom its operations are con-
power, though not exercised, still subsists, and disposition which consults not merely the being, but ducted. Accordingly we find, that in every na-
the uncertainty by what degree of irritation it the well-being of the human race, and endeavours tion where commerce has been cultivated upon
may be provoked, deaden the efforts of the timid, to communicate to them the highest pleasures of great and enlightened principles, a considerable
and restrain and circumscribe those of the bold, which their nature is capable. In the arrogant proficiency has always been made in liberal stu-
whilst the dissolving influence of arbitrary favour estimation of brutal strength, wisdom and learn- dies and pursuits. Without recurring to the splen-
is often too powerful for even genius itself to ing are effeminate and contemptible; and where did examples of antiquity, it may be sufficient to

those qualities are little esteemed, the attainment advert to the effect produced by the free states “ But another striking distinction between a of them will no longer excite exertion. Even the in Italy, and the Hanse Towns in Germany, in despotic and a popular government, as applied interruption which takes place in the intercourse improving the character of the age. Under the to the improvement of the human intellect, still between different states, during the continuance influence of commerce, the barren islands of Veremains to be noticed. In the former, as the ad- of a war, is itself highly unfavourable to the pro- nice, and the unhealthy swamps of Holland, beministration of public afairs is concentrated in gress of science and letters ; as it prevents that came not only the seats of opulence and splen. an individual, who is jealous of any interference free communication of discoveries and opinions dour, but the abodes of literature, of science, and in the exercise of his authority, a large field of between men of talents and genius, whieh ex- the fine arts, and vied with each other, not less enquiry and of improvement is shut out from the cites a national and generous emulation, and has in the number and celebrity of eminent men and investigation of the people, whose chief incite tended in a great degree to the improvement of distinguished scholars, than in the extent of their ment to exertion is the hope of those favours and mankind.

mercantile concerns. Nor is it possible for us to rewards which the sovereign may think proper Thus then it appears, that a state of general repress our exultation at the rising prospects and to bestow. But in a state which partakes of tranquillity, and a government which admits of rapid improvement of our own country, or to cløse the nature of a popular government, the path to the tree exertions of the mind are indispensably our eyes to the decisive evidence which every day


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March 7. 1818.]
Literature New Publications.

271 brings before us, of the matual advantages which extensive commerce, ensuring wealth to the go- her extension over the Caspian provinces, and commerce and literature derive from each other. vernment, and stability to its existence. other extremities of Asia, will be no dificult alNot only in the metropolis, but in many of the Our knowledge of Russia's situation in this tainment. We should remind our readers, that great commercial towns of the united kingdom, quarter, and the consideration of her influence Russia, in the late treaty with Persia, stipulated academical institutions are formed, and literary over: Purkey and the neighbouring states, daily for the sole monopolization of commerce on the societies established, upon different plans and with increases our jealousy of the effects of such a Caspian. different resources, but all of them calculated to mighty preponderance. We may perceive, from The last subject we shall consider is, whether promote the great object of intellectual improve a mere inspection of the map, that our eastern Russia has “ collected and re-equipped armies ment. In some of these the town of Liverpool has provinces are becoming more and more endan- sufficient to defend her acquisitions and improve led the way. It was, I believe, her Athenæum gered from a thorough sense of the rapid advance her advantages.” To this we think but one anand Lyceum that set the first example of those which this northern power is making towards swer will be found that she can. “ The fact associations which are now so generally adopted; universal dominion. If Russia continues her an- is,” says our anthor, “ that Russia, after posting and it may justly be observed, that these estab- nual increase of commerce in the Black sea, her thirty thousand men of appropriate force, with lishments have no longer left the beneficial influ- navies will, ere long, convince the followers of artillery, &c. in Finland, eighty thousand on ence which commerce and literature have on Mahomet, that the Dardanelles are unable to the frontier of Gallicia, sixty thousand in Moleach other, to be inferred from historical deduc- protect the capital of their ancient empire. The davia, thirty thousand on the frontier of Aimetions, or far sought arguments; but have actually object of Alexander and his predecessors, to ob.: nia, as many in Persia, and, leaving a reserve brought them together, have given them a resi- tain possession of the Turkish capital, is too well of one hundred thousand men to sustain these dence under the same roof, and inseparably unit- known; and even nany of our own countrymen, armies, possesses still a disposable force of above ed the bold, vigorous, and active character of the particularly the literati, who, deploring the sla- two hundred thousand infantry, eighty thousand one, with the elegant accomplishments and light- very of ancient Greece, and detesting its op- cavalry, and one thousand two hundred guns, er graces of the other,"

pressors as enemies to the Cliristian faith, have better horsed for service than any artillery or ca

anxiously wished the consummation of those pre- valry in the world.” But "her defensive ineans, REMARKS on SIR ROBERT Wilson's Treatise tensions which have in view the final overthrow indeed, are so great and various as to be incal

culable." of this we had a sufficient proof duron the Power and Policy of Russia, -(con of the Turkish fabric. We deplore as much as tinued from p. 239.)-- from a Correspondent. any one thc miserable situation of those climes ing Bonaparte's memorable expedition to that

where philosophy and learning reached their me-country. Then was it shewil, that no troops The position of Russia towards Turkey, has ridian, where freedom's laws were so highly e- could undergo greater hardships and privations, advanced to the Danube and Pruth,“ distant steemed, and where art and science shone with could better withstand the attacks of the most only one hundred miles from Transylvania, about radiant splendour. But if we may credit the formidable and well disciplined armies, or could two hundred and fifty from Constantinople by authorities of such travellers as Lord Byron, Dr perform their duties with more promptitude, when water, and three hundred by land, in a direct Clarke, and others, who agree in the opinion that necessity required. Out of an establishment of line " And with regard to the safety of Turkey the minds of the Moslems are becoming more en- 1,200,000 men, exclusive of militia and Tartar on the side of the Caucasian momtains and Black lightened, and their notions of religion and liber- cavalry, Russia can bring into the field 640.000 sen, Sir Robert says, “ Now, instead of the ty more free and refined, we shall also coincide troops, as well equipped as any in Europe. Alex. Crescent waving on the batteries of the Cuban, with them in believing, that the Greek cross can ander has not been inactive in the establishment the Mahometan banner, replaced by the Russian never improve the condition of Greece. What- of an extensive navy, having of late been inceseagles, has been driven across and beyond the ever may be our wish for the propagation of santly employed in building the heaviest line-ofnavigable Phasis, and is not to be found until the Christianity, why should we covet the downfal battle ships, in addition to above eighty sail of river Bathus, in Armenia, presents a feeble bar- of any people because of their peculiar tenets the line in Archangel, Cronstadt, Revel, &c. rier; while the Russian advanced frontier, sup- | in religion? Are the Turks more faithless in Such is a short outline of this modern empire, ported by the mountain line, which connects their treaties than the Russians, or are the whose gigantic power already strikes terror into Georgia with her new position, secures an indis- inhabitants of Turkey in greater bondage than the heart of Europe, and whose progress can onputable sovereignty over the acquired country, the peasants of Russia?. No one can say there ly be retarded by the most vigorous coalition on and bids defiance to attack.” The following is less freedom of thought in the religion of Ma- the part of every nation interested in the propoints of distance from the Russian frontier, na- homet than in that of the Greek church, or that tection of its liberties. We would not desire furally suggest Sir Robert Wilson's anticipation the Turks shew less fervour in their devotions, to create any unnecessary fears, nor to attribute of the insecurity of Turkey in Asia. * The dis- or more want of general civilization than their any immediate hostile intentions to the present tance is to Trebisond, but eighty miles ; to neighbours. Should Turkey fall

, the overthrow ruler of Russia ; but we must avow, from the the western bank of the Euphrates, not above of Persia is inevitable; towards which and our calamitous proofs of the past, that it is absoluteninety; to Arzroum, one hundred; to Sinope, eastern possessions the attitude of Russia stands ly necessary to afford some barrier to the pretwo hundred and seventy; to Scutari, opposite thus :

ponderating influence of Russia, and that the Constantinople, a little more than five hundred ; To reach lehvian, the capital of the Shah, fatal effects of deviating from a just balance of across the isthmus of Asia Minor to Alexandret- the columns have to march only three hundred power should be clearly estimated. ta *, (a seaport town opposite Cyprus, in the Me- miles; and by the navigation of the Caspian, diterranean, and only sixty miles from Aleppo,) they can be disembarked within one hundred! little more than four hundred ; and to the Red Thus an army might sail from the Baltic through

WORKS PUBLISHED IN JANUARY. sea from thence, not five hundred.” A little re- an internal navigation from Petersburgh to As- Strictures on Dr Chalmers's Discourses on flection on these circumstances will make it evi-tracan, and landing on the southern shore of the Astronomy; by John Overton. dent, that Russia only awaits the signal “ to Caspian, pitch their tents within four hundred History of Julius. FitzJobn. 3 vols. 12mo. launch the Greek fire from the shore of the Bos- miles of the Persian gulf; from wbence the voy- L.1, Is. phorus on the towers of the Seraglio, if the sultan age to Bombay is only from twenty-four to thirty An Account of the Life and Writings of the does not obey the Russian ukase."

days, in both monsoons; and to Madras, but late John Erskine, D.D. of Carnock; by Sir At the conclusion of the late war with Turkey, eight or ten days longer in the S. W. monsoon.” H. Moncrief Wellwood, Bart. 8vo. four valuable accessions were niade to the Russian Here we behold Persia at once overawed and Outlines of a Theory of Algebraical Equa. empire, on the borders of the Black and Caspian dependent. By the contentions of the rulers and tions, deduced from the Principles of Harriott, seas, viz. Mingrelia, Guriel, Immeretta, and East people, and the weakness of a degenerate go- and extended to the Fluxional or Differential Georgir. The political importance of these pro-vernment, this country has long been restricted Calculus ; only 80 copies printed ; by Willian vinces is very great, as affording a point of dan- in its political importance, and her resources have Spence. Svo. 14s. gerons contact with the territories of Persia and become so feeble as to render her unable to re- The Principles of Mecbanics : in three Lec. Turkey. It is within the memory of man, when sume effectual means for repressing the inidads tures : designed as an Introduction to this Branch Russia held not the sinallest possession on the of conquest. The despicable character of eastern of the Mathematics. With an Appendix. With frontiers of the Black sea ; while now she can nations, the tyranny of their rulers, and the na- plates. By Wm. Shires, formerly Nautical Masboast of cities and ports carrying on the most tural effeminacy of the people, are concomitant ter in the Royal Navy. 8vo. 3s.

causes in heightening the expectation of Russian A new Translation of the Satires of Persius, * Near this town Alexander conquered Da ascendancy. If the power of Russia be rendered with life and notes ; by W. Gifford. 2 vols. rius, at the battle of Issus,

invulnerable in its point of contact with Europe, 1 8vo. Lib, Iso.

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