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52
Air Owen's Plan for the Relief of the Labouring Poor.

(October 11, 1817 gradually abolish pauperism, with all its manding exertion and an amount of expenditure public kitchen, and mess-rooms, a chapel, indegrading and injurious consequences.”

unknown at any former period, attained to a fant schools, schools for adults, grounds for exAt the same time he published what he foes and astonished its friends : both were alike with trees; lodgings for the married poor, who

height of political power, which confounded its ercise and recreation, planted and beautified denominated, “ A sketch of some of the unable to assign the real cause. So steadily, yet are not to be allowed to retain more than two errors and evils arising from the past and rapidly, did our country advance to this envied children; dormitories for children above three present state of society, with an explana- state, that there appeared to be no limit to its years of age; manufactories and gardens; a tion of some of the peculiar advantages acquirement of riches, and the kind of power complete farming establishment ; malting and to be derived from the arrangement of which wealth creates. The war itself, when it brewing houses ; corn.mill, dairy, and, in short,

had extended its ravages over Europe, to Asia all the constituents for self-support. To the the unemployed working classes into a

and to America, seemed but a new stimulus men are assigned the labours of agriculture, and gricultural and manufacturing villages of to draw forth our exhaustless resources, and in the heaviest part of the manufactures. To the unity and mutual co-operation.” Of this its effects the war did so operate. The destruc- women, the care of their children and houses; sketch we shall give the following ab- tion of human life in its prime, which it caused the cultivation of vegetables; the making of

throughout the world, and the waste of all the clothes ; and an attendance in rotation on the stract of the preliminary part. He begins materials necessary for war on so large a scale kitchen, mess-room, and dormitories. The with remarking

perhaps unparalleled in ancient or modern times- children to be trained in the lighter occupations. That the object of all human exertions is to created a demand for various productions, which The expence of building apartments for 1200 be happy ; but happiness cannot be attained, the overstrained industry of British manufac- persons, is estimated at £.17,000, with £.2100 enjoyed, and secured, unless all men possess tures, aided by all the mechanism they could for furnishing 300 lodging rooms. The ex. health, real knowledge, and wealth. The two

invent, and bring into action, was hardly com. pence of this establishment for twelve hundred former, he asserts, have been hitherto neglected petent to supply.

persons is estimated at £.96,000; or 'a capital for the attainment of wealth. The world, he

“ But peace at length followed, and found of £.80 for each individual; and in Mr Owen's adds, is now saturated with wealth-with' abun.

Great Britain in possession of a new power in opinion, the scheme may be modified for pa.. dant means of still increasing it, and yet misery constant action, which, it may be safely stated, rishes, districts, towns, or counties. abounds; while immense valuable energies, exceeded the labour of one hundred millions of competent with ease to procure every thing be the most industrious human beings, in the full derived from the execution of such a plan,

In a summary of the advantages to be neficial to humanity, lie waste, or are so misdi. strength of manhood."

" (he adds) will shew, that he adds to The world, however, is now amply supplied the working classes have now no adequate means

“ Many of the unemployed poor are now in a . with the means to call these dormant powers

of contending with mechanical power : one of into action. These means surround us, are at these three results must therefore ensue

state of gross ignorance, and have been trained in our instant disposal, and exist in a superfluity 1. The use of mechanism must be greatly di bad habits ; evils which, under the present system,

are likely to continue for endless generations. of abundance-yet the great mass of the world minished ; or, is in the depth of ignorance, without the com2. Millions of human beings must be starved, kind being trained in principles of disunion. The

“ The greatest evils in society arise from man.forts of life-a large proportion of them are in

to permit its existence to the present extent; or, proposed measures offer to unite men in the pur. trant of a sufficiency of food, subject to every

3. Advantageous occupation must be found suit of common objects for their mutual benefit." privation, and are to be found at this hour in for poor and unemployed working classes, to the midst of almost inconceivable distress and whose labour mechanism must be rendered sub- cessity for poor-rates, or any pecuniary gifts of

"Io one generation, it will supersede the new wretchedness. Extraordinary as it may seem, servient, instead of being applied, as at present, charity, by preventing any one from being poor. the change from one state to another will be to supersede it.

“ It will offer the means of gradually increas. most easy. No difficulty or obstacle of magni.

“ But, under the existing commercial system, ing the population of such unpopulous districts tude will be found in the whole progress. The mechanical power cannot in one country be dis- of Europe and America as may be deemed ne.. world knotes and feels the existing evils : it will continued, and in others remain in action, with cessary; and of increasing the strength and polook at the new order of things proposed--ap-out ruin tothat country in which it may be discon- litical power of the country in which it shall be

tinued. No one nation, therefore, will discon adopted, more than tenfold. prove will the change-and it is done !

tinue it; and although such an act were possiIn his report, laid before the House of ble, it would be a sure sign of barbarism in those and labouring poor from their present deep dis

“ It will eflectually relieve the manufacturing Commons, he thus traces the operation of who should make the attempt."

tress, without violently or prematurely interferthe leading causes to which the distress The circumstances of the times having ing with the existing institutions of society. now existing is to be ascribed.

rendered a change in our internal policy “ It will permit mechanical inventions and “ The immediate cause of the present distress necessary, Mr Owen presents us with improvements to be carried to any extent ; for is the depreciation of human labour ; and which has been occasioned by the general introduction manufacturing villages, of wbich the fol vient to, and in aid of human labour.” a detailed plan for the establishment of by the proposed arrangement, every improve

ment in mechanism would be rendered subserand America, but principally into those of Bri- lowing is a brief outline :tain, where the change was greatly accelerated Mr Owen proposes to make the poor national, Remarks on Mr Owen's Plan of Educaby the inventions of Arkwright and Watt. and to raise funds by mortgaging the present

tion. “ The introduction of mechanism into the ma. poor's rate to the amount of five or six years of nufacture of objects of desire in society reduced its annual value. The money so raised in sums A shaft, though idly thrown, their price ; the reduction of price increased the as required, he would have applied to the pur Sometimes hits against a stone. demand for them, and generally to so great an chase of land, in portions of different magni. extent, as to occasion more human labour to be tudes, and erect establishments thereon, for the first principle by men of learning, in all

Ir bas generally been laid down as a e nployed after the introduction of machinery accommodation of from five to fifteen hundred than had been employed before.

people. Of these buildings, Mr Owen has fur ages, that men are reasonable animals." The first effects of these new mechanical nished a plan, on a scale for 1200 persons, mèn, Yet, notwithstanding the deference with combinations were to increase individual wealth, women, and children. The buildings are sur. which we are inclined to regard those our and to give a new stimulus to further invention. rounded by a regulated quantity of land for ghostly fathers, it is not easy to discover

Thus one mechanical improvement gave spade cultivation--above an aere for each perrise to another in rapid succession ; and in a few son, including the site of erections-and they

in what this boasted dignity of buman years they were not only generally introduced are designed for a pauper community, which is nature practically consists. Whether we into the manufactures of these kingdoms, but to supply every thing for itself; and to be consider men as statesmen or fiddlers, adwere eagerly adopted by other nations of Eu- superintended on the principle of combining | mirals, generals, grinders, or coblers, it rope, and by America.

* Individual wealth soon advanced to national and frugality. The occupants are both to farm will be found that they are indebted in a prosperity, as tbat term is generally understood; and manufacture. Besides comfortable lodging great measure to situation, circumstances, and the country, during a war of 25 years, de- 'rooms, the buildings are intended to contain å education, and habit. And perhaps with

October 11, 1817.]
Remarks on Mr Owen's Plan of Education.

53 all those circumstances and training, it | stroy the belief in free will : if circum- 1 of the views to which the whole is obwill be found that the statesman seldom stances make us what we are, we cannot viously directed, of preventing the accumanages his business so well as the queen oppose their empire; if situation and ex. mulation of human misery, and diffusing bee ; and that many other of those we ternal objects are the cause of all that health and happiness throughout a great denominate the inferior animals, carry on passes in our mind, what independent portion of the manufacturing classes in their operations with as much order and thought ean free us from their ascenden. this kingdom? regularity, and finish their work in as cy? If all our character, all our con We flatter ourselves, that we cannot much perfection, as is usually performed science, arise from the circumstances with more effectually promote the purposes of by the dignified arrangements of the ex. which we are surrounded, from habit, this publication, ihan by endeavouring to alted two-legged featherless lords of the education, situation, and in short, every give a just view of the author's objects, and ereation.

thing with which we are surrounded from to open for it that public discussion, which But there is a “spirit in man," which, our infancy, what becomes of our respon: he so boldly challenges, of the principles it is said, “ leadeth to wisdom.” The sibility? Can there, in that case, be any and the practice he so strenuously recombee forms her cell; the little nautilus moral turpitude in our conduct or ac- mends. plows the main; the beaver builds her tions? Would it not reduce us to that of The great principle on which Mr submarine abode in the same manner now being mere machines? We are led to Owen professes to found the whole of his that they were formed a thousand years these reflections by the perusal of the propositions is, that any general characago. We have indeed never heard of Work of Mr Robert Owen of New Lan- ter, from the best to the worst, from the the war-horse, the elephant, or the spaniel, ark, entitled, A New View of Society, or most ignorant to the most enlightened, transmitting their acquirements to pos- Essays on the Formation of the Human may be given to any community, even to terity, and thereby improving the future Character, preparatory to the developement the world at large, by the application of operation of the race. But neither is of a plan for gradually ameliorating the proper means; which means are,-10 a great there any perfect certainty of the greatest condition of mankind.

extent, at the command, and under the statesman, general, or admiral, transmit This work deserves particular atten- controul of those who have influence in ting his qualities to his son, and perhaps tion, from the worth and good intention of the affairs of men. not any thing like an equal certainty as the author; from the benevolence of the This the author assumes as the motto that of the spaniel or the war-borse.- design ; from the circumstance of the of his work, and in the course of it he We have, it must be confessed, sometimes plans he proposes being founded on the makes the following bold assertion, viz. seen the pliancy of the spaniel, in the experience of twenty years; from the "that this principle is true, to the utmost sons of great statesmen, but very rarely perseverance with which he has endea: limit of the terms,” he says, " is evident the spirit and courage of the war-horse voured to obtain attention to his proposi- from the experience of all past

' ages, and have we observed to descend to the pos- tion, and the expence he has put himself from every existing fact *.” terity of a modern“ hero.”

to for that purpose ; all proving the con. sorry to be under the necessity of conTo what then is this boasted dignity viction he entertains of the truth of his travening this proposition, on ihe appeal of human nature to be attributed? In what positions.

to the experience of past ages, in the shape is it to be detected ? A celebrated “ These principles,” he asserts, “ ap- very outset. philosopher bas asserted, that if the plied with judgment, will effectually re We have on record the history of a hands of man had been made like the form the most vicious community existing, peculiar people, not under the governinent hoof of a horse, he would only bave pos. and train the younger part of it to any only of the wisest of mankind, but under sessed the intelligence of this animal. character wbich may be desired; and the immediate direction and controul of

But there is a principle in man which that too, much more easily on an extend that omnipotent Being, under whose in- . darts its rays throughout all his existence, ed, than on a limited scale.”

fluence all mankind "live, and move, and and of wbich no country, however sa. To reject such a proposition because have their being." Yet it is hardly pos. vage, has been found destitute. There we may think he has carried the power sible to find in the bistory of mankind is in man, that wbich perishes with his of external circumstances too far, would any community of a general character, so earthly existence, and that which may be, in our opinion, very unphilosophical. vile, so perverse, so abject

, so degraded, survive him; that which experience en Still more would it be highly unfair to in all periods of their bistory, even to their ables bim to acquire, and that with which refuse attention to his doctrines and rea- last act of ferocious atrocity, which dismoral instinct inspires bim—the finite, sonings, because he has not flattered the persed them amongst all the nations of and the infinite. "Every thing," as ele- lower orders of people, by making them the world, still remaining a distinct peogantly expressed by Madame Stael,- suppose themselves capable of wisely chu ple, and possessing the same general cha“Every thing seems to testify in us the sing the members of the legislative body, racter of depravity, obstinacy, and abject existence of a double nature. The influ. which opinion seems to have been the chief meanness. ence of the senses, and that of the mind, ground of the opposition raised to his pro It may be alleged, that we ought not shew our being between them. The soul position by the leaders of what is called to draw any inferences from the state of and nature, liberty and necessity, divide the popular party in the city of London. a people whom we are instructed to conthe dominion of existence; and just as Nor, perhaps, would it be candid to can- sider as an anomaly of the human race, we place the commanding force within vass, by the strict rules of criticism, every and who seem to be preserved distinct ourselves or without us, we are the sons of part of the wortby author's assertions; from all the communities amongst which heaven, or the slaves of earth.”

or because some of his expectations of they are dispersed, not only as perpetual Those doctrines by which the senti- the result of his propositions appear to be ments and conduct of men are attributed too sanguine, would it not be too fasti

Essay first on the formation of characı to the course of events, necessarily de- | dious to refuse to entertain the discussion

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34
Remarks on Mr Owen's Plan of Education.

[October 11, 1817. evidence of the existence of the Author of fore, the habit of such exertion, and ge- | poverty, without crime, and without puthe Christian religion, but for some mys- nerally becomes as stupid and ignorant nishment: and all this, he contends, is terious purposes in the dispensations of as it is possible for a human creature to easily practicable, not only without any Providence, which we cannot fathom, or become. The torpor of his mind renders loss or disadvantage to the capitalists pretend to explain.

him, not only incapable of relisbing or employing an aggregated population, but But although we may not be prepared bearing a part in any rational conversa which, instead of a return of five, ten, or with sufficient faith to believe that govern- tion, but of conceiving any generous, no- fifteen per cent. for the capital so expendments can mould the wayward will of man ble, or tender sentiment, or of forminged, would often occasion a returo of fifty, into apy form they please, and direct his any just judgment, cancerning many even and, in many cases, a hundred per cent. conduct as easily as the wheels of a cot of the ordinary duties of private life. Of These positions Mr Owen supports, ton mill, we are far from denying that the great and extensive interests of his not on doubtful disputation, but on an ex, governments ought to pay attention to country he is altogether incapable of perience of twenty years, on a population the education, training, and instruction, judging; and, unless very particular pains of between two and three thousand indinot only of children, but also of the grown- have been taken to render him otherwise, viduals, employed in the cotton mills at up population, or of persons of all ages. he is equally incapable of defending his New Lanark, in Scotland, and he has We have also some instances of this country in var. The uniformity of his boldly come forward with the public-spitraining under the governments of states stationary life naturally corrupts the cou: rited offers of assisting the government completely answering the purpose for rage of his mind, and makes him regard and the public to induce similar effectual wbich it was intended. Such was that with abhorrence the irregular, uncertain, mauagement throughout the whole of the of the republics of ancient Greece, when and adventurous life of a soldier. It cor- manufacturing population of the united every free citizen was instructed, under rupts even the activity of his body; and kingdom. the direction of the public magistrate, in renders him incapable of exerting bis As we consider that propositions of gymnastic exercises, and in music. By strength, with vigour and perseverance, equal importance have seldom or ever gymnastic exercises, it was intended to in any other employment than that to been brought before the public with so harden his body, to sharpen his courage, whiclr he has been bred. His dexterity impressive a title to general attention and and to prepare him for the fatigues and at his own particular trade seems, in this examination, we are inclined to believe dangers of war; and certainly the Greek manner, to be acquired at the expense of that we cannot devote a part of this Jourmilitia was, by all accounts, one of the bis intellectual, social

, and martial vir nal to a purpose more acceptable to mang best that ever was in the world. By the tues. Melancholy as this picture is, this of our readers, and so likely to aid the other part, music, it was proposed to hu- is actually the state into which the la: purposes of the benevolent author, as to manize the mind, to soften the temper, bouring poor, that is, the great body of enter into some farther inquiry into this and dispose it for performing all the so- the people, must necessarily fall, unless interesting subject. önts:100. cial and moral duties of public and pri- government takes some pains to prevent vate life.

Lord Selkirk's New Settlement in AmeIn modern times, the attention of the

ricu. government to the education and training diffuse, and, we think, unsatisfactory reaof the individuals of a state, seems still soning, and taking up the consideration The Earl of Selkirk, in 1811, obtainmore necessary and incumbent a duty, merely of the propositions, he has made, ed from the Hudson's Bay Company the and perhaps in no state are these duties they appear to be of the most important grant of a large tract of land in North so incumbent as in that of England and tendency, to the happiness of the labour. America, possessed by them in virtue of Ireland; and perhaps in no country have ing classes, and to the welfare of the state; their charter, and immediately began his these duties of the government hitherto and to demand the most serious considera- plan of colonizing it. A situacion on been so much neglected and despised. tion of the government of the country, and the banks of the Red River, about 40 or

The employinent of by far the greater of the public at large. This worthy and be- 50 miles from its entrance into Lake Wipart of those wbo live by labour, that is, nevolent individual proposes to the govern- nipic, was chosen for a settlement; and of the great body of the people *, comes ment of the country, and to the public at Lord Selkirk appointed Mr Miles Macto be confined to a very few simple oper. large, what be considers a total, complete, donell to superintend the colony. That ations, frequently to one or two. But and effectual remedy, for the whole of the gentleman had also been made Governor the understandings of the greater part of evils we have, we believe, most truly de- of the district of Ossiniboia (in which men are necessarily formed by their ordi- picted, as arising from the progress of the the Red River was situated) by the Hudnary employments. The man whose whole division of labour; and these remedies, son's Bay Company. life is spent in performing a few simple he asserts, can be carried into full effect, In the autumn of 1812, Mr M. Macoperations, of which the effects are always not only by proper attention to the edu- dopell went with a small party to erect the same, or very nearly the same, bas cation of the children begioning to be em houses and prepare every thing for the no occasion to exert his understanding, ployed in these labours, but that by pro settlers who were to follow. There were or exercise bis invention, in finding out per management of the adult population several additions to their number, and in expedients for removing difficulties that already so employed, the recurrence of September 1814, the settlers, and labour. He naturally loses, there sufferings, misery, and injustice, may be ers, chiefly from Scotland, altogether a

prevented, and the whole of the great mounted to 200. From the commenceBy the last returns under the population body of the people, he maintains, can be ment of the colony to the spring of 1815, and Ireland have been found to exceed twelve trained to live without idleness, without nothing of importance occurred to intermillions of persons, or nearly three-fourths of

rupt the progress of the infant colony; the population of the British Islands. .

• Wealth of Nations, Vol. 3. p. 195. the difficulties, unavoidable at the com

ie" Divesting Mr Owen's Essays of much

never occur.

October 11, 1817.]
Lord Selkirk's New Settlement in America.

55 mencement of such an establishment, sible. In the absence of Mr Miles Mac-ders of CuthbertGrant, Thomas M.Kay, were got over. The land was very fer. donell, Mr Cameron sent to seize the Roderick M'Kenzie, and P. Bostonois, tile, and, though there was plenty of field-pieces, on account, as he said, of clerks and interpreters of the North West wood near, it did not, like most of the their having been employed to disturb Company, and were all made prisoners. land in North America, require clearing the peace of his Majesty's subjects. Af- About the end of May, the whole party, The rivers abounded with fish, the plains ter this seizure, more of the settlers de- with Mr Alexander M‘Donell, a North with buffaloe, and the woods with elk, serted, taking with them their arms, im- i West partner, went down the river in deer, and game. The neighbouring In. plements of agriculture, &c.; and on their boats, and part of them, with Cuthdians (the Sautoux) were friendly from the return of Mr Miles Macdonell, a bert Grant, took one of the Hudson's the first. Some attempts had indeed warrant, which had some time before Bay Company's forts, called Brandon been made in the spring of 1813, by been issued against bim by Mr Norman House, and after distributing the furs the clerks and interpreters of the fur M‘Leod, one of the North West Com- and provisions in it among the Canadians traders of Montreal (the North West pany, was attempted to be carried into and half-breeds, about 70 of them, on Company) to instigate the natives against execution ; and, after some time, Mr horesback and armed, proceeded towards the settlers, by telling them that they Miles Macdonell, to put an end to the the Red River. On the 19th June, they would be deprived of their hunting grounds, hostilities then going on between the two were observed by Governor Semple and and that if the colony was once firmly parties, surrendered himself, and was his people approaching the settlement. established, they would be made slaves carried down to Montreal to be tried ; Governor Semple, ordering: 20 men to of by the settlers. Mr Miles Macdonell, but no trial took place, as the charges follow bim, advanced toward them. А however, did away the unfavourable im- against him were found to be illegal. Canadian, of the name of Boucher, adpressions that had been made, and ob- After his departure, frequent skirmisbes vancing, and using insulting language to tained the continuance of their friend took place, until the remaining settlers, the Governor, his horse's bridle was laid ship. After that, the settlers appeared about 60, embraced an offer of the Sau hold of by Mr Semple. Boucher jumped confident of their safety and contented toux Indians, and were conducted by from bis horse, and a shot was instantly with their situation. At the commence them down the River to Lake Winipic, fired by one of Grant's people, which ment of the settlement (named Kildo- where they remained at a tradiog post, killed Mr Holt, and then another, which nan,) some light field-pieces had been called Jack River House. The day wounded Mr Semple. He cried out to sent up by Lord Selkirk, and in the subsequent to their leaving it, all the his men to take care of themselves; but summer of 1814, a quantity of arms and buildings at the settlement were burnt instead of that, they pressed round him ammunition was received, which had been down by the agents of the North West to ascertain what had happened. While furnished by Government for the defence Company, and it was thus destroyed for thus collected, the half-breeds fired a of tlfe colony. the first time.

volley among them, and then rushing for. The North West Company, a power The old settlers remained a short time ward, butchered Mr Semple, and most of ful body of traders at Montreal, bad re at Jack River House, and were then his followers. The remaining settlers at garded the colonists from the commence- joined by Mr Colin Robertson, an agent Kildonan, naturally alarmed at these lor. ment as interfering with their trading of the Hudson's Bay Company, who, to- rid proceedings, surrendered the fort and interests, and they directly denied the gether with some emigrants chiefly from all their property, on condition of being right both of Lord Selkirk and the Hud- the Highlands of Scotland, making a. allowed to go down the river. On the son's Bay Company to the land granted. bout 200 in all, conducted them to the second day from their embarkation, they This dispute gave rise to the hostilities River Pembina in the winter; but the met a strong party of boats, commanded which afterwards took place. Mr Dun- next spring removed them to their for by Mr Norman M'Leod, who ordered can Cameron, one of the acting partners mer situation on the Red River. · Mr them all on shore to take their examiof the North West Company, arrived at Cameron beginning to molest them di- nations; and after detaining some by the end of August, 1814, at a trading rectly they came back, Mr Colin Ro warrants, and some by subpænas, the rest port belonging to that Company, situated bertson seized bis fort or trading post, were suffered to proceed towards Hudat the Forks, about half a mile from the and recovered two field pieces and 30 son's Bay. Thus was the colony broken Red River settlement. He began by stand of arms, which had been taken: a- up a second time. ingratiating himself with the settlers, way from the Red River settlers the year Before these latter proceedings reach. and in order to persuade them to desert, before; but on Mr Cameron's promising ed the ears of Lord Selkirk, be had colpromised them a free passage to Canada, to behave peaceably, gave it up to him lected a body of men to reinforce the setlands, &c.; and continually alarmed again.

tlers, composed of the unemployed solthem with reports that the Indians' were Mr Semple, who had been appointed diers of the disbanded regiments of De coming to attack them. These means Governor of all their trading ports by Meuron, Watteville, and the Glengary were effectual. Several settlers joined the Hudson's Bay Company, arrived at Fencibles, amounting to upwards of 100 him during the winter, and even some the Red River in March 1816. In April, persons. On reaching the Falls of St labourers and contracted servants were he sent Mr Pambrun to the river Qui Mary, between Lakes Huron and Supe. persuaded to quit the settlement before Appelle, who found a number of the half- rior, Lord Selkirk learnt the fate of his the expiration of their contracts. The breeds collected there; and as he was settlement, and the tragic death of Mr half breeds, a race of men, the illegiti- proceeding down the river with twenty. Semple, and finding also that several of mate progeny of the Canadians by In- five men, in five boats, laden with a quan- his settlers had been carried prisoners to dian women, were instigated to harass tity of furs and 600 bags of dried provi. Fort William, the chief trading post of the settlers by driving the buffaloe from sion, be was attacked by a body of Cana. the North West Company, he immediatethe plains, and in every other way pos. I diang. apd half- breeds, under the or.fly changed bis route, resolving to go to

AN ALLEGORY.

56
Prosperity and Adversity : an Allegory.

(October 11, 1817. that place and demand their release. On tread in the sands *." Yet notwithstand passion, the disciple of ambition, and the his reaching the fort, some of his people ing all this, and in scorn of the arguments prey of anger-yet the dupe of artifice were directly liberated, but they had all alike of Grahame and Malthus, it was and design. been kept in rigorous confinement. The far more populous than the neighbouring The character that bas vice for its information which they gave bis Lord. region. Of this remarkable country we foundation, is like the house built on the ship with respect to the occurrences at perhaps never would have beard, but for sea-shore when the wind beats and the the colony, induced him, in bis capacity ibe following relation :

billows rage, it must fall. It was even of magistrate, to arrest Mr M Gillivray, In the desolate region, wbich was

so with him. He became despicable in the partner and principal agent of the named Adversity, lived an old man nam. the eyes of the good ; and, by the wise, North West Company in Canada, and ed Care, who was married to Patience, he was weighed in the balance, and found several others. Some resistance being (by the bye, a female relation of his own.) wanting. He was stripped of bis emmade on serving the warrants, Lord Sel- Some pedantic antiquaries will bave it, ployments, and deprived of the keys of kirk's followers forced their way into the that she was a daughter of Job ; but for trust, and the seals of secrecy. He could fort, took possession of it, apprehended this romantic opinion vo authentic data are not remain in a country, which, in his the agents of the Company, secured the given. Contentment was the only child of chagrin, he thought bad been so unjust papers, &c. and then sent the parties of this aged couple. When he arrived at and ungrateful to bim; and he wandered to Montreal for trial.

man's estate, his father would not allow involuntarily towards the mountains of These particulars are taken from a bim to remain at home; and, contrary to Difficulty. The view awakened all the pamphlet recently published, under the his own importunities, and the solicitations sensations of sorrow and disappointment kitle of “ Statement respecting the Earl of his mother, he was obliged to set out in his bosom. He recollected with #bat of Selkirk's Settlement upon the Red for the region of Prosperity, where some different emotions, and what delightful River," &c. Since its publication, we of bis relations resided; but he was not feelings, that prospect had opened on his learn by accounts from Canada, that Lord unacquainted with the singular fatality, view, when bis hopes were the hopes Selkirk has again proceeded to re-estab- that the inhabitants of that region gene- of virtuous emulation, and his heart was tish his colony, but ivith what success rally forget all who are in the other, wbe. unimbittered by the pangs of remorse. we know not.

ther related by the ties of consanguinity, The change was obvious ; and he was

or the obligations of gratitude. All his conscious of it. He felt that he himself Prosperity and Adversi'y, neighbours knew his worth, and were was alone to blame; the truth burst 'up

sorry for his loss. All his friends knew on his view; and he wept aloud in the

his virtues, and wept at bis departure. bitterness of bis heart. Successus'ad perniciem multos devocat. Phædr. : He stretched forward with a heavy Pensively ascending tbe side of the

heart, but a silent tongue ; and ascended hill, he fixed bis eye on the ground, and THERE'once existed a country, which the mountains of Difficulty, which sepa. strayed on, absorbed in painful reflection. has now no place in any of our modern rated the two regions. When he gained Raising his eye, be perceived an aged maps, or systems of geography; nas, the summit, bis eye was enchanted, and figure seated on a stone; on nearer aptravellers even dispute as to the quarter bis breast delighted with the prospect be- proach he discovered him to be a Dervise, of the globe in with it was eituated. As fore him :- all that he could wish-nay, and made the accustomed obeisance. the names of none of its rulers have de more than he had ever conceived, was Rising up, the Dervise abruptly accosted scended to our times, antiquaries have, there ; and he wandered forward, amid him in these words : “My name is Experhaps, on no very plausible grounds, streams that murmured sweeter than the perience; and I know thee well. In thy maintained, that it must have been a re- Oxus ; cedars taller than those of Leba- better, at least thy purer days, even in public ; 'but be this as it may, of all its non; and amid the melody of birds, that the days of thy adversity, thy name was records, it has left, like the garden of surpassed the nightingale in song, and Contentment. But thou hast now lost Eden, but one story to preserve it from the bird of paradise in plumage. all title to that honourable appellation. oblivion.

Having settled among the inbabitants, Thou art returning to the region of thy The name of this country was For- he retained for some time his former ha- birth, with the lesson engiaven on thy tune ; as to its climate, it was anomalous; bits and his former virtues ; but the lus- heart-that wealth is inferior to wisdom, one region of it enjoyed perpetual spring, tre of wealth gradually began to dazzle and that power cannot purchase happiand a cloudless sky; the zephyrs were his eyes. His ear being never dunned ness. May your example teach your loaded with the perfume of roses ; the eye by the importunate solicitations of Pover: neighbours to repine not, nor murmur at was fascinated by landscapes of perennial ty, he forgot the comparative comforts of the dispensations of Providence ! May verdure, and the ear enchanted with un his own situation. He dismissed Bene- they learn, that champing the bit, will ceasing melody. All the senses of man volence from bis presence ; Justice with not free the horse from tbe bridle; and were gratified", and sorrow could scarce- drew from his company; Gratitude a woke that struggling galls the sore it cannot ly find a babitation.' r.

her still, small' voice, unbeard; and he heal! Depart in peace; and from your The other region was a complete coun. sbdt bis ear to the warnings of Sincerity case may they learn, that the smiles of terpart of all this; and, though only se As a complete change was made in bis Fortune are more to be dreaded than ber parated by a range of mountains, it was conduct, so was there also in his com- frowns ; that if Prosperity bas more subject to tremendous storms and earth- panions. He listened with avidity to the sources of pleasure, it has also more alquakes. The sun was shrouded with words of praise, and swallowed the baits lurements to vice; and that the mind, in ever-brooding tempests. The face of the of adulation. He became the slave of every state, contented and resigned, is earth presented but a barren wilderness;

the most pure and pleasing in the eyes of and “ the waters filled the traveller's

* Southey's Thalaba the Destroyer.

its Creator !!

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