Imágenes de páginas

Sept. 27, 1817.)
History and Progress of Gas from Pit.coal.

27. History and Progress of the application of Gas from Pit- the different products of the distillation are collected in coal to Economical Purposes.

separate vessels before they reach the gas-bolder. The (Continued from page 6.)

tar and the ammoniacal liquor are conveyed along cast

iron tubes of considerable length, in which they are conTo those who are familiar with the nature of the pro- densed, and received in a proper vessel; the carbonic cess of obtaining gas from coal, for the purpose of light- acid or fixed air and the sulphuretted hydrogen pass along ing streets, manufactories, and private houses, and with the tubes to another vessel, where they are absorbed by the comparative results of this mode and every other, in lime water; and thus freed from the different ingredients point of cleanliness, safety, and economy, it would be quite from which the offensive smells proceed, the carburetted unnecessary to state its peculiar advaotages; but as the bydrogen is admitted to the gas-holder, from wbence it is public in general cannot be supposed to be so well ac distributed for the


of combustion. quainted with a subject of late introduction as to be able The tar and ammoniacal liquor being received in close to appreciate fully the improvements which it offers, it vessels, and the sulphuretted hydrogen combining with may be worth while to advert briefly to the objections ad- | the water in another vessel connected with the apparatus, duced against the use of gas lights, and some other topics the two substances which give out the disagreeable odour hinted at in the close of last communication. But here are in this manner separated from the gas ; and with a a typographical error ought to be noticed. At page 6, vers little attention in removing these matters when the col. 2d, and line 4th, “ six cubic feet of gas” should be vessels are full, it can scarcely be perceived that such a read twenty-sir.

process is going on; and thus every objection to it as a The ingredients wbith are obtained from the distilla- nuisance, on the score of the offensive smell, may be comtion of pit-coal are the inflammable air or carburetted hy-pletely obviated. But in some of the later improvements drogen, wbich is the primary object of the process, and on the apparatus and in the mode of conducting the proby the combustion of which the light is supplied, a liquor cess of distillation, a greater proportion of some of the impregnated with ammonia or volatile alkali, a portion of offensive substances is decomposed, and a greater product tar, and carbonic acid or fixed air and sulphuretted hy. of gas is obtained ; and by this fine application of sciendrogen. When mineral coal is exposed to a strong beat in tific observation to practical purposes, an advantage is close vessels, it is decomposed, and the several substances gained by the diminution of a disagreeable part of the now enumerated are driven off in the form of elastic fluids. operation. Some of them, the moment they come in contaet with a cold The danger of explosion is another objection, connected body, as the water, through which the gas to be collected with the economical application of gas, which has been passes, are condensed, and either mix with the water, or commented on by those who are ever ready to throw diffall to tlie bottom when they are of greater specific gravity. ficulties in the way of new improvements. The risk of In the first application of this gas to economical pur- accident from a burning body being brought in contact poses, the whole product of the distillation was received with a large quantity of the gas, is not greater than in in the same vessel, and from the extremely offensive smell the case of any other combustible, and requires to be of some of the substances, the operation itself, and the guarded against with a prudent degree of caution. But, combustion of the gas thus prepared, were quite intolera- should this happen, the combustion would proceed silently, ble; and accordingly, in the first trials, wben all the in- and without sudden explosion, unless, by some mismanagegredients were mixed together, and left to act on eachment of the apparatus, a certain proportion of atmospheric other, the process might well be regarded as a nuisance ; | air be admitted-an occurrence not likely to take place and therefore, in most, or in all cases where improvements without design. How few accidents of any kind have were not introduced, was soon abandoned. On the same happened in the numerous gas works which have been ground, objections are still urged to the use of the gas, or established in different parts of the kingdom ! --s0 few inrather to its preparation ; and considering it in this view, deed, that it seems scarcely necessary to waste words in the inhabitants of New - street, North back of the Ca removing the objections to which they have given rise. nongate, lately brought the subject under legal discussion, | The accuracy and neatness in the construction of the apfor the purpose of preventing the erection of the Gas paratus of the present day, almost preclude every chance Works, now going on, as a public nuisance; and perhaps of such accidents. with a less careful investigation than what took place, But another objection has been made to the use of gas this essential improvement might have experienced a se for economical purposes, arising from an apprehension of rious interruption. But fortunately Lord Reston, who the danger of explosions from its accumulation in apartwas officially called upon to determine the question be ments where it is used, when it happens to escape untween the parties, was at the utmost pains in making him-burned. As far as is recollected at this moment, no such self master of the subject, and not only visited the spot, explosion bas yet taken place in any of the manufactories but examined particularly the different Gas Works al. or apartment in the kingdom which are lighted with ready established by private individuals, and was thus en gas, so that a direct appeal to the bistory of its applicaabled to pronounce a clear and decided opinion, that the tion, of wbich pretty ample experience now exists, furWorks alluded to were not to be regarded as a nuisance; nishes the most satisfactory answer to the objection. The and they are therefore now proceeding with great activity first requisite for the explosion of this gas is an apartment towards their completion.

much closer than any of those places wbere it is used. According to the improved mode of preparing the gas, In short, the room where such an accident could possibly

Antiquities.-Scenes of Domestic Life.

[Sept. 27, 1817. happen must be nearly air-tight. But this can never be also found, among wbich some leather buttons were plainly the case in an apartment with an open chimney and doors discernible. There were also found two silver coins, and windows, which are rarely so close as to prevent the weighing about an ounce each, bearing the date of 1620, escape of the


before it could accumulate and be mix and having on one side the following inscription :-BELG: ed with that proportion of atmospheric air which renders IRI : MOARG: ERO:C ONGOE, with the following sentence it explosive. Besides, the smell of the gas would soon on the other, “ Concordia res Parvæ Crescunt.” From indicate its escape long before any dangerous mixture the state in wbich the coins were found, there was reason could take place; and to produce this effect even in an to believe they had been sewed or tied up closely in some apartment of moderate size, a large quantity of gas is re part of the wearer's clothes. It must be upwards of 138 quired, so large that its loss could not escape observation years since the body of this poor covenanter was commitwithout the grossest inattention. A room twelve feet ted to bis lonely grave. square, wbich includes 1728 cubical feet of atmospheric The palace of Falkland is advertised, with several fields air, would require nearly 250 cubical feet of gas to pro adjacent ; and, among other appurtenances, the “ Heriduce that mixture which is necessary to render it explo table Office of Keeper of the Palace of Falkland, and sive ; and if gas were to escape from a large burner at Ranger of the Lomond Hills." Falkland Palace is sithe rate of four cubical feet in the bour, it would require toated near the little town of Falkland, in the west of Fifc, nearly three days for the flow of the proper proportion of at the foot of the bill called the East Lomond. It belonggas, and the room must be at the same time nearly air ed for a long time to the Macduffs, earls of Fife, and was tight--a coincidence of circumstances which can be very then called the castle or mar of Falkland. It came to the rarely expected. It scarcely indeed can ever happen that crown in 1425, by the forfeiture of the Earl of Fife, in apartments which are lighted with gas are so imperfectly the reign of James I. From that time it was frequently ventilated as to admit of the existence of all the circum used as a royal residence. It was much beautified and stances alluded to which are requisite in the production repaired by James V. The east front was accidentally of dangers of this kind.

burnt in the time of Charles II.


Scenes of Domestic Life. The original diamond ring of Mary Queen of Scots,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE EDINBURGH OBSERVER. upon which are engraved the arms of England, Scotland, As I have had a desire for some time past of laying and Ireland, quartered, and which was produced in evi before my neighbours and friends a few sketches of my dence at the trial of the unfortunate Mary, as a proof of life and domestic economy, I am now roused to the subher pretensions to the crown of England, was in the pos- ject, by the opportunity of finding such a medium of pubsession of the late Mr Blachford, one of the Lords of the Jication as your Magazine affords. Admiralty, at the time of his death. The history of this You must know, Sir, that I never was married-a cir. fatal ring is curious. It descended from Mary to her cumstance, by the bye, which in part may explain my grandson, Charles I. who gave it on the scaffold to Arch failures—and that I am now in the fifty-fourth year of my bishop Juxon, for his son Charles II. who, in his troubles, age ; of a good natured, quiet disposition, only subject to pawned it in Holland for £.300, where it was bought by a sort of flurry and heat about the head when I am conGovernor Yale, and sold at his sale for £.320, supposed tradicted, and which, my friends tell me, are plainly for the Pretender. Afterwards it came into possession of marked by a flush of the face, and an odd way of distortthe Earl of Isla, Duke of Argyle, and probably from him ing my features : of very temperate babits, indeed, sister to the family of Mr Blachford. At the late sale of bis Barbara says, much too abstemious, but she and I differ effects it was purchased for ul:a Prince Regent.

about many things besides eating and drinking, as you will On the farm of Easton, parish of Dunsyre, a tradition soon find : not profoundly learned, the more to my loss, has been handed down from father to son, in a family, as the same kind creature often tells me--but this, Sir, wbo, as shepherds, have resided in the place for many ge ought not to be imputed to me as a fault, because I well nerations back, that a certain rude stone set up in the ad. remember the parish schoolmaster saying, that I really joining moor, marked the grave of one of the covenanters, had not a head for Greek and Latin-a judgment, indeed, who, having been wounded in the battle fought at Pent which he passed so generally on my contemporaries, that land hills, died of his wouods on bis way home, and was at last it was shrewdly suspected be bad no Greek or Labaried by the great grandfather of the person from wbom in to put into them; but that was a slander, for be was we have the tradition. Accordingly, a few days ago, se well known to possess three or four closets quite full of veral persons, desirous to ascertain the truth of this story, books in the dead tongues. My employment, till within went to the place, and having dug about two feet below the last ten years, was that of a farmer, in which I was the surface, found the remains of a skeleton. A medical allowed to excel, according to the maxims and standard gentleman who was on the spot could distinguish one of of former times, by my early rising, careful preservation the thigh bones, which was almost entire in shape, though of my dykes and hedges, and readiness always to sell on reduced nearly to the consistence of the mossy soil which a small profit ; but since that time, in consequence of the surrounded it. The scalp was found complete, covered expiration of my lease, which I was unwilling to renew with very long hair, of a wbitish colour, nearly as fresh at a vastly higher rent, even though beginning to be acand strong as in life. Several fragments of clothes were quainted with the new mode of carrying on the business,

Sept. 27, 1817.]
Scenes of Domestic Life.

29 I have devoted myself almost entirely to the cultivation | dress, firmness of cliaracter, and wbat he called the raof the minds of three girls, left orphans by the death of tionale of life, conjoined a singular notion as to the supe. my sister Marian. My amusements, besides frequent vi. I rior nature of the female constitution both in body and sits to some of my old friends, and dressing a little gar- | mind, and its more felicitous aptitude (these are his words) den ground, are much confined a game or two at fox to the varied excellencies which dignify our species. My and geese, (an old - fashioned pastime); a little romping sister, Sir, who had already been conspicuously gifted with with my nieces, when their education, to be afterwards a bigh opinion of her own worth, mightily enhanced her described, and my lumbago will permit; now and then noble qualities under the united energy of his instructions some music-alas, Sir! this is one of the points on and theory. Accordingly, on her return home, at the which I have been wofully disappointed ; a ride about distance of three or four years, she naturally excited the the country on my old mare Jo Janet; a sight of the admiration of the rest of the family, by her marvellous weekly newspaper; and the use of a few books, judiciously acquaintance with matters utterly beyond our conceptions, chosen by my prime counsellor Miss Bab-to which I and no less paturally acquired the sovereignty of it, by a ought to add, the daily conversation parties of the family ; | fluency and imperativeness of speech, and a loftiness and only by some mismanagement or other, not on my part, majesiy of deportment, which we never remembered 10 I should inagine, these are very apt to bring on the kind have either beard for seen, unless in the minister of die of hurly-burly in my brain to which I formerly alluded.parish, and a grenadier captain who was once quartered My residence is within a few miles of town, snug enough in our county town. The ascendancy once gained was and well aired; and contains, besides myself and eldest never altogether lost. The chief opponent whom ber sister just now named, another sister, named Amelia, af- pretensions raised up in the house was her sister Amelia, ter a lady of quality, who once visited our father's house, immediately to be introduced to your notice ; and this and was kindly entertained during a storm which prevent was entirely owing to an unlovked-for event, which threaed ber getting on a journey; Miss Elizabeth Dimple, a tened very serious consequences to the intellect of that second cousin by the mother's side, who has no other re dear creature at the time, and which indeed, so far as I latives than ourselves to own her; the three girls about can judge, did certainly leave impressions on her memory whom I have now ventured to trouble you; and two maids, and feelings of an imperishable nature. My father, who one of them grown old in our service, and the other only bad occasionally read Fisher's Grammar, and one of the hired about a year ago.

early editions of the Young Man's Best Companion, was My sister Bab, Sir, I have always understood, and so in the babit of denominating these his two eldest daughhave our neighbours, to be older than myself by some ters from the kind of effects which their different man. years. But this is a point which I am not able exactly ners of speaking produced. Bab he used to call Logic, to ascertain; because the large family Bible, which, ac and to Amelia he gave the name of Rhetoric. I have cordiog to a very useful custom, formerly contaived, on seen him sit at table, poor simple man, with his arms supone of the blank leaves, the record of all our names and ported upwards on his elbow chair, bis eyes and mouth births, and wbicli, as she was the most devout of the wide open, and a sort of half equivocal kind of smile, whiole, had been bequeathed to her by my father, long while these damsels, each in her own way, discussed and since, by some accident or other was robbed of this regis. exemplified, exclaimed and sighed, enforced and demonterma circumstance the more unaccountable, as we bave strated, sobbed and teared, in a way utterly indescribanever been able to discover, in this neighbourhood, any ble, and on subjects to my apprehension then not worth family which this register would suit in respect to number the crack of a whip. On these occasions, my father, as and their ages. Bab berself, who was the first to notice I supposed from his attitude and silence, was acting the the loss, seemed quite inconsolable for a week; but after part of judge or umpire between them, but found himself wards, as if she expected it would be made up in a man a little perplexed in deciding on their respective merits. ner equally unaccountable, or perhaps because she thought Generally, however, it was noticeable, he terminated the the Bible really looked better without the bad writing of contest by a sort of compromise, wliich, though flattering my poor deceased parent, was much more ready to display to both, as I thought, seemed never to give perfect conthis treasure on the drawers' head of our sitting parlour tent to either. His words were, " You are a clever hus. than she had formerly been. My sisters, in the meantiine, are sey, Bab”-“ Never mind her, my sweet Emmy." It more positive than ever as to their youth and my age. Sir, has been my misfortune, Sir, not to possess the same imit is a very bard thing to be forced, against one's positive partiality and evenness of temper with my father. Bepersuasion, to imagine that a twelvemonth is not a twelve- sides, I was not entitled to the same deference and aumonth to every body, and all the world over; or that when thority; and, moreover, I am firmly convinced, that the 1 myself am twenty years older than I was when our modifications of disposition, hamour, talent, behaviour, grandmother died, time bas not been every bit as liberal and circumstances, which have taken place in my sisters to my sisters. But to proceed : Miss Bab, Sir, had a since his death; necessarily required some corresponding great advantage in early life, of going to live at the house change of treatment. But as I perceive my paper to be of a grand uncle, a nonconformist clergyman in the west exhausted, and Bab assures me that much stooping accountry, who was well endowed with the good things of celerates the decrepitude and infirmities of age, I am this world, and whose company used to be greatly courted here compelled to suspend my narrative. by the nobility and chief gentry 'in his vicinity. This

Nathanael Dewlar. respectable gentleman, to a few whimsical opinions on Moody-hall

, ncar Edinburgh.


Drama- Fine Arts.

(Sept. 27, 1817. THE DRAMA.

Give acts, when the part is wearied out, instead of fairly The Loudon theatres are now opened for the season. run down. Mr Stanley was a pretty good figure, but lie They are entirely lighted by gas, and otherwise greatly cramps its action sadly-as though be had by sympathy improved in their appearance. The great subject of cri- caught the action from the gouty limbs of a Bath auticism for some oights, among the different groups and dience. Perhaps the stage here is too large for him at preconversation-parties, was the wonderful beauty and bril. seot: what


be very free acting on a Bath stage, may liancy of the light, which, from illuminating the shops and be very limited on a London one.

limited' on, a London one. Mr Stanley does not streets, bas at length aspired to perform a part in the act the cbaracter:so well as Elliston acted it though he theatre itself. The pie appeared like a beautiful parterre has evidently made that gentleman his model. Elliston in broad day light; but with all the lustre in the front of played it with an infinite deal of bumour and made up the house, the stage retained its superiority.

iu gracefulness and earnestness what he wanted in anni. The managers

have resolved to abolish the outrageous ness and rapidity. He was ever at ease, and his acting panegyrics at the bottom of their play- bills, so ofteu ap- always had the appearance of coming from the heart. plied to new performers and performances, which were And as to Lewis, he was Rover himself. He came on, generally read, with disgust, aud in future to leave the and went off the stage with inimitable ligbtness : he trod merits of actors and dramatic works to the judgment of the stage as though he trod on air-and it was bard to ile public.

believe that bis feet were not winged. His spirits were A new play, called The Duke of Savoy, has been read ever as much on tiptoe as his form--and he flitted into all in the Green-Room of Covent Garden, and is said to sorts of pleasantry and mischief with an indescribable bave been sent over by Holman from Ancrica.

grace and easiness. Puck, must have lent him one wing, A young lady of the name of Brunton, sister, it is be: and Ariel another. What a spirit of joy he ever seemed, lieved, to Lady Craven, appeared at Covent Garden, ou - and does not bis death almost seem a mockery? We the 12th, in the character of Letitia Hardy, in the de. can only wonder how he ever had leisure to die. As to lightful comedy of the Belle's Stratagem. She has a seeing any other actor with half his vivacity and soul beautiful figure, and has a most graceful action. Her we may as soon look for another Milton-nay, almost as voice is not so pleasant, or it might want security, being soon look for anotber Shakespeare ! the first night of her appearance. She played, on the whole, remarkably well, and was received with great ap

FINE ARTS. plause. Her dancing is admirable.

A Mr Staqley, from the Bath theatre, has made his The Board of Trustees for Arts, Manufactures, &c. first appearance at Drury lane in the character of Rover, have recently added to their splendid collection of casts in the pleasant and spirited comedy of Wild Oats. He from the antique, for the use of the academy in Picardy is a very good-humoured gentleman in face and figure, Place, a selection from the finest of the Elgin marbles : and acts with a tolerable portion of vivacity ; but he seems amongst these are casts of the colossal remains of the The. to be destitute of a true relish for humour and spright- seus, the Ilyssus, the Neptune, the famous Horse's head all liness. There is also too much preparation for liveliness from the tympanum of the Parthenon at Athens ; se veral of too long a train before his merriment explodes. Rover is the metopes of the external frieze, and several exquisite a rattling, vivacious vagabond. He would give his last portions of the interior frieze of the Cella, besides other guinea to any one, provided it would not detain him long; interesting fragments from the same edifice. The artists and would fall in love froin whim, and escape from it by of Edinburgh, on their petition, have received from the forgetfulness. His life is a hard race at one heat, and Board permission to study these admirable remains ; the he runs against bimself, contesting stoutly all the way. Board having also, in the most handsome manner, agieed With the happiest heedlessness, he has the most generous to maintain the expence of lighting and heating the acanature ; and thus he is coutinually stumbling on acts of demy during their hours of study. It is much to be rekindness, which he overdoes to get them off his bands. gretted, for the sake of the public taste and of the arts of His heels are winged like Mercury's—his heart is made this country, that tbis collection should be so little known of “the boney dew of youth," --and his brain has got so to the public; that the advantages of the only establishmuch a-head of him, that he never overtakes it. Such is ment of the kind in Scotland, founded under the auspices, the character of Rover. Mr Stanley is of a disposition and maintained at the expence of Government, should be to repose his mind, froin the flurry of the part, on the sep. confined to the students of the academy and the artists of timents which he bas occasion to deliver. He looks forward the city, when it might so easily be made the means of to them as eagerly as a school-boy does to the holidays, or disseminating the principles of sound art over the country an indolent attorney to the long vacation. His attitudes in general, and providing one of the most elegant and raare of a forced briskness; and his language marches out tional enjoyments of wbich a cultivated mind is sus• of his mouth with the sedateness of an old maiden-poetess, ceptible. instead of the words bursting and scampering out of his Egypt still continues to afford to our residents lips with all the joyous vehemence of boys from a school and travellers in that country a rich barvest of dis. door. Instead of running the character down with biscovery. We are led to expect shortly from Mr Salte, our own spirits, and the spirits of all about him in full cry, consul-general there, a more correct transcript of the inhe has starts of velocity, wbich compel bim to pause, as if scription on the column of Dioclesian (commonly called for breath : and we bave a long and laborious chace for that of Pompey)-iban bas bitherto appeared ; and the

Sept. 27, 1817.]
Miscellaneous Anecdotes.

31 same ardent traveller, assisted by a foreign officer of the his Royal Highness and informed bim of the circumuame of Cariglio, has not only succeeded in transporting stance, who contrived a stratagem. He sent to the painfrom Thebes very interesting fragments of Egyptian sculp- ter's house a pretty German girl, in the service of the ture, but bas also discovered a passage cut in the solid queen. Haydn took his seat for the third time, and as a rock 400 feet in length, under the great pyramid, with soon as the conversation began to flag, a curtain rose, and chambers at the lower extremity, and a communication the fair German addressed him in his native language, with the mysterious well, which has hitherto puzzled all with a most elegant compliment. Haydn, delighted, our antiquaries and travellers. Excavations have also overwhelmed the enchantress with questions ; his counbeen effected among the sepulchral structures in the neigh- ||tenance recovered its' animation, and Sir Joshua rapidly bourhood upon the desert; and amongst other curiosities, a seized its traits. sinall temple, and a fine granite tablet, have been disco Calmuck Tartars. - Prayer is one of the principal duvered between the lion's paws of the Sphinx.

ties enjoined by Lamaism; and the Calmucks discbarge this duty in tlie most exemplary manner, and with very

little trouble to themselves. It is well known, that a MISCELLANEOUS ANECDOTES.

Romish priest must say his breviary five times a day.

Among other stories which are told of jesuitical casuistry, Return to a Collector of Taxes.-An Assessor having it is said that the sons of St Ignatius invented a conveleft a schedule relative to taxes at the cottage of a pea nient method of complying with the injunctions of the sant, had the following answer sent him; :

church. At the canonical bour, the jesuit repeats the To the Gatherur of Taxex.

alpbabet from A to Z, to wbich he adds a short collect, “SIR, -I does not use no bair poother, and as for ar in which he begs that the Christ-cross row may be taken moral beerings, I does not kno them at all; but if they as an equivalent for all the prayers which can be made means wigs, I does not use none."

out of the combination and repetition of the letters. The Lord Amherst and the Emperor of China. Many of Calmucks have displayed still greater ingenuity. We the Opposition, as well as Bonaparte, censure Lord Am. Europeans pride ourselves upon the superiority which we herst for refusing to knock head to the Emperor of China. have attained, by substituting machinery for human labour. Cobbet, we imagine, would have talked of the dignity of We think we have accomplished miracles by employa free-born Englishman. We extract the following from ing the strong arm' of unconquered steam,' in twirling a paper called ihe Alfred:

the spindle, or in setting the wool-card in motion. The " That any, man who has observed the reception of a followers of the grand Lama bave done more they have bill in the House of Lords, the bowing and sciaping of invented praying-jennies, which do the business in .perthe members of the Commons who attend, to a little old fection! It is a doctrine amongst them, and it is so conchair, wbich is the seat of the Sovereign; the solemn pa- venient to saints and sinners, that no Calmuck, whether ces of the chancellor to meet the bowing men, with balf free-thinker or devotee, bas ever ventured to call it in a yard of velvet in his hand, decorated with a little gold question, that as often as the paper, or other substance lace, which he presents to the scrapers, who scrape again upon which a prayer is written, is set in motion, this at the sight, and perform their genuflections and crab-like movement of the written prayer is as meritorious as its evolutions on their retreat:-chat anyone, of such a nation, oral repetition. The kurada, or praying-machine, is should refuse to make nineteen nods of the head, according therefore constructed upon this principle : -- it consists of to the nianners of a foreign empire, is as extraordinary as it two cylinders, or drums, filled within side with rolls of is unwise. It is a mere matter of ceremony, a silly piece of paper covered with prayers and ejaculations, written in etiquette, and so are the bendings and bowings at a levee. the Tangotian, or sacred language. The drums are hung Bui an ambassador to refrain from making nineteen bows in a neat frame, and are kept on the whirl with great --an ambassador from a country in which it has been laid facility, by the simple contrivance of a string and crank ; down as a rule, that no earl is to wash in the presence of and every turn of the cylinder is perfectly equivalent to a duke, without his permission—that a duke may wear a the repetition of all the prayers contained in it. The. cloth of state hanging within half a yard of the ground turning of the kurada is an agreeable pastime in the long --that the cloth of state of a marquis may reach within a evenings of winter ; but Tartar ingenuity has discovered yard of the ground, and that no viscount may wash with a method of dispensing even with the slight degree of exbim, but at his pleasure that a viscount may bave a co ertion which this compendious substitute requires. We ver of essay beld under his cup when be drinks--and make swift trochais roast our meat-tbey employ the that his wife may have her gown borne by a woman in the smoke-jack to say their prayers for them; and the kurada, presence of her, inferiors, but else, by a man !"

which spins over the fire in the midst of the hut, transfers Haydn. When this great composer was in England, one all its devotional merit to the owner. The Mongols are of our princes commissioned Sir Joshua Reynolds to take yet more wisely economical of individual responsibility his portrait. Hayda went to the painter's house, and sat and labour. Amongst them, the inhabitants of a district to him, but soon grew tired. Sir Joshua, careful of his construct a kurada at their joint expence, which is placed reputation, would not paint a man of acknowledged ge- || in a mill-house by the side of a running stream; and this nius with a stupid countenance, and deferred the sitting subscription kurada is made so large, that it holds prayers till another day. The same weariness and want of ex. enough to serve all the parish ; and, consequently, except pression occurring at the next attempt, Reynolds went to || in seasons of uncommon drought, when the water is

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