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32
Natural History.

[October 25, 1817. den was called by the country people The Latin by gradual increase, gradually extended to the ponderous materials. Then the sun, and winds, Garden. This excellent man was fond of the great aqueous abyss : the waters rose higher and and tides, and the earth's motion, and other solitude in which he lived among his plants. higher, the surface was utterly broken up and causes, became effective in producing new He would spend hours in the Alps in examining destroyed, and an unusual deluge took place ; | changes. The waters were much elevated in a plant, and admire with rapture all its pécu at length dry land began to appear, owing to a the equatorial regions, and mud, gravel, and liarities. He was acquainted with all those of gradual subsidence of the waters, which retired fragments, were transported thither from the his valley, and every spring he beheld them re into eaverns and crevices originally existing in poles ; hence, says Buffon, the highest mounturn with the same feelings as he would have the nucleus, or formed by the disruption of the tains lie between the tropics, the lowest towards welcomed old friends. His dog was his guide ; crust ; upon the increasing dry land vegetation the poles ; and hence the infinity of islands

apprized him in his rambles of the time for began again to exist, and, our present islands which stud the tropical seas. The globe's sur his meals, and sometimes of the approach of and continents were formed, while the sea still face, once even and regular, became now rough night. A decisive taste for any object, be it occupied in part its original bed. The objection and irregular; excavations were formed in one what it will, is almost invariably productive of to Burnet and bis followers is, that they fanci part, and land was elevated in another; and a certain elevation of mind. I was astonished fully go back to the chaotic state of the earth, during a period of ages, the fragments of the at Faverod's relish for the beautiful. I made and after enlarging, enibellishing, and obscu original materials, the shells of various fish and him acquainted with Linnæus, Haller, and Dil. ring the Mosaic history, they pretend to have different other exuviæ, were ground up by the Jenius. None but a botanist, and one who has illustrated and proved it. Woodward pretends ocean, and produced calcareous strata, and other Jived in seclusion, can conceive the delight which to be a inatter-of-fact man; but having collected lowland depositions. Those relics of marine their works imparted. Faverod had never quit. a fuw observations respecting the contents of animals, we find at such heights above the pre. ted his mountains ; he had never beheld the strata, hastily proceeded to the erection of a sent level of the sea, as to render it more than plain, nor even imagined that there was any theory. He observed the existence of fossil probable that the ocean once overwhelmed the other world than that in which he lived. Hal. shells, and remarks, that the lower strata of the earth. Of these phenomena, Buffon takes par ler's work excited in him the strongest desire to earth's surface were generally harder than the ticular notice, and draws from them a series of make himself acquainted with the flowers of the upper,

which were of more light and pulverulent curious and minute conclusions, not, however, plains, and that gemus of plants which inhabits materials; whence, he concluded, that at the very satisfactory or logical. Every one who morasses. I proposed to himn to accompany me period of the deluge, the earth had acquired a now contemplates the earth's surface, must trace to Valleyres, and to explore the places where new crust, deposited upon it by the waters, in upon it marks of the most dire and unsparing Haller resided, and which he frequently men the succession of the specific gravity of the mate- revolutions, which, from the present order of tions in his works. This journey, of about 60 rials; the heaviest, coarsest, and hardest bodies, things, it appears.impossible should recover, exmiles, was a circumnavigation of the globe, or formning what to us seen a nucleus, covered by cept by the united and continuous agency of the rather, a transportation into the empyreal re finer and lighter deposits. Leibnilz supposes most active powers of destruction. This, says gions. We arrived about noon at Valleyres. the earth to have been in a state of combustion | Buffon, arose from the soft state of the former What was Faverod's rapture on finding himself for many ages, and at length to have gone out crust of the earth ; and those causes, now imin this land of promise, where at every step new

for want of fuel. A glassy crust was thus becile and slow in their operation, were then discoveries were to be made, and new treasures formed, which gave rise to sand and gravel ; more effectually exerted, and results were obexplored! At day-break the next morning he other kinds of earth resulted from sand and salt ; tained in a few years, for which centuries would set out on his researches. I expected him back and as the globe cooled, the water, which had now be insufficient. This amusing theorist next to dinner, but it was evening before he returned. before been kept in the state of steam, assumed proceeds to contemplate the production of I went to meet him, expecting to find him the fluidity, and falling to the earth, produced the rivers, which he regards as having cut theit own happiest of men; but what was my astonish.

Whistor having blended the follies of way to the ocean, as gradually wearing down ment to see him pale, dejected, and quite an Burnet, Woodward, and Leibnitz, endeavoured the mountainous lands, filling up valleys, and altered creature! I entreated him, to inform to conceal his imbecility under the lion's skin making their exits into the ocean, by the trans. me what was the matter, and what accident had of mathematical calculation ; and taking many portation of finely divided materials. Thus, befallen him. He made no reply. I then re things for granted, of which there is not the every thing is slowly returning to its former quested him to step into my room, and disco most distant probability, leaves us bewildered state ; the mountains will be levelled, the val. vered that it was the mal du pays (home sick and perplexed. Whitchurst passed much of his leys heightened, excavations filled up, and the ness) which had produced this change. He was time in Derbyshire, and investigated with con. ocean will again cover the earth. Pallas, Kirashamed to confess his complaint. I fortunate. siderable ability, the stratification of thạt rich wan, De Luc, and others, have animadverted ly guessed it, and directed him to return as soon and interesting county, hoping, as he expresses upon, but can scarcely be said to have improved as he pleased. These words infused new life it, to obtain such knowledge of subterraneous

Buffon's hypothesis. Many other theories I into him. He set off immediately, and walked geography, as might be subservient to the pur pass over in silence, as the authors, though the whole night without stopping or taking re. poses of life, by exposing new treasures which they have sometimes clothed their fictions in freshment. Robbers plundered him by the way, are concealed in the lower regions. In his in new dresses, or presented them under new but this circumstance gave him little concern. quiry into the original state and formation of the forms, have taken Buffon or Burnet for their He perceived no diminution of his disorder till earth, he has assiduously collected facts, among guide. Brandi's Lectures. he arrived within sight of the mountains conti which his account of the strata of Derbyshire Mahogany. The Mahogany tree, which is a guous to his village. On reaching his own house retains much value at the present day, though native of Jamaica, Cuba, and the Spanish main ; it vanished entirely, like a dismal dream before repeated investigations have since been made, becomes a magnificent tree, and has been long the rays of the morning sun.

with all the advantages of modern improveinents; celebrated as a commercial commodity, and for and as to his theoretical views, they are the best its extensive use în cabinet-work; it thrives well

But no one has proceeded to the form in almost every soil, but the wood of the closest NATURAL HISTORY.

ing of a theory of the earth with the pomp and texture, and most beautifully veined, is obTheories of the Earth.-Burnet, in his “ Sa- circumstances of Buffon. He supposes the tained from trees which grow on rocky ground. cred theory of the earth,” begins with the planets in general to have been struck off from The mahogany, tree has been met with in Jaseparation of elements from a fluid mass. The the sun by a comet ; that they consisted of Auid maica more than 100 feet in height; and one heaviest particles sank, and formed a nucleus, matter, and thence assumed a spherical form; which was cut down in the parish of St Elizaand water and air took their respective stations and that by the union of centrifugal and centri- beth measured 12 feet in diameter ; it produced upon the water, however, the air afterwards petal forces, they are restrained in their present nearly £.400 sterling to the proprietor, but it deposited a rich unctuous crust, which begat orbits. The earth gradually cooled, and the cir: must be observed that this happened in the time vegetation, and a beautiful verdure clothed the cumambient vapours condensed upon its sur. of the American war, when the price was bigh. whole. There were no mountains, no seas, no face, while sulphureous, saline, and other mat Mahogany is now scarce in Jamaica, and is rarely, protuberances, or inequalities; and the equator ters, penetrated its cracks and Gissures, and met with, excepting in mountainous situations, being coincident with the plane of the ecliptic, formed veins of metallic and mineral products. from which it is with difficulty brought to all the charms of spring were perpetual. This The scarified or pumice-like surface of the earth, convenient shipping-places for the market. state of things, however, did not thus con- acted upon by water, produced clay, mud, and The introduction of mahogany into England linne for inany centuries; for the sun caused loose soils, and the atmosphere was constituted took place about the commencement of the last large cracks and fissures in the exterior, wbich, of subtle effluvia, floating above all the more century, and its first application was to the ige

ocean.

extant.

October 25, 1817.)
Natural History --Arts and Sciences.

89 noble purpose of a candle-box. A Captain Gfb

ARTS AND SCIENCES.

sufficiently shewn; and it is acknowledged that bons, in the West India trade, brought home

the East, particularly China, has practised the some planks of it as ballast, and presented them Early history of Printing and Engraving.art of printing from wooden blocks from time to his brother, a physician in London, who was It is yet a question, whether Holland or Ger- | immemorial. But, these advantages were not then building a house ; but the wood being found many was the seat of the invention of printing confined to the Chinese, to the exclusion of other too hard for the tools of the carpenters, was types, and consequently of printing. The eastern nations; and Mr Outley thinks that laid aside as useless. Mrs Gibbons, desirous learned of Germany exert no little diligence and Europe might receive it from the orientals, that the wood might not be lost, employed Mr zeal in proving that Mentz was the first city most probably, through the intervention of the Wollaston, cabinet-maker, to make a candle where this art was practised : the learned of Venetians, who traded very extensively to those box; he executed the task, but complained also Holland no less tenaciously maintain that the countries. This hypothesis is strongly supof the hardness of the wood. Dr Gibbons then art, with its first materials, was stolen from their ported by a document, dated in 1441, discovered proposed to have a bureau made of the same countryman, at Haarlem.

by Teinanza, among the archives of the old wood; its agreeable colour and fine polish were Mr Ottley, who has just now published an coinpany of Venetian painters, and published by universally admired ; and, among the rest of bis eight guinea work on this subject, determines Count Algarotti in the Letteri Pittoriche, tom. v. friends who crowded to see it, the Duchess of the question of letter types in favour of Lau- - This document proves, that the art had been Buckingham was so delighted with its beauty, | rence Coster, at Haarlem ; but, he adduces evi- long practised; for we find the artists were nuthat she requested as much wood as would fur. dence in proof that figures, with their explanatory merous ;—that it had been popular ; for the aróish her with a similar piece of furniture ; the inscriptions, were printed in Italy before the tists had their accustomed “ shops," (boiege); same cabinet-maker was employed; the fame of time of Coster. Now, we know that these in. and that it had formerly been more flourishing mahogany and Mr Wollaston spread far and scriptions were not always cut on the same than it was at this period; which implies a time wide, and the use of this wood soon became block as the figures ; and should any separate as well for its former rise, as for its later decay: general.Encyc. Edinensis.

impression, or proof, of such inscriptions be dis Part of Mr O'.s volumes is that in which he Argonaut and Nautilus.--Dr. Leach, of the covered, the progress to a still further separation supports the history given by Papillon, who British Museum, lately read a paper to the of parts would become obvious. From stereo asserts having seen in 1719 or 1720 a series of Royal Society, containing some observations on type lines, to moveable types, the transition, prints from wood, dedicated to Pope Honorius a new genus of marine animals inhabiting the though inexpressibly fortunate and ingenious, | iv. by Alessandro Alberico Cunio, Cavaliere, and argonaut and nautilus shells. The animal yet is natural, and orderly, if not consecutive. Isabella Cunio, twin brother and sister. The found in these shells is not the fabricator of in the earliest ages of Christianity, sculptures subjects were exploits of Alexander, the hero of them, but a parasite which has taken up its oc or pictures were admitted into certain parts of Macedon. Honorius was pope only two years, casional abode there when it chooses to shield Christian edifices. We have accounts of the ex. from April 2, 1285 to April 3, 1287. If, there. itself from the direct action of the waves. Sir planations of such representations entering into fore, this instance be authentic, it refers the art E. Home has also presented a paper somewhat the instruction given to worshippers (perhaps, of printing from wooden blocks to a date long similar, detailing his remarks on the mode and to strangers generally) who came to church, be prior to whatever has (independently of this period of generation of the animals found in fore the regular service began; we know, that evidence) been suspected. nautilus and argonaut shells. He found them over the entrance of the Church of the Holy The claims of Haarlem to the discovery of to be oviparous animals, and to be nourished Sepulchre at Jerusalem is a tablet, representing printing types rest principally on the testimony nearly like snails.

the triumphal entry of Christ into that city ; of Junius, who informs us, that about 128 years Clouds of Insects. The Courier of the Lower which is thought to be at least co-eval with the before he wrote (supposed to be in 1568) LauRhine states, that in two communes of that building. Dr. E. D. Clarke says of this per. rence Coster resided in Haarlem, opposite the department, and at Strasburgh, an absurd re. formance:"Over the door we observed a bas- royal palace ; during his afternoon walks in the port has spread amongst the people, that a quan- | relief, executed in a style of sculpture meriting vicinity of the city, he began by amusing himzity of grain kept up by certain persons, who more attention than it has hitherto received. self with cutting letters out of the bark of the wished, as they thought, to starve.them, had At first sight, it seemed of higher antiquity than beech tree, and with these, one after another, flown away in the shape of butterflies. What the existence of any place of christian worship : the letters being inverted, he printed small sengave rise to this report was, it seems a cloud of but, upon a nearer view, we recognized the his tences for the instruction of his grand-children, insects, with white wings, called ephemeres albi- tory of the Messiah's entry into Jerusalem-Being an intelligent man, he afterwards im. pennis, of which the bodies really resemble the multitude strewing palm-branches before proved his types, his ink, and enlarged his grain in shape, had covered in an instant a com him. The figures were very numerous.

Per

powers. One of his workmen, becoming mas. mune near Benfield, and inundated a street of haps it may be considered as offering an exam. ter of his secret, took the earliest opportunity of Strasburgh. The lamps were darkened, the shops ple of the first work in which Pagan sculptors robbing Coster of his newly-invented art, and shut, and such quantities of these insects were represented a Christian theme." We except his materials ; with which he escaped, first to gathered, that the people thought at least 10,000 strongly against the allusion to Pagan sculptors, Amsterdam, thence to Cologne, and lastly, he sacks of corn in granary must have taken flight on this occasion : no such profanation would took op his residence at Mentz, whence, in 1442, The Empire of Russia has been threatened with have been tolerated. Were there no Christian issued two works, printed with the stolen chaan invasion, in which the forces, although not sculptors at the time? That pictures were ad. racters. This testimony of Junius is not without so formidable of those employed in the invasion mitted into churches, we learn from the calum- support from other writers, apparently indepen. of Bonaparte, are not less numerous and daring. niating criticisms of Julian the Apostate, who dent witnesses. In the circle of Mostock, there have appeared, forces an indecency into that very common sub We come now to the important discovery as last year, such immense quantities of grass-ject, Adam and Eve in Paradise, as we gather of not the art of engraving, for the ancients hoppers, that it has been found necessary to from the answer of Augustine to the censorious were doubtless in possession of that art, of take extraordinary measures for their destruc- Emperor. And it deserves remark, that this which they have left us many specimens, bula tion.

emblem occurs more frequently than any other the art of printing from plates already engraved, Rapidity of Poisons. Two instances of the on the sculptured tombs of Christians of the in such a manner as to afford portable impres. rapidity of animal poison are recorded in the early centuries, as may be proved from numer sions. This discovery is without question to he Sydney gazette. John Wood, a private of the ous instances yet existing. The sentiment ascribed to Maso (or Tommaso) Finiguerra, a Royal Veteran Company, while on duty, was, seems to have been" in Adam all die ; in goldsmith, or rather an ornamental engraver for owing to the bite of a snake, carried off in Christ all are made alive;" for, the accompany. the embellishment of goldsmiths' wares. a few moments. The fatal wound was inflict. ing subjects are, almost without exception, al. lived in the fifteenth century (1400 to 1460,) at ed on the foot, and the deceased, putting his lusions to the resurrection :the deliverance of which time it was customary to add to the value hand upon it, had scarcely time to speak, when Jonah-of Daniel-the raising of Lazarus, &c. of chalices, reliquaries, ruxes (small boxes for he fell upon his face and expired. Putrescence These may chiefly be assigned to the fourth or containing the Host] sword-hilts; also clasps, ensued, and in a few hours the body became fifth centuries.

and other female ornaments, by engraving on entirely black. A sheep was also bit, and died That the ancients were acquainted with the them subjects analogous to their several appliimmediately, exhibiting symptoms of putres mode of illustrating books by delineations, and cations. To render this pattern more distinct, cence in a few moments. These snakes are that blocks of wood, or metal, were employed after it was executed with the graver, the exsaid to be from fiye to six or seven feet long, at Babylon to imprint the bricks destined to the cavated strokes were filled with a composition are of a dark colour, and have large heads. various structures in that metropolis, have been called niello, which, by its blackness, contrass

He

84

Arts and Sciences.

(October 25, 1817.

the brightness of the silver. But this niello was Roman Cement.--A sort of plaster so called, vegetables. In the procrss for obtaining pot fixed into the strokes by means of fire, being which well withstands our moist climate, is and pearl ashes, it is necessary the weeds should melted, and run in, so that, like a solder, when made by mixing one bushel of lime slaked with be cut just before they seed, when they are to it had filled up those strokes, it could not be re three pounds and a half of green copperas, fif. be spread, well dried, and gathered clean. They moved ; and consequently no further corrections teen gallons of water, and half a bushel of fine are to be turned within doors on a grate, and or improvements could be added to the perfor. gravel sand. The copperas should be dissolved the ashes laid in a chest as fast as they are pro. mance. In order, therefore, to study the pro in hot water; it must be stirred with a stick, duced, and afterwards lixiviated with twelve gress of his work, the artist filled in his strokes and kept stirring continually while in use. Care times their weight of boiling water, which is with some more compliant matter, and then should be taken to mix at once as much as may then to be evaporated to dryness in iron pans. took off impressions in sulphur, which drew out be requisite for one entire front, as it is very | The salt is put into a reverberatory furnace, in this matter, and retained it on its surface. This difficult to match the colour again ; and it ought which the extractive matter is burnt off, and countermark was, of necessity, rercr8c from the to be mixed the same day it is used.

much of tlie water dissipated. Soda, or what is original, and this reversion enabled the artist lo Analysis of Tin.-Dr Thomson has analysed called the mineral fixed ałkali, it may be obdétect defects, errors in drawing, &c. with the a specimen of tin from every smelting-house in served, is found native in many hot countries, greater readiness.

Several of these study sul Cornwall, fourteen in number, and is thus ena subsaturated with carbonic acid ; and in the phurs are still preserved among the cabinets of bled to confute an opinion which appears to ex water of the sea, in very large quantities, saturathe curious in Italy, especially in Genoa, where ist on the Continent, that Cornish tin is not ted with the muriatic acid. In Europe, it is they have been for ages carefully framed and pure, but artificially alloyed with some other generally obtained from plants that grow in the ornamented. It should seem, that Finiguerra melal. The specific gravity of these speciinens sea, or on its shores. If these plants be removed was at the top of his profession as an engraver ; varied from 7.2853 to 7.3082. , The quantity to an inland situation, the soda they yield gra. and that he was the first who thought of mak. of iron contained in them was from 1-1000ths to dually diminishes, in proportion to the distance, ing paper take an impression of the same kind, 1.10000ths of the weight of tin. In the most till at length they gradually afford no other as that for which he had hitherto employed sul- impure the copper amounted to 1-500ths, and in alkali than polash. From the experiments of phurs. Vasari says be filled in his strokes with the purest specimen the quantity of that metal | Sir Humphry Davy, it is now found, that pot. oil and soot; but, whoever knows the practice was so sinali as not to exceed 1-100000ths of its ash consists of 85 parts of a metallic base, and of engravers, knows that the oil.stone on which weight. The average quantity of copper contain: 15 of oxigen; while 80 parts of a similar base they whet their tools, furnishes a ready material ed in Cornish tin Dr 1. estimates at 11-1000ths; appear to combine with oxigen to form soda. for this purpose ; and this, most probably, was and he suggests that the opinion entertained on Oxigen, or vital air, has, in consequence, been the first kind of ink, that was drawn out by the continent of its impurity may arise from discovered to be the principle of alkalescence, Finiguerra on paper, pressed in with his fingers, pewter having been mistaken for tin, as the as it was before known to be, in almost every or strongly rubbed with his burnisher. En. French have but one word, etain, for both. case, that of acidity. couraged, probably, by some accidental success, Proportion of Potass in different vegetable sub. Gas lights. The whole interior and exterior the master pursued the experiment, and at stances. It is well known that the vegetable of the new Mint, together with the military length succeeded in taking off prints, and there fixed alkali, or potass, may be extracted in great. way and adjoining edifices, have been lighted by multiplying representations of his perfor. er or less quantity from almost all vegetables. with yas. The apparatus, which is on a new mances, in a more compact forın than that of The proportion of ashes afforded by different plan, is erected within the walls of the Mint. sulphurs. The first prints were, no doubt, vegetables, and that of alkali by each vegetable, The gas is prepared, not by distilling coal in rerubbed on the back with the burnisher : the fol has of late been accurately ascertained. For torts in the usual maoner, but by means of a lowing were taken off by a roller ; of which the the satisfaction of such of our readers as have cylinder kept red hot, and revolving round its rolling press is now the perfection. It had not attended to these results, we present the fol- axis. The cylinder is upwards of ten feet in been exceedingly regretted, that none of these lowing table of the relative proportions of this diameter, and produces, during its revolution

originals of Finiguerra were distinguishable, if kind of salt, which has been extracted from in 24 hours, a sufficient quantity of gas to light , they had been preserved ; but Mr Ottley gra different vegetables, with the process which is 1600 lamps. The purification of the gas is tifies the curious with copies of two; one of followed for the purpose of obtaining it.

effected by means of chlorine, instead of quick, them executed, as he conjectures, about the

1000 libs.

libs. ashcs. libs. salt. lime, and all the inlet and outlet mains and year 1450, the other, confessedly the master. Stalks of Turkey wheat or mais, 88.6 17.5 pipes are made to open and shut by mercurial piece of the artist, is known to have been ex Sun-flowers,

57 2 20. valves. The quantity of gas daily made and ecuted in the year 1452; its weight is recorded Vine branches,

34. 5.5 consumed by the burners and lamps, is regis. in the archives of the church for wbich it was Box.........

29. 2.26 tered in the absence of the observer, on a dial. intended, which is fifty-five ounces eleven de Sallow,...

28. 2.85 plate of a machine, the moving power of which narii of silver; and its cost was fifty-six oun Elm,.........

29.5 3.9 is gas. The effect of the new lights, scattered ces of gold. Both these prints appear to be the Oak,....

13.5

1.5 upon so extensive a scale, over the beautiful lids of paxes; they are both compositions in Aspen,

12.2 0.74 machinery of the coining processes, is uncomhonour of the Virgin ; and the latter, especially, Beech,..................

5.8
1.27

monly striking ; and the new Royal Mint now is executed with singular taste, skill, and effect. Fir,.......

3.4 0.45 exhibits the most elegant establishment of the They contain many figures. As a work of the Fern in August,....

.............. 36.46

4.25 kind in the world. graver, it is exquisite; as an impression of so Wormwood,

...................... 97.44

73. great importance in the history of art, it is in. Fumitory,......

219 79.

ANTIQUITIES. valuable. The original still exists; and the let. 1000 libs, ashes of wormwood will produce ters on this impression being reversed, suffi. 748 libs. salt, and from the same quantity of Iceland. The young scholar, M. Rask, adciently ascertain its character. In fact, as it ashes of fumitory 360 libs. but the same quan. vantageously known by his Icelandic Gram. could not be taken off after the nicllo was melted tity of wood yields in both nearly the same quan. mar, and his profound knowledge of the laninto the strokes, it must have been taken off tity of salt. From 1000 libs. of ashes of the sun. guage and antiquities of Iceland, has undertaken previously; and it corresponds to a line, a letter, flower, 349; and from 1000 libs. ashes of beech, a new journey for the elucidation of the antiand a mark, with the original plate, which is 219 libs. but it will be observed, that little quities of the North. His first excursion was still exisling. Me Ortley proceeds to describe more than 1 lib. of salt is produced from 1000 to Iceland, where, supported by the Danish goother works in niello, performances of other libs, of this wood.

vernment, he resided three years. The regions masters; they are unquestionably curious; but, Kirwan remarks, that in general, weeds yield of Caucasus are nowy the object of his curiosity; in point of merit, they do not exceed those of the more ashes, and their ashes much more salt, patronized on this occasion also by the governmaster already distinguished. The art long re than woods; and that consequently as to salts of ment, he is going to seek among the Caucasian tained the execution and manner of the gold. the vegetable alkali kind, as potash, castrup, &c. tribes the origin of the ancient northern lansmith ; and though various degrees of merit neither America, Trieste, nor the northern guage and mythology. The idea of this jour. were communicated by different masters, in suc countries, have any advantage over Ireland. 100 ney seems to have been excited in M. Rask by cession, to the composition and the outline, the grains of the salt of wormwood contains 6 of his prize essay, not yet printed, On the Origin shadowing was still the same ; feeble, simple, sulphat of potash, while the same quantity of of the Icelandic Language. In this essay he has unvaried, without energy, and without charac. the salt of fumitory contain 15 grains. The investigated the original sources, and clearly ter.

quantity of sulphat of potash varies in different proved the great similarity, of the above-men-,

now did.

October 25, 1817.]
Voyages and Discoveries.

85 tioned language to the Greek and Roman.- of which gazed very earnestly at them, but nei ses of cattle being stolen from the colony, and The learned Icelander Finn Magnussen, pro-ther spoke to, nor interrupted them. But the traced to any particular Krall, that Krall should fessor at the university of Copenhagen, has ex. moment they were discovered by the Wange. be made responsible for the cattle, although not pressed the same opinion in his Lectures on the roans, a woman made a signal by holding up a to be found there, and should be bound to furmythic and ethic Poems of the ancient or Sa. red mat and waving it in the air, while she nish from its own herds the number of cattle mund Edda.

repeatedly cried out in a loud and shrill voice, stolen from the colony; he said this would be Antiques from Lebyda.The Dey of Tripoli Come hither, the customary salutation of friend. right and just, and would induce the Kralls to having presented to the Regent such remains of ship: Duaterra and Shungi then advanced, and give up, and not secrete the thieves, as they antiquity as are moveable from Lebyda, the touched noses with the opposite chiefs George

He said, he would assuredly punish site of Carthage, the Weymouth store-ship is on and Tipponie, who stood up while their war with death any Caffre he discovered plundering her voyage thither, for the purpose of receiving riors were seated round with their spears stuck the colonists. The gracefulness with which and bringing them to England. They are re. in the ground, the old woman still continuing Gaika spoke was very striking; and the manly presented as highly curious, and illustrative of to wave the red mat, and to repeat a prayer de and decided tone he took was extremely impresthat once splendid capital. It is also stated, signed for such occasions. The chiefs now fired sive. After the conference had terminated, that the Dey has offered his protection to any off their pistols in token of amnity, when the presents were produced and given to the seveEuropean who is willing to attempt the journey warriors, amounting to about 150, immediately ral chiefs : particular articles had been selected from Tripoli to Tombuctoo.

sprang up, fired off some muskets, and struck for Gaika and his son. His excelleney also pre. their spears and fire-arms against each other. sented Gaika with a beautiful grey horse.

The war dance then commenced, which was at. New South Walcs. The Hobart Gazette conVOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. / tended with the most frightful gesticulations and tains some interesting particulars of recent ma

convulsive distortions ; yells, shrieks, and roars, ritime discoveries in Austral-Asia, by Lieut. A Voyage to Nere Zealand, 1814-15; by J. answered in responsive discord to the clashing Jeffries, of the British nation's 'armed brig Kan. L. Nicholas. This island, which is divided by fury of their weapons. The chiefs were distin. garoo : she sailed from Port Jackson the 19th

narrow channel, is situated between 30° 22', guished by cloaks of different-coloured furs, at. of April, 1815, for the island of Ceylon. On and 47° 25' south lat. and between 166° and tached to their mats, and suspended in a man. the night of the 30th of May, Capt. J. anchor. 180° east long. · Taken together, they form an

ner similar to the loose jackets of the English ed under a large group of islands, on the coast area of 62,160 square miles. The soil is gener.

hussars. The dress of the common warrior of New Holland, to which he gave the name ally fertile, the verdure rich, the climate fa. only wanted the fur cloaks to make it equally of Flinders Group. Ascending a high moun. vourable, and the population active, robust, and rich. Some of the mats had fancifully worked tain, at day-light, he examined the coast, and intelligent. It was first visited by Tasman, a borders executed with great art and taste; others perceived a chain of reefs along it as far as the Dutch navigator, in 1642, who was killed there were of a beautiful velvet softness and glossy | eye could penetrate.-On the first of June, at with four of his men. Captain Cook sailed round lustre. These mats were all made from tlax. half past twelve, the vessel fell in suddenly it in 1769-70 ; and in subsequent voyages in

Each individual wore two, the inside one being with a dark red coloured water, when, upon 1773-4. The Rev. Samuel Marsden, principal tied with a belt, in which was stuck the pattoo- examination, the changed colour of the water chaplain of New South Wales, having determi-pattoo, a deadly weapon resembling a battledore, was found to have been occasioned by a bed of ned, with all the zeal of a missionary, and the which they used with great skill and effect : mushroom coral-rock, about four feet under bồnevolence of a Christian, to carry civilization they were also armed with a spear and a lance : water. The latitude of this dangerous rock is into this region, sailed from Port Jackson on some had battle-axes, others a weapon somewhat 13 deg. 32 min. 5 sec. S. and the longitude, by the 19th November 1814, in the Active of 110 resembling a serjeant's halbert, and a few had lunar observation, 143 deg. 47 min. east. on tons, purchased and fitted out on account of the long clubs made of whalebone. The chiefs were the 6th, after having run through all the reefs church missionary society. Mr Nicholas, who | tatooed, and all had their hair neatly combed, laid down in Capt. Flinders' chart, Capt. J. then happened to be disengaged from mercantile and collected in a knot upon the top of the head, doubled Cape York, and found it to be an island, pursuits, joined the mission, and the result of where it was ornamented with the long white and not part of the main land, as beretofore his remarks is contained in these volumes. In feather of the ganpet. The teeth of their ene. supposed. A continued chain of sand banks the Active sailed also from Port Jackson, three inies whom they had slain hung down from and shoals extends from Cape Grafton, which New Zealand chiefs, Shungi, Korra-korra, and their ears. The dollars which they had found is in lat. 17 deg. S. to Cape York, which is in Duaterra, the latter of whom had been for some in the ship Boyd were suspended from the lat: 10 deg. 30 min. with numerous narrow years a common sailor in the English merchant breasts of most of them, with rude representa passages no more than a mile wide, from four service, and had been subjected to the most tions of the human form made of green jade, to fourteen miles offshore. The resources of cruel treatment by several masters of vessels, in carved with great ingenuity. The missionaries the Isle of Van Diemen are daily developing; an attempt to see King George, for which pur. were soon pleasantly situated, with their live two harbours have been discovered on the bleak pose he left. New Zealand in a whaler, and was stock, at Rangehoo, the village of Duaterra, the and western shore of the isle. To the northbrought only into the river Thames! These amiable chief who had accompanied them from ward of Port Davey, in lat. 48 deg. 10 min. S. three chiefs had resided for some time at Port Port Jackson, but who died soon after their ar. and lon. 145 deg. 30 min. E. is another harJackson for the purpose of improvement. On rival. These missionaries are represented as bour, named Macquarie harbour, of very consi. the 17th December the Active arrived off the rational and pious mechanics, whose wish is to derable extent. Inexhaustible mines of coal coast, and immediately commenced an inter. teach Christianity by their own good example, have been found at various places on the isle, course of the most friendly kind with the natives. and to combine useful practice with well-timed and more is likely to be discovered. Good slate The chiefs in the Active saluted those from the faith. No military force accompanied them, has been found ; and a lime-stone quarry has shore by touching noses, a ceremony which is con. and none was necessary, for the New Zealand been opened and worked within a mile and a tinued in proportion to the respector regard of the ers appear to be a well-disposed and inquisitive half of Hobart town. The natural advantages parties. About a dozen of canoes came off filled race, as anxious to learn all useful arts as others will enable the agriculturists of Van Diemen's with men, who were generally of a high sta may be to teach them.

Land to carry on their concerns with much ture, but with great symmetry of limbs and Cape of Good Hope.-A very important con greater success than the inhabitants of Port muscular strength. Their countenances were ference took place in April last between Lord Jackson. pleasing and intelligent, and had none of those Charles Somerset, attended by his suite and Discovery of America before Columbus. - Dr indications of ferocity which the imagination body-guard, and king Gaika, (or Geika,) at the Deuber, in his History of the Navigation in the naturally attributes to cannibals. The Active head of 300 armed Caffres ; when an amicable Atlantic Ocean, thinks that not only the conti. coasted along to the harbour of Wangeroa, arrangement was formed for preventing future nent of America was known to the ancients, where the crew of an English vessel, the Boyd, depredations and contentions between the co but also that the compass was known before had been massacred some time before. Mrlonists and the Caffree nation, and to promote a the tiine of Flavio Gioja. He quotes an obMarsden, Mr Nicholas, Mr Kendall a school. | friendly intercourse in the way of trade. On scure passage in Ammianus Marcellinus, beside master, and Mr Hall a carpenter, (the two lat. this occasion, Gaika, in the presence of, and others equally obscure in Plato, derived from ter intended settiers), proceeded with the two with the concurrence of the other chiefs, agreed the Egyptians. But his stronger proofs rest on chiess Shungi and Duaterra on shore, to the en to use his utmost endeavours to put a stop to discoveries made by the Normans before A, D. campment of the tribe of Wangeroa. They the continual depredations committed on the 805, when, he states, that they knew of the passed through a large village, the inhabitants colonists; and he consented, that in future ca American coast. To which he adds the report

NOVELS.

25. mann Itinerary of France and Belgium, or Tra

86
L'oyages and Discoveries--Literature.

[October 25, 1817. made by Columbus himself, to Raphael de San.

LITERATURE.

REPRINTS. sis, grand treasurer to the king of Spain.

Lovelace's Lucasta,, with a fac-simile of the Expedition to Africa. The attempt to es.

portrait of Lucasta, (Lucy Sacheverell,) from the plore the interior of Africa by the expedition

NEW PUBLICATIONS.

rare print by Faithorne. 7s. sent to the wind ward coast has proved equally

NATURAL HISTORY.

Select early'English Poets. No. T. abortive with that which was sent up the Con Transactions of the Geological Society, Vol. Memoirs of the Life of the Elder Scipio Afri. go. A letter from Sierra-Leone, of June 30, IV. £.3 , 3s.

canus, with notes and illustrations ; by the Rev. states, that intelligence of the failure had ar. A complete View of the Geology of England E. Berwick. post 8vo. 7s. rived at that place a few days before. Captain and Wales, in a picturesque elevation and sec

TIIEOLOGY. Campbell was reported to have died of a broken tion: by W. Smith. 75.

Sermons, by the Rey. Mr Matthew. 2 vols. heart, and the expedition was expected to re A Compendium or Epitome of Winds, Wea. 8vo. £.1.1s. tur. The second naval officer in command, ther, Waves, &c. ; by James Horsburgh. 2s.

On the Church, with an Appendix on Mira. who had been left at Sierra Leone on account of The Naturalist's Pocket-Book, or Tourist's cles, in reply to Mr Joseph Fletcher ; by Jos. Hll health, but was recovered, and on his way to companion, being a brief introduction to the Fairclough. 2s. join the expedition, returned to Sierra-Leone on various branches of Natural History, with ap. An Address delivered to the Young Persons hearing of Capt. Campbell's death, to consult the proved methods for collecting and preserving who were Confirmed at the late Visitation of Governor upon the future conduct of the expe the various productions of nature ; hy G. Graves, the Diocese of Chester ; by G. H. Law, D. N. dition. a dispatch was iminediately sent home F.L.S. 8vo. with eight plates, 14s.—or 218. F. R. & A. S. Lord Bishop of Chester. 2d. to Lord Bathurst. coloured.

A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the DioCaptivity of the crew of the ship Union, in the No. XXIV, of the new edition of Curtis's

cese of Chester at the last Visitation of that Dioisland of Engano.--Accounts were received at Flora Londinensis ; by G. Graves, F.L.S. Royal cese; by G. H. Law, D.D. F. R. & A. S. Lord Calcutta, in March last, of the loss of the long folio, with six plates, 108. plainor 16s. co Bishop of Chester.

Is. 6d. missing ship Union, Captain Barker. A seaman, loured.

Observations on the Canonical Scriptures ; by a native of Batavia, has escaped, with two Las. Anecdotes of remarkable Insects, selected

Mary Cornwallis. 4 vols. 8vo. £.2.2s. cars, from the Island of Engano, where the ship from Natural History, and interspersed with

TOPOGRAPHY. was wrecked, above fifteen months before, on a Poetry ; by J. Taylor, embellished with engra The Traveller's Guide through Switzerland, reef seven miles from the island. He relates, vings. 18mo. 3s.

in four parts : 1. Modes of travelling, value of that nearly Gsty of the erew, including the cap.

General View of the Anomalies in the Vege. | money in the different cantons, and descriptions tain, and three (fficers, reached the shore, when table kingdom ; by T. Hopkirk. 8vo. 10s. 6d. of the Alps, Glaciers, Lavanges, the Simplon, they were immediately stripped by the natives,

&c. 2. Itinerary of Switzerland ; with numewhọ separated them into parties of three and Beauchamp, or the Wheel of Fortune. 4 vols. rous plates, 18mo. 16s. four, and drove them to the plantations, which 12mo. £.112s.

An Itinerary of Italy; containing the various they were obliged to weed and clean, and in the

Fairy Tales. 2 vols. 24.no. 8s.

methods of travelling in the different states, the evening to cut firewood and carry it home. Their Memoirs of the Montague Family. 3 vols. weights, measures, and coins, with their value daily allowance of food was three plantains to 12mo. £.1..1s.

in English and French money ; with three large each person, but the Europeans had some pork Rosa, or Village Incidents. 2 vols. 98. maps. 18mo. 103. given to them. There was no rice ever seen on Tales of the Fire-side. 3 vols. 12mo. 12s. the island. The men were perfectly naked, The Leper of the City of Aoste, a narrative ; veller's Guide through those countries ; with a carried spears, and cut their hair quite short. translated from the French by Helen Maria Wilo map. 18mo. 8s. The women were fair, wore leaves round their liams. 8vo. 2s. 6d.

Border Antiquities of England and Scotland; waists, and had long hair. If any of the un Cælebs deceived. 2 vols. 12mo. 8s.

comprising specimens of architecture and sculpfortunate captives were too ill to work, the na Some Account of Myself, by Charles, Earl of ture, and other vestiges of former ages, accomtives tied their hands together, and threw them | Elpingham, &c. &c. 4. vols. £.1.2s. panied by descriptions : together with illustrainto the sea : several Lascars had perished in this

PHILOLOGY.

tions of remarkable incidents in border history manner. Captain Barker was once very ill, and

Institutes of Grammar, as applicable to the and tradition ; by Walter Scott, Esq. Paris they threatened to cast him into the sea. The English Language, or as Introductory to the XV!. and XVII. together. Medium 410. £.1. Is. seaman states, that he himself being very ill for Study of other Languages, systematically ar

and imp. 4to. £.1.12s. some days, one night heard the natives say that ranged, and briefly explained ; to which are

A Picturesque Voyage round Great Britain ; they would throw him into the sea next morn

added, some Chronological Tables ;. by James containing a series of views illustrative of the ing ; he therefore resolved to attempt to escape, Andrew, LL.D. 6s. 6d.

character and prominent features of the coast ; and contrived to communicate his intention to

by Wm. Daniell, A.R.A. No. XXXVI. 108. 6d.

POETRY Captain Barker, who desired him, if he succeed.

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. ed, to steer for the rising sun, when he would

Ramires, a poem ; by A. C. Dallas. 8vo. 5s.
The Greeks, a satyrical poem. 6s.

Six Weeks in Paris, or a cure for the Gallo. soon reach land. He ran off while his masters

Original Poetry for Infants and Juvenile mania; by a late Visitant. 3 vols. 12mo. 185. were sleeping, got to the beach at midnight, and

A Narrative of a Voyage in New Zealand, went to a hut where two of the Lascars were

Minds, in two parts, by Lucy Joynes, of Not. kept; he awoke them, and they together con. tingham. 2s.

performed in the years 1814 and 1815, by John

Liddiard Nicholas, Esq. in company with the trived to bind two very long but narrow canoes

The Hours, a poem ; by J. Hudson. 7s.

Rev. Samuel Marsden, principal chaplain of New to each other; procured a few cocoa nuts, and

South Wales. Illustrated by plates, and a map making a sort of sail, put to sea. In five days

A Sketch of the Military and Political power

of the Island. 2 yols. 8vo. £.114s. the current and wind drove them ashore at Bel

of Russia in 1817; by Sir Robert Wilson. 8s. lamburg bay, near the southern extreme of Su

The Edinburgh Annual Register for 1815, Thence they went to Croee, and the handsomely printed in one thick volume, 8vo. NOTICES OF WORKS IN THE PRESS, &c. gentlemen stationed there forwarded them in a double columns. £.11.1s.

Whatever may have been the wisdom of that boat to Fort Marlborough, where they arrived

POLITICAL ECONOMY.

display of national pride which caused the failure in January last. The acting resident imme The Police Report of May 1817. 7s. of the late embassy to China, it seems likely to diately resolved to send a civil servant, with a Ditto of July 1817. 78.

afford the literary world considerable gratificasurgeon and a party of troops, to Engano, in Report on the Poor Laws of July 1817. 178. tion in the ensuing winter. Three considerable the ship Good Hope, to accomplish the libera Report from the Committee of the Hon. the works have already been announced, and each tion of the prisoners, by prevailing on the natives House of Commons on the employment of Boys of them appears to lay claim to public atten. to give them in exchange for a variety of arti. in the Sweeping of Chimneys; together with tion :- The first is by Dr. Clarke Abel, physi. cles, which he collected for the purpose, the use the Minutes of Evidence, and an Appendix : cian and naturalist to the embassy, and is ene of money being quite unknown on the island. published under the direction of the Society for titled, Personal Observations made during the

superseding the necessity of climbing-boys: with Progress of the British Embassy through China, (In our next Number will be given an ac. notes and observations, a complete list of per and on its voyage to and from that Country, in count of Ellis's Journal of the proceedings of sons using the machine, and a descriptive engra- | the years 1816 and 1817. It will comprise the the late embassy to China. ) ving of it. Svo. 3s. 6d.

author's personal narrative of the most inter

POLITICS.

matra.

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