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TO THE EDITOR.

frequently for reading essays and the free dis of the most elegant and rational enjoy parting for the island of Elba, he met, in the October 11, 1817.) Fine Arts.-Miscellaneous Repository:

57 FINE ARTS.

There should be only one row of large windows, at the reply. The jest was instantly seen, they

least in the principal front, which, by conveying shook hands, and instead of voting against the Proposal for Establishing an Academy of the building to be devoted to a public

purpose

. warmly in promoting his election.

facetious orator, the lawyer exerted himself the Fine Arts at Edinburgh. But in order to give it a sufficient elevation for Sir Francis Burdett.—Cobbett, having now

a second storey in the interior, pannels or pat. settled in America, has resumed bis political SIR,

terns may be placed over the windows; it would speculations, which are still printed in London. In perusing your last Number, I ob

add greatly to the beauty of the structure, if the In his last he makes an attack upon Sir Fran

funds would admit, of the said pannels, but es. cis, his former friend. The character of the served, with that degree of satisfaction pecially the frieze of the entablature and tympa- baronet's oratory is thus summed up : " It has which every admirer of the fine arts num of the pediment, to be encircled with appro- | always been the passion of Sir Francis Burdett must fecl, when I learned that there is such priate sculptured devices. In the interior ar to be at head, and not only at the head, but to a fine collection of casts in the academy; rangement, the first floor to consist of a lobby, have no degrees of approach towards him, and and it is a natter of no small regret, thał lecture rooms, a hall, and a library. The second especially in the capacity of Speech-maker, a

floor to be lighted entirely from the top, and talent beneath notice, when compared with the such a benefit to the arts should be so

consist of two large rooms, the one to contain great and solid powers of mind which he pos. little known, but I hope it will soon at the collection of casts, paintings, &c. the pro sesses. · To hear him by the side of his breaktain more publicity and ready access to perty of the Institution ; the other set aside for fast table ; to hear the fine and consequent the annual exhibition.

reasoning, the profound remarks, and the simthe public.

The basement storey, to contain accommoda- ple and strong language that comes from his I shall now lay before you a few hints

tion for a keeper; for, in order to give the lips; and, in a few hours afterwards, to find all for the formation of an institution on a flight of steps a proper elevation, it would be this, as it were, wholly forgotten, and to hear more extensive scale. raised to an adequate height.

him labouring till he is out of breath, in the

I have thus endeavoured to lay down utterance of sentences two minutes long, each city somewhat on the principle of that at Som- the chief features of an establishment, and each of these two or three little ones, one erset-house ; to have solely for its object the which, there is the most sanguine expec. within another as Swift calls it, " like a nest of promotion of the fine arts, and to be denotations to think, that if it were once pill-boxes,” while the sentence closes, at last, minated ", The Royal Scottish Academy of the brought before the public, that it would without any memory being able to collect its Fine Arts." The first department of the institution, to meet with success, open a new era in the ideas into any rational point or conclusion, and

leaving no other impression upon the minds of consist of a school or academy, provided with history of the arts, and, as your Magazine his hearers, than that which is produced by deprofessors of drawing, painting, sculpture, and justly observes, " be the means of disse clamatory rant ; to hear him thus, in these two architecture.

minating the principles of sound art over different situations, is enough to make any senThe second department, of a society compo: the country in general, and providing one

sible man avoid the rock of misguided ambition. sed of and professional men,

.-When the ex-emperor cussion of every subject relating to the arts. ments of which a cultivated mind is sus

south of France, with one of his ancient comThe third department, of a collection of casts, ceptible.”

C. A. panions in arms, who blamed him much for his drawings, paintings, engravings, &c.; also a

not having killed himself the moment of his library chiefy composed of books relating to the MISCELLANEOUS REPOSITORY. abdication. Napoleon replied, “ Your remark fine arts, and an annual exhibition of works of

on my conduct is not consonant with common the artists-premiums to be given for the best Mr Sheridan.--As Mr Sheridan was coming up sense. Have you never heard of a Roman specimens in each department. A question will to town in one of the public coaches, for the pur-named Marius ?”- The other said he had. now occur, by what means funds are to be pro- pose of canvassing Westminster, at the time when “Observe," continued he: “ had Marius killed vided for such an institution ? A subscription to Paull was his opponent, he found himself in himself at Monturna, he would not have been be opened, and the subscribers to be divided into company with two Westminster electors. In seven times consul.” The soldier might have different classes, according to the sums they sub the course of conversation, one of them asked enquired of the ex-emperor, if he had ever heard scribe ; the benefit to arise to those who sub the other to whom he meant to give his vote ? of an island in the Atlantic called St Helena ? scribe a large sum, to be a greater number of When his friend replied, “ To Paull, certainly; As a body of troops passed in review before admission tickets, votes in the election of trus- for though I think him but a shabby sort of Bonaparte at the Carousal, his horse became so tees, professors, &c. : the board of trustees for fellow, I would vote for any one rather than unruly, that his hat fell in his exertions to remanufactures, &c. would probably be induced, that rascal Sheridan !"_" Do you know, Mr strain it. A young soldier, who happened to be not only to give their patronage, support, and Sheridan ?” asked the stranger." Not I, Sir,” near bim, picked up the hat, and presented it pecuniary aid, but also to conjoin their present answered the gentleman ; “ nor should I wish to him. " Thank you, Captain,” said Napo. academy and collection of casts. Another source to know him.” The conversation dropped here; leon." In what regiment, sire ?” said the of revenue might arise from the sale of tickets but when the party alighted to breakfast, She young man ; with which answer Bonaparte was admitting the public to visit the collection of ridan called aside the other gentleman, and so much pleased, that he presented him in a casts and annual exhibition. The fees paid by said" Pray who is that very agreeable friend few days with the brevet rank of captain in the students would of course belong to the profes- of your's? He is one of the pleasantest fellows imperial guard. sors.

I ever met with, and I should be glad to know Dr Franklin. It is a memorable proof of the I shall now conclude with a few observations his name."-" His name is Mr T -; he force which the patriotism of this philosopher regarding the design of the building to be erected is an eminent lawyer, and resides in Lincoln's acquired during the American war, that a let. for this establishment. The object of it being the inn-fields.”_Breakfast over, the party resumed ter is to be found, in which he then addresses promotion of the arts, the edifice should have a their seats in the coach ; soon after which, She one who was, a few months before, among the corresponding effect, as an examiple of pure and ridan turned the discourse to the law.-" It is," number of his dearest and most intimate friends, classical taste, and of course taken from celebrated said he, “ a fine profession. Men may rise but who had then become a steady supporter in remains of antiquity. Keeping this in view, there from it to the highest eminence in the state ; parliament of Lord North's measures. can be no hesitation in fixing upon the Parthe and it gives vast scope to the display of talent;

Philadelphia, July 5, 1775. non, one of the finest ornaments of the Athenian many of the most virtuous and noble characters “Mr STRAHAN—You are a member of parliaAcropolis, and so justly admired for its beauty, recorded in our history have been lawyers. I ment, and one of that majority which has doomgrandeur, and simplicity. The front of the am sorry, however, to add, that some of the ed my country to destruction. You have begun (proposed) edifice should therefore be adorned greatest rascals have also been lawyers ; but of to burn our towns, and murder our people. with a magnificent portico, consisting of a dou- all the rascals of lawyers I ever heard of, the Look upon your hands! They are stained with ble row of columns (raised upon a fight of .co- greatest is one TV, who lives in Lincoln's. the blood of your relations! You and I were lossal steps), taken from, and scrupulously pro- | inn-fields."-" I am Mr T ,” said the long friends! You are now my enemy--and I portioned to the aforesaid celebrated temple. gentleman." And I am Mr Sheridan," was am your's,

B. FRANKLIN."

out.

58 Miscellaneous Repository.

[October 11, 1817. Balfour of Burley.--The name of this remark- assembly, the farmer very gravely justified, by opake pasteboard, lined with paper, and not an able person, who bore so conspicuous a part in stating, that the first devour us in the seed, the aperture was left through which a single ray of the unhappy scenes of bigotry and tyranny, second in the blade, and the third in the sheaf. light could penetrate. Mr Nichol, a scientifie which Scotland displayed towards the close of Extraordinary sensibility in the organs of gentleman, who was delivering a course of phithe reign of Charles II, must be familiar to every Touch.The following additional particulars of losophical lectures in Liverpool, having heard of class of readers, since the appearance of “ Tales the extraordinary performance of Miss M'Avoy this extraordinary property, applied to me to obof my Landlord.” By that work, and the dis is copied from the Liverpool Mercury, and tain an introduction to Miss M'Avoy, and I ac. cussions to which it has given rise, Burley signed by the editor of that paper. " What I companied him to her house, along with Mr has been drawn from obscurity, and held up as had seen at my first interview was so extremely James Smith, printer, of Liverpool. At this a person eminently entitled to respect or re astonishing, and so far surpassed any thing I | interview, the experiments I have already de. probation, according to the opposite views which had ever known or read of the powers ascrib-tailed were repeated with complete success, are still taken of the cause in which he was en. ed to persons deprived of sight, that I could whilst the goggles were applied. One part of gaged. Balfour, who was born in Perth, or only account for it on the supposition that she the performance was so truly astonishing, that Fife shire, about the year 1640, seems to have was not blind, and that she had some secret I should almost hesitate to relate it, if those two joined pretty early with the party which oppo. mode of discerning an object, notwithstanding gentleman had not been present to vouch for sed episcopacy, for it is stated, that he deserted the bandage, through which I myself could not the truth. I had furnished myself with a set the church, and followed after field conventi distinguish night from day, when it was applied of stained landscape glasses, usually termed cles, long previous to archbishop Sharp's murder, to my own eyes. I therefore mate the best Claude Lorrain glasses. They were seven in and was reputed one of the most furious zea- apology I could for visiting her house again the number, contained in a frame. She ascertained lots, and stoutest champions, of the fanatic par same evening, having previously prepared my. the precise shade of each correctly ; one glass, ty, in Fise, for which " he was denounced and self with several tests, which I begged permis- however, appeared to embarrass her, and after intercommuned." In the year 1677 he was sion to submit to her examination, when the considerable scrutiny, she said it was not black, attacked by a party of eight or nine horse, sent candle was withdrawn. Not the slightest oh. nor dark blue, nor dark brown; but she thought out to apprehend him in his own house at Kin-jection was offered to my proposal, and the it was a very deep crimson. We did not know loch. With the assistance of some friends he candle was extinguished : her mother stationed whether her conjecture was correct or not, as routed these troopers. It is added, that, anti- herself before the fire, which was extremely we could not ourselves ascertain the shade. By cipating the attack, he had previously removed low, and afforded so little light that I could not reflected light it appeared to us to be perfectly bis wife and children. The next traces we find have read one word of moderate-sized print, if black ; nor was the fame of the fire, which was of him are in desperate consultations with his it had been brought almost in contact with the stirred for the occasion, visible through it in the accomplices, respecting the castigation of one bars of the grate. I then took from my pocket faiotest degree. We had abandoned all expec. Bailie Carmichael, who was brought over from a small book, the type of which was very little tation of determining this point, when the sun Edinburgh by Sharp, and made sheriff-depute larger than that of an ordinary newspaper ; ob- suddenly emerged from behind the clouds; and of Fife, under Rothes, for the purpose of en- serving at the time, that I was afraid the print by that test, and that alone, were we enabled to forcing the grievous penalties enacted against was too minute; to which she replied, that her discover that she was correct, as we could just the presbyterians. After the murder of the fingers were in excellent order, and that sbe discern the solar image of a very deep crimson. Archbishop, in which Burley was one of the had no doubt but she could be able to make it It has been said, and with some plausibility, chief agents, he rambled about with his friends The candle, as was before observed, had that this must have been a bold guess on her for some days, and then joined the insurgents been extinguished; and her mother and my. part; if not, it will puzzle our physiologists to at Drumclog. There he behaved with great self were so stationed, that had there been any explain how a person reputed to be blind, with gallantry, and is made the hero of a ballad de. light afforded by the fire, we must have com an opake bandage also over her eyes, could descriptive of that skirmish, which is to be found pletely intercepted it. Miss M'Avoy sat in the clare the colour of a glass, which persons in full in the Border Minstrelsy: on disarming one of farthest part of the room, with her back towards enjoyment of their eye-sight, and without any the Duke of Hamilton's servants who had been the grate, in such a situation that I could barely such obstacles, could not discern by any other in the action, he desired him to tell his mas. discern even the leaves of the book which lay light than that of the meridian sun! At this ter he would relain, till meeting, the pistols open before her ; the title of which she proceed meeting, we were informed that Miss M'Avoy which he had taken from him. Afterwards, ed to read with complete success, with the ex had recently found out that this extraordinary when the Duke asked his man what he was ception of one very minute word. I then pre. faculty was not confined to her fingers; and like ? he told him he was a little man, squint sented to her a small piece of smooth writing that she could also distinguish the colour of an eyed, and of a very fierce aspect: the Duke said, paper, which was ruled with horizontal faint blue object which was brought into contact with the he knew who it was, and withal prayed that lines, with a pen and black ink ; there were back of her hands. This was immediately made he might never sec his face, for if he should, he also perpendicular red lines, between which the subject of experiment by Mr Nichol, who was sure he would not live long. At the af. were scored black lines: all these, with their successively applied several objects which he fair of Bothwell bridge, Burley displayed his direction and order, she determined without any had with him to that part of the hand ; in plawonted courage; and received a wound, which apparent difficulty. She also told correctly the cing which he used so much precaution, that I occasioned him to exclaim, " the Devil cut off colour of a variety of pieces of cloth, procured could not see them myself, although my eyes his hands that gave it.” He soon after Aed to immediately before at a draper's shop. All the were fixed upon his hands. She was completeHolland, where he was not very cordially re.. experiments hitherto described, as well as those ly successful also upon this occasion. ceived by his fellow-refugees, being debarred which follow, were performed by Miss M. with Involuntary dancing. In the seventh volume from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. He the bandage before her eyes; and as the shawl, of the transactions of the medico-chirurgical sóresided chiefly with his uncle John Hay, who which was usually applied to this purpose, pro. ciety of London, there is a communication from became an eminent bookseller in Holland. duced considerable warmth and inconvenience, Mr Kinderwood of London, respecting a malady When the Prince of Orange embarked for Eng. a pair of what, in the optician's shops, are call. which he considers as a peculiar form of the land, Burley received a commission as a cavalry ed goggles, had been provided, which so com St Vitus's dance. It appears, however, to a wriofficer, but died on the passage. His property pletely excluded the light, that no person who ter in the Edinburgh Magazine, that it may had been contiscated and given to Lord Lindores. iried thern could discern the difference between more properly be considered as a form of taAfter the revolution the act of attainder was day and night, when they were fitted to the rantism, or of that peculiar disease supposed to reversed ; and his son David, who was served face. As these goggles have been generally be produced by the bite of the tarantula. To heir, commenced a prosecution against Lord used when Miss M, has exhibited her surpri- the same elass probably belongs, he adds, the Lindores for his intromissions with the estate.- sing talent, it is necessary that the reader should louping (teaping) disease to which the inhabiEd. Mug.

have a correct idea of them. They are intend.tants of the county of Forfar are liable. French Reformh-At the commencement of ed to be worn by travellers, to guard the eyes

Alice Whitworth, a married woman, aged 22, the French revolution, when every man was against the wind or the dust, and consist of two residing near Oldham, on the 21st February bringing forward his plan for the good of his glasses, sometimes green, fitted into a bandage 1815, consulted Mr Wood on a case of severe counlry, one of the deputies (a farmer) propo. of leather, which is passed horizontally across pains shooting through the right side of her sed the suppression of pigeons, rabbits, and the face, and is tied with ribbons round the head. She was relieved by an opiate lineament; monks. This whimsical mode of classing his back of the head. The goggles provided for but on the 24th was affected by a violent grievances, which had excited a laugh in the Miss M., instead of glasses, were fitted up with agitation of the muscles, which was succeeded

room.

October 11, 1817.]
Miscellaneous Repository.--Natural History.

59 by involuntary motions of the right leg and down. As it was observed that the motions | After finishing one bottle of wine, another was arm, accompanied by beating with her feet. On commenced in the fingers, it became easy to ordered ; and upon drinking a couple of glasses the 25th, the affection returned and continued | stop the attack: six times successively she was from it, the Scotchman was called out of the through the day for two hours at a time, with about to commence her sportive movements,

On his return, he was astonished, and intervals of an hour. On the 26th, the symp- when she was as often arrested to her chair by very ill pleased, to find the bottle finished ; and toms became more violent; she flew into every the roll of the drum: next day she attempted upon remonstrating, was calmly told by the corner of the room, striking violently with her four several times to rise, but was as often pre. Irishman, that he had drank his health in his hand the furniture and doors, the sound of vented by the roll of a well-braced drum. This absence, but, unfortunately, not in a bumper, which appeared to afford her great satisfaction. woman, previously to her compiaint, could never for which fault he had fined himself in six bum. On the 27th, the violence of the symptoms still dance even a country dance, and yet she then pers! increased. Kneeling on one' knee, with the executed with ease the most difficult steps : at Dr G., a wealthy gentleman, of extremely parhands upon the back, she oftca sprung sudden times she would rise upon the toes, and move simonious habits, had the misfortune to lose no ly up about fifteen inches, and struck the top forward, alternately advancing each heel into less than seven of his children; and soon after of the room with the palm of her band ; she the hollow of the opposite foot ; at other times, his lady paid the debt of nature. The expence frequently danced upon one leg, holding the poising the body upon one foot with the heel of Undertakers' bills (no joke at any time) other with the hand, and occasionally changing raised, she would beat time with the toe and tempted the Doctor to make search for a second. the leg. In the evening, the blows upon the heel of the other. There was no wandering of hand coffin, but he could not find one to suit bis furniture seemed to be more continuous, and the intellect at any time; the perception and purpose, which vexed him greatly Disease at to assume the regular time and measure of a judgment were accurate and just, and all ques. length proving likely to shuffle off his own mor. musical air. As the series of strokes was con. tions were answered correctly. During the in. tal coil, he once more sent for the old Under. cluded, she ended with a more violent stroke, termission, she performed many household af. taker, and, after telling how much money he or a more violent jump : the affection ceased fairs, nursed her child, &c. There was a con had already paid to him on former occasions, about nine o'clock. At half past nine next stant wish to recover a just knowledge of her wished to know the lowest rate he would promorning the motions recommenced, but of a situation, and of the advantage she derived vide a coffin for himself! The Undertaker more pleasant nature ; they were now changed from the agency of the instrument, with an staring, answered, Three guineas.

Thres into a measured step over the room, connected anxious desire to continue its use. This dis. guineas !" quoth the Doctor, “De'il be the with an air or series of strokes, and she beat ease appears to have consisted in an highly ir be's mine, that e'er lies in sae dear a kist !" upon the adjacent bodies as she passed them.- ritable state of the mind, with which the orIn the commencement of the attack, the lips gans of voluntary motion became associated ; moved as if words were articulated. It was and the cure was effected by interrupting this

NATURAL HISTORY. curious to observe the patient at this time irregular association. The voluntary muscles moving around the room, with all the vivacity | also early associated themselves with the in Atmospherical phenomena.- Professor Leslie of the country dance, or the graver step of the strument, as was sliewn by the instant cessa is at present engaged in a series of very curious minuet ; the arms frequently carried, not mere tion of their unnatural actions, when the time and important experiments, which will throw ly with ease, but elegance : occasionally all the could no longer be kept. She continued free new light on the phenomena of our atmosphere. steps were so directed as to place the foot con from any attack for six weeks, but in April be Tide of the River Thames. It has been found, stantly where the same stone - flags joined to gan to be affected with agitations on the mus that the water of the Thames opposite the Lon. form the floor, particularly when she looked cles of the face, particularly the eye and eye-lids. don-Dock gates are perfectly fresh throughout ; downwards. When she tooked upwards, there She recovered, however; but in May was repeat at Blackwall, even in spring rides, the water was was an irresistible impulse to spring up to edly seized with affections similar to those found to be only slightly saline ; at Woolwich touch little holes or spots in the top of the ceil- which occasioned the first attack. They were the proportion of salt water increases, and so on ing: when she looked around, she had a simio always removed by the drum, which she at to Gravesend. From a series of observations lar propensity to dart the forefinger into little length began to beat herself : after some repeti- made at and below London bridge, compared holes in the furniture ; one hole in a wooden tion of attacks, she recovered entirely, and has with the river as far up as kew and Oxford, Mr screen received the point of her finger many continued well ever since.

Stevenson, the engineer, is of opinion, that the hundred times, which she darted with amazing

Herne's Oak.-In the Merry Wives of Wind.

waters of the Thames seldom change, but are rapidity and precision. In the afternoon the motions returned, when a person, thinking he

sor, Mrs Page recounts the traditionary story probably carried up and down with the turn of of Herne in these lines :

the alternate tides, for an indefinite period, recognised the air, began to sing the tune,

which he thinks may be one, if not the principal which made her turn quickly round, and dance There is an old tale goes, that Herne the hun.

cause, of what is termed the extreme softness of directly up to him. The next time the mo.

ter,

the water of the Thames. tions appeared, a drum and fife began the air Some time a keeper here in Windsor forest,

Animal life preserved in a Vacuum.-M. Biot which she danced before, “ the Protestant Boys," Doth all the winter-time, at still of midnight,

has observed, that the insects called by the a favourite air in that neighbourhooda She alWalk round about an oak, with ragged horns ;

French blaps and tenebrians, may be left in the ways danced close up to the drum till she miss. And there he blasts the tree, and takes the

best vacuum that can be made by an air.pump ed the step, when her motions ceased. Four

cattle,

for days, without their appearing to suffer any times the progress of the attack was checked And makes milch-kine yield blood, and shakes

inconvenience.
On the 1st of March the drum
a chain,

Earthquake.The Lake of Canterno, known again accompanied her movements, which she In a most hideous and dreadful manner.

also by the name of Porciano, totally disappear. continued without interruption for half an hour, The traditional account is, that Herne was a ed on the 25th July, about noon, when a smart owing to the slowness. Her pulse at this time keeper of the forest in the time of Elizabeth, shock was experienced. A great opening is now was 120. The motion of her lips was again ob and having committed some offence which seen where the bottom of the lake was. served. After the attack, she stated that there would have occasioned a dismissal from his of. Mount Vesuvius.--This celebrated volcano, always was a tune dwelling on her mind, which fice, took the desperate resolution to hang him, which has been in constant activity since 1813, at times becoming more pressing, irresistibly im- self upon this oak. The credulity of the times has entirely covered its ancient crater with a pelled her to commence the involuntary mo may be supposed to have encouraged the story thick crust, in the midst of which the new eruptions. It was now discovered that a change of that his ghost haunted the spot; and conse tions have thrown up two little transparent ele. the measure, during the dance, stopped the at. quently rendered it a fit scene of action to ex vations, whence issue smoke, ashes, and stones, tack. It also ceased upon increasing the rapi- pose the cowardice of the lascivious knight.- which are frequently vitrified, so that after they dity of the beat till she could no longer keep This celebrated tree has been lately cut down ; are fallen, the ground is covered with shreds of time : it was surprising to see the rapidity and but the people of Windsor show their respect transparent glass. This crust is so considerable, violence of the muscular exertion, in order to for it by the estimation in which they hold the that unless it has some support, or if an earthkeep time with the increasing movement of the articles of furniture and ornaments that have been quake should take place, the sinking in will instrument. She was in this way set down five formed from its remains.

produce an effect similar to that of the eruption times in the course of an evening, and when

which took place in the time of Titus. In the the drums beat a continued roll, the effect was An Irishman and a Scotchman met by chance lava at present are found copper, iron, acid instantaneous; the motions ceased, and she sat in a coffee-house, and agreed to dine together, soda, sulphur, clay, &c.

in this way.

60

Natural Historij.

[October 11, 1817. Volcano of Idieng, ( Batavia).-On the night that in which they float, and thus sink to the November. Some distance of time is observed of the 23d of January, there was a great erup: bottom; when they rise again they void this between the arrival of each specie. The wheat. tion ; immense columns of fire and smoke, and water by a number of holes, of which their legs ear precedes the swallow, which is followed by inflammable substances, ascended from the are full. The common colour of the Nautilus the martin, and afterwards the landrail. Some mountain with a noise similar to that of thunder' is blackish, streaked transversely with irregular species, as the swallow and the woodcock, col. or artillery ; the earth quaked even as far as lines.

lect into flocks before they migrate. The latter, Baujoewaugie. A prodigious quantity of cin Migration of Birds. Some birds remain sta. when they are about to cross the German ocean, ders, earth, and sand, vomited forth by the tionary in this country; some migrate during are sometimes detained by adverse winds. Other mountain, soon covered all the neighbouring the summer, and others disappear during the birds, as the euckoo, are supposed to go away fields, and utterly destroyed the crops of rice, winter, after pairing here. It seems probable, singly; but the males of the nightingale and which had before presented the most beautiful that from the tropics to the polar circle there is some other species, are found to migrate about appearance. The air became so surcharged a successive series of migrations, certain species eight or ten days before the females. Some with clouds of ashes and sulphureous smoke, in each climate 'repairing to a more northern birds, aided by a favourable wind, Ay at the rate that it was scarcely possible to respire, and for region as the summer advances, and returning of 100 or 150 miles in an hour. It seems pro. several days afterwards, the light of day was southward again to spend the winter, in this bable, however, that the greater number proscarcely visible at Baujoewaugie. The greater way conforming themselves to that temperature ceed by short and easy stages. part of the birds have perished, and along the which is best fitted for their constitutions. Thus Botany. The botanic garden, Leith Walk, rivers nothing is to be seen but dead fish floating the snow-bunting, which comes from the north has lately received from Grenada a valuable acon the surface of the waters. Enormous blocks ern regions on the approach of winter, when it cession to the excellent collection of plants of of stone, and trees of a prodigious bulk, were first arrives here in Novemijer, keeps the high which it can now boast. Among others are precipitated with a fearful crash from the high grounds, but descends to a lower level as the specimens of the bread fruit-tree, Artocarpus est mountains, and overwhelmed in their course temperature sinks. If confined in a warm room, Incisa; the Mango tree, Mangifera Indica, houses, bridges, and every thing which they en. it dies in a few days, but will live through the wbich produces a most delicious fruit; the Ca. countered. The rivers everywhere burst their winter if nourished with snow and kept in a cao, or Chocolate nut tree, Theobroma Cacao; the banks, and in many places rose as high as four cold room. It is probably from some constitu Avocado pear, or vegetable marrow, Laurus teen feet above their ordinary level. The af- tional difference with respect to cold, that the Persea ; tlie Manchineal tree, Hippomane Manfrighted inhabitants fled from all parts towards female chaffinch migrates in Sweden, and that cinella, of which wonderful stories are told of the shore and town of Baujoewaugie, but were the linnet, which is a bird of passage in Green the poisonous quality of its apple, and of the stopped at every step, in consequence of the land, becomes stationary with us. Want of food corrosive effects even of the drops of rain which roads being rendered impassable by the inunda is another circumstance which has some influ- fall on its leaves; and the Mammee tree, Mamtions, and the destruction of the bridges. Ma ence in the migration of birds. Many of our mea Americana, which in its native soil grows ny people are suffering under diseases occa. summer visitants subsist on insects, which are to a great height, and produces a very large sioned by the bad quality given to the waters by only to be found here during the warm weather. stone fruit. These curious exotics promise to the ashes, and a general mortality has seized The cuckoo, which feeds on the larvæ of butter. do well under the skilful management of Mr the horned cattle. In the district of Gabang a flies, and caterpillers, is probably obliged to take M.Nab, the superintendant of the garden.mountain tumbled down on the 27th of Febru. | its departure early, on account of the want of Dahlia Coccinea, and Purpurea, two splendid ary, and buried eight families who dwelt upon this kind of food. The variation in the time of species, originally from Mexico, and introduced it. A similar event took place in the night of arrival is also dependent on the state of vegeta- by Lady Holland from Spain into Britain a few the 4th and 5th of March, in the district of tion. Linnæus observed, that the swallow re years ago, have displayed their magnificent Talaga, where a number of houses, with all their turned to Sweden when the bird cherry came flowers from seed this season in the same gar. inmates, were in like manner overwhelmed in into leaf, and when the wood anemone flowered ; den, and in some of the nurseries round Edinruin, and not a trace of their existence left. and that the arrival of the nightingale accompa- burgh. Their easy culture and hardy character

Voyage to the Congo.An entirely black shark nied the leafing of the elmi-it has been obser. will render them fine ornaments of the parterre was seen, which is a novelty in ichthyology. ved that the swallow returns to some parts of and the shrubbery. The blue, white, spotted, grey, and even dusky, England with the leafing of the sycamore; and A Narwhal Whale.-On the morning of the which is the darkest coloured of the squalus that the cuckoo sings when the marsh mari. 19th ult, as two fishermen were traversing the genus, are known. The Syngathus Hippocam- gold blows. There is some reason to believe, sands of the Solway Firth, opposite to the Priest. pus (sea-horse pipe. fish). This curious fish is that the increase of population and the extension side, about four, miles within high water mark, from 6 to 10 inches in length ; of a greenish of agriculture have contributed to diminish the they discovered a whale foundering in the shal. brown colour, varying from dark to light shades. number of some species in this country. Egrets, low water, and endeavouring, in vain, to extri. The body is much compressed ; the head large, a species of heron, once very numerous here, cate itself. It was groaning so loud as to be thick, and, together with the first joints of the are now scarcely known; the crane, that bred heard at the distance of nearly a mile. The body, beset with long weak spines or cirrhi. familiarly in our marshes, has now forsaken the fishermen, astonished and terrified, used no

The neck contracts abruptly behind the head, country ; the plover, which is stationary in the means of securing it, and the tide soon afteras does the body at the tail, which is a naked western islands, is migratory on the Grampians; wards flowing, covered it, without, however, finless tip. In the Voyage to New Zealand, by and the turnstone, which is migratory in Eng- affording it sufficient depth to float. When the Mr Nicholas, it is stated that the natives of that land, is stationary in the northern islands of sea retired, it was found dead, having been proisland dry the Hippocampus, and hang it to Scotland. But the migration of some birds de. | bably suffocated, from its being totally unable, their ears by way of ornament. A Nautilus pends on causes

not yet discovered.

The swal in that situation, to raise its head above the wawas caught, the first that was ever taken alive. low and nightingale, which leave England and ter so as to inhale air. Assistance being procuThey always escape from their extraordinary other parts of Europe about the middle of Octo- red, it was quickly cut to pieces, and the blub dwelling when threatented by danger. The shell ber, are found on the northern shores of Africa ber was carried to shore in carts. This whale consists of one spiral valve divided into several in the same month; while the razor-billed awk seems to have been of the Narwhal, or Monodon apartments. There are seventeen species, dis- and the puffin make their winter retreat in the genus; differing, however, in some particulars, tinguished by peculiarities in their shell. This south of Spain. The lapwing appears. in the from any that have yet been described. Its skin genius of shell fish is called nautilos, signifying inland districts of Scotland about the end of was about the eighth of an inch in thickness, of both a ship and a sailor, for when this fish in- February or beginning of March, and after in a glossy and dusky black, in appearance, sometends to sail, it expands two of its arms on high. cubation, hastèns to the shores of England, there what resembling Indian rubber, but of a darker and between these supports a membrane, which to pass the winter, picking up small crustacea hue. Its length, from the tip of the snout to the it throws out and serves for its sail, and the on the sea beach ; but the curlew, which further extremity of the tail, was thirty-six feet; other two arms hang out of the shell to serve arrives and departs with the lapwing, remains its height at the shoulder about eight feet ; and occasionally either as oars or steerage. When on the shores of Scotland. The lapwing too, its greatest horizontal thickness about four and the sea is calm, it is common to see numbers of and the black-headed gull, which are migratory a half feet. The head was not easily to be disthem diverting themselves by sailing about in with us, are resident in England ; and the dot- tinguished from the rest of the body, and ended this manner, but as soon as a storm approaches, terls forsake the Grampians about the beginning in a snout, about two feet long, projecting rather they draw in their legs and take in as much of August, leave Scotland at the end of the abruptly, and tapering gradually towards the water as makes them specifically heavier than | month, but sometimes remain in England till | extremity. The back was ridged, and had a

October 11, 1817.]
The Arts and Sciences.

61 fin issuing from it, about five or six feet from distillation of various kinds of German coal ; | plant to extract the potash, which it contains in the extremity of the tail. This fin was triangu. and Mr Brande has ascertained that a chaldron abundance. This method consists in cutting lar, a little hollowed in the back part, inclined of good. Wallsend Newcastle coals yields from the plants just when the flower begins to wither, towards the tail, and about a foot in height. The 17,000 to 20,000 cubic feet of gas ; though, in at which time the stalk is in full vigour. He swimming paws were nearly of the same size. large establishments, the quantity obtained sel. cuts them five inches from the ground, with a There was only one blow-bole situated over the dom exceeds 12,000 cubic feet. At the three very sharp instrument. The stumps left soon nape of the neck. The mouth was very small, stations belonging to the chartered Gas-light push forth new shoots, which suttice to bring not larger than would easily have admitted a Company, situated in Peter-street, Westmin the roots to maturity. The plants cut down are man's arm, and entirely destitute of teeth or ster, Worship · street, and Norton Falgate, left upon the field eight days, to dry thein prohorny plates. The lobes of the tail, which were twenty-five chaldrons of coals are carbonized perly. They are then burnt, as the manufac. horizontal, had a direction away from the body, daily, which yield 300,000 cubic feet of gas, turers of soda burn the kali, in a hole five feet and were blunt and rounded at the tip. The equal to the supply of 75,000 Argand's lamps, | in diameter, and two feet deep, washing the blubber was from one inch to four, and even each giving the light of six candles. At the City ashes, and evaporating the lye. By this process six inches in thickness, and seemed to be full of Gas-works, Dorset.street, Blackfriars-bridge, the 2500 pounds weight of the salt is obtained per very fine oil. The narwbal species usually have daily consumption of coals amounts to three acre. The author of this process calculates, that one tooth or horn, sometimes even two, growing chaldrons, which afford gas for the supply of an acre of potatoes, deducting the expences of out of the fore part of the upper jaw, whence 1500 lamps : so that the total consumption of cultivation, will produce potatoes to the value of they derive the name of monodon ; but no such coals daily in London, for the purpose of illu. 225 francs ; and in salt, deducting the expences peculiarity was to be discovered in this animal; mination, amounts already to twenty - eight of manufacturing, 816 francs ; in all 1041 which circumstance would induce us to rank it chaldrons, and the number of lights supplied to francs! Such is the advantage of this discovery! as belonging to another genus, did not the com. 76,500.-It was with the gas-lights as with the Galvanisın has now been applied to clockparative smallness of the head and mouth, and telescope, the chemists universally sneered at work. In the cabinet of Mr Robertson, at Pathe single opening in its neck for a blow. hole, the attempt, just as the philosophers demonstra- ris, there is a clock, the motion of which is not as well as other indications, seem to give it a ted that the telescope was an impossible instru. produced either by springs or by weights : it greater affinity to this kind than to any other ment; and, even to this hour, they forbear to has no other moving power than galvanism.-that we are acquainted with. assist the several companies.

He has happily profited by the action of two Sea Serpent. The last American papers are M. Theodore de Saussure has published the dry and perpetual piles of Zamboric: these filled with accounts of a sea serpent, which is result of a number of experiments to determine piles, in the form of columns, which seem de. said to infest the bays and creeks of Massachu. the relative proportion of carbonic acid in the signed for ornament only, alternately attract a sets, and is described by those who have obser- atmosphere during summer and winter. His bulance, which communicates its motion to a ved it most nearly, to be about one hundred and method was to fill a large glass globe with the pendulum, which has not stopped these three fifty feet in length, and to be incased in an im. air to be examined, and to put into it a quanti- years. penetrable armour of shell ! Several strong nets ty of barytes water. The carbonic acid in the A country clergyman in Lower Saxony, has are constructing in the hope of entangling or air was determined by the quantity of carbonate succeeded in accomplishing the invention of au getting him into a situation in which he may be of barytes formed. In winter, 10,000 parts of air ship. The machine is built of light wood; killed. The Salem Gazette remarks, that the air in volume gave a mean of 4.79 parts of car. it is made to Roat in the air, chiefly by means bold adventurers who go a-fishing for this mon. bonic acid gas in 10,000 measures of air. In of the constant action of a large pair of bellows, ster, would require the strength and implements summer, 10,000 measures of air gave a mean of of a peculiar construction, which occupies in the of the giant, who is fabled to have “ Sat upon 7:13 parts of carbonic acid gas in 10,000 front the position of the lungs and the neck of a rock and bobb’d for whales," with a sturdy measures of air.

a bird on the wing. The wings on both sides oak for his rod, an iron cable for his line, and a The French Royal Academy of Sciences re are directed by thin cords. The height to which dragon's tail for a bait !

cently chose, in the room of their foreign asso the farmer's boy (10 or 12 years of age) whom A Miracle. The St Petersburgh Gazette of ciate the great mineralogist, Werner, the Sici the inventor has instructed in the management the 15th ult. contains an article dated Veronetz, lian Astronomer, M. Piazzi, who, in 1801, dis- of it, and has hitherto ascended with it, is not July 9, which says, that in the environs of the covered the planet Ceres, and so led the way for considerable, because his attention has been more city of Bobro an immense quantity of worms Messrs. Olbers and Harding to discover, suc directed to give a progressive than an ascend. were discovered upon a sandy soil. These worms cessively, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. The foreign ing motion to his machine. gnawed and destroyed all the vegetation upon associates are at present Sir Joseph Banks, one The ranger of the forest of

Baron the surface to an extent of 200 acres. Their of the companions of Cook ; the astronomer Charles Von Drais has made some highly sa. number increased like locusts. Every means Herschel, who discovered the Georgium Sidustisfactory trials of his new.invented travelling was attempted to destroy them, but without in 1781; Dr Jenner; Mr Watt, the able en. machine without horses. On the 12th of July success imat length, a solemn procession was gineer who has made such adınirable applica- he went from Manheim to the Relay.house at made, and holy water sprinkled. The next day tions of the power of steam ; Count Volta, the Schwezingen and back again, which is a dis. a cloud of ravens and oiher birds arrived, which inventor of the famous galvanic pile; the anato tance calculated at four hours post travelling ate up all the worms in three days !

mist Scarpa ; the astronomer Piazzi ; and Baron (an hour being about 24 miles English) within Humboldt, so justly celebrated for his travels. one hour. Since then he bas, with the same

The four first of these learned men belong to machine, gone over in about an hour the steep THE ARTS AND SCIENCES.

England; the three following to Italy; the last niountainous road from Gerusbach to Buden, to Prussia.

which takes two hours by the post. The lead. Count Sickingen determines that the strength Doctor Romershausen, at Acken on the Elbe, ing principle of the invention is taken from the of Swedish and British iron is to each other as has invented a pocket telescope, by means of art of skating, and consists in the simple idea, follows:- British iron 348-88; Swedish iron which objects and distances can be measured of impelling, by the help of the feet, a seat fixe 549.25.

with certainty and exactness. He calls it Dias ed upon wheels. The machine that the inven. Let it for ever be remembered, to their dis. timeter. It has three slides; instead of the eye tor has had made consists of a seat on only two credit, and as a proof that we are not to expect glass there is a brass plate with a very small two-feet wheels, running one behind the other, improvements exclusively from men of science, hole in it, and instead of the object glass there that it may be used in the foot paths. To prethat the entire race of modern chemists opposed are 16 threads stretched across the lower orifice. serve the equilibrium, the traveller has before themselves to the introduction of the gas of Looking at a distant object, for example, a man him a little board with a cushion nailed to it, coal ; and that Winsor, a mechanic, laboured in or a steeple, the slides of the Telescope are on which he rests bis arms, and before which London for years before he could draw the at drawn out till the object appears quite fitted, as is the small pole which he holds in his hand to tention of a few opulent persons to the princi. it were, between the parallel threads, and then steer his course with. This machine, which ple. Now, however, they find that it is worth the figures engraved upon the sides indicate the may be used with great advantage for expresall their discoveries put together for the last number of paces which the object is distant from ses, and for other purposes, even for considerthirty years, and they are beginning to write the observer.

able journeys, does not 50 pounds, and about it, and make experiments upon it. Thus M. Lampadius has published a set of experi

An apothecary of Amiens has just obtained may be made strong, handsome, provided with

a new and very lucrative product from pota- pockets, &c. for 4 Carolines (£.4 sterling) at the ments on the quantity of gas obtained by the toes, by burning the stalks and leaves of the very utmost,

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