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STEWART, Isabel M. and NUTTING, M. Adelaide. The educational value of

the nurse in the public school. In National society for the study of education. Ninth yearbook. Chicago, Illinois, The University of Chicago press ('1911) Part 2: 14-60.

Bibliography: p. 72–76. “There is increasing accumulation of school functions relating to health. These may be cited briefly:

"(a) Sanitary inspection of school buildings, systems of ventilation, etc., with special attention to the daily cleaning and the disinfection of schoolrooms and lavatories.

"(b) Medical inspection for detection of contagious diseases and physical defects.
"(e) Personal health examination.
"(d) Hygiene of instruction.
"(e) Emergency service and treatment of minor chronic complaints.

"O) Instruction of children in personal, home, and community hygiene and sanitation, and the practical application of the laws of health.

"(9) Instruction of, and cooperation with, parents. "() Physical education.”

Historical sketch of school nursing in New York City, and elsewhere, following the London work. In 1903, New York, $30,000 appropriation was made to extend the school nurse service and put it on a definite basis. This provided a staff of 27 nurses at $900 per year. These nurses attended 125 local and 4 parochial schools; since then, the staff has been increased to 141 nurses, including supervisors, all giving their entire time to the work.

Los Angeles was the second city to adopt the system; the work begun by the Visiting nurse society and taken over by the city, 3 nurses being appointed for 80 schools; begun in San Francisco in 1904 by the aurses' settlement, in 1908 was established with staff of 5 nurses. In 1908, Philadelphia Board of Education appointed 6 nurses.

The functions of the school nurse are as follows:

"(a) Assistant to the school doctor in his visits of inspection--preparing children for examination, recording data, testing vision, hearing, etc.

"(6) Routine daily, weekly, or monthly inspection in classrooms. "(c) Keeping of records, sending out reports to parents, cards to principals, etc. "(d) Treatment of routine cases in the school-bathing eyes, irrigating ears, dressing wounds, etc. "(c) Emergency service--caring for accidents, fainting, convulsions, etc. " Instruction of children in personal hygiene and sanitation-practical demonstrations and talks.

"W) Follow-up work in the homes-notifying physicians, instruction of mothers in the care of children, taking children to dispensaries, dental clinics, etc., for treatment, when necessary.

*(X) Sanitary inspection of homes-discovering and reporting contagious diseases to board of health. "(Reporting of truancy cases. "G) Teachers' and mothers' meetings. "(x) Summer work in prevention of infant mortality-playground supervision, fresh-air excursions,

"Lo no one system are all these functions incorporated. ... The staff of nurses is usually so entirely inadequate that only the most needy and pressing cases can be attended to. ...

"The need now is for an institution or organization that will give the preparation required. ... Tho one significant attempt to meet this problem is that undertaken by Teachers collego at Columbia university, ... a one-year course under the control of the department of nursing and health. ... Its dutinct aim is to prepare 'teacher nurses.' A high-school certificate, or its equivalent, and a di

plotna from a recognized training school for nurses are required for entrance." WATERS, Yssabella. Municipalities employing public school nurses. In her

Visiting nursing in the United States . . . New York, Charities publication committee, 1909. p. 367 (Table V)

Municipalities employing public school nurses.

Estab-Number lished. of purses.

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California:

Berkeley board of education
Los Angeles board of health.

San Francisco department of health
Colorado, Pueblo department of education
Georgia, Atlanta department of education
Illinois, Chicago department of health
Iowa, Des Moines board of education ..
Maryland, Baltimore department of health
Massachusetts:

Boston department of education
Brookline department of education

Cambridge department of health
Michigan:

Detroit board of health...

Grand Rapids board of education New Jersey:

Jersey City board of health.

Orange board of education New York:

New York department of health

Syracuse board of health.... Ohio:

Cincinnati board of health.

Cleveland board of education. Oregon, Portland, city of Portland Pennsylvania:

Harrisburg board of education

Philadelphia board of education.
Washington:

Seattle board of education.
Tacoma board of education

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1907

1906

1902
1908

141

2

2

1909 1908 1908

1908 1908

6

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WOOD, Thomas Denison and others. The nurse in education. Chicago, Ill.,

University of Chicago press (1911) 76 p. 8o. (National society for the study of education. Ninth yearbook. Part 2)

Bibliography: p. 72–76.

See also The educational value of the nurse in the public school, p. 14-60 (Stewart, Isabel M. and Nutting, M. Adelaide) The professional training of children's nurses, p. 61-71 (Read, Mary L.)

IN REPRESENTATIVE CITIES.

BROOKLINE, MASS.

LEWIS, Ida M. [The school nurse system of Brookline, Mass.) In Brookline, Mass. School committee. Report for the year ending December 31, 1910. p. 34–36.

A plan for the daily visiting of schools, homes, or dispensaries, establishing the school-nursing sys tem, begun January 4, 1909. Number of eye glasses procured, 49; operations for adenoids and enlarged tonsils, 48; other operations, 5; cases treated at dental infirmaries, 297; number of dressings for relief of impetigo, discharging glands, and wounds, 285.

CHICAGO, ILL.
Chicago. Department of health. Rules and instructions for school nurses.

"1. The hours for work for nurses are from 8.30 a. m. to 5 p. m. with time off for luncheon.

“2. Nurses will visit schools and make routine inspections of hair, eyes, skin, and throats of pupils, and find out from the school inspector's record cards the names and addresses of pupils excluded on account of some contagious disease and those found defective who have been advised to seek treatment.

"3. The nurse will reser all cases except pediculosis to the school medical inspector for diagnosis and disposal. A list is to be left for the medical inspector each day.

4. A failure on the part of the medical inspector to make a diagnosis on his next visit should be reported to the health department.

“5. Treat no case until diagnosis is made.

“6. Emergency treatment as for cuts burns, or skin wounds may be treated once by the nurso il necessary, and the parents then advised to continue treatment, or have the child placed in care of a doctor.

*7. Children with marked physical defects, such as those requiring glasses, or suffering from enlarged tonsils, adenoids, or nervous diseases, who have been advised by the medical inspector to seek medical orice, will be visited by the nurse at their homes, and in case treatment has not been begun will vivise medical attention. Treatment for favus, scabies, and pediculosis can be advised or administered by the nurse at the home.

-9. Where operation or treatment is indicated and the family not able to pay for treatment, the child's father or mother should go to a free dispensary or hospital with the child. If not possible for then to do so, the nurse can accompany the child if the parents give a written request that she may do s. Nurses may visit homes of those reported absent from school on account of sickness, but must Dot enter the home if a contagious disease is found."

Instructions for treating minor contagious diseases follow-"provided the parents are not able to employ a doctor or fail to place the child under treatment." WOODRUFF, Thomas A. The value of the nurse in the public schools. American academy of medicine. Bulletin, 10: 527–33, October, 1909, tables.

Also in American school board journal, 41: 4, 22, November 1910.

In Chicago, where the history of school nursing dates back some eight years, before school nursing was thought of elsewhere in the United States, a small group of workers from the Visiting nurses Association were delegated by request of the city school to four special schools. The work grew so rapidly that in the spring of 1908, the nurses found themselves with more than 75 schools on their regular visiting list.

In October, 1908, when the health department of Chicago decided to put on school nurses, the Visiting nurses' association proffered its services. It donated ten of its best nurses to supervise and direct the ten school districts into which the city is divided. It was able to furnish in 48 hours 30 nurses.

The school nurses are under the joint supervision of the department of health and the Visiting nurses' ssociation. They are paid by the city. Each has charge of a certain number of schools. She visits these schools each day.

A summary of the benefits derived from work of the school nurse shows:

"1. A decrease in the spread of contagion by a close observation of the children ...! and the supervision of all excluded cases in their homes. 2. They teach the parents, family, and children cleanliDess and personal hygiene. 3. They instruct the mother in the care of her children and impress upon ber the benefits to be derived from cleanliness, fresh air, and right living. 4. They render more effective the etiorts of the medical inspector by visiting the homes of the children and reporting back information of the conditions found there. 5. They frequently find cases of deprivation and disease in the home which would otherwise go undiscovered, and the work of the medical inspector would be of little advantage in the school. 6. They make it possible to treat cases of minor ailments in school.”

DETROIT, MICH.

KIEFER, Guy L. The school nurse as an aid to medical inspection of schools. American Journal of public hygiene, 20: 279–81, June 1910.

The school-nurse work in Detroit. Two nurses granted in 1909, one added in 1910; each attends four schools daily. During the past year the two nurses made 1,169 visits to the schools and 2,723 home visits. Gave personal attention and such treatment as was possible at the school clinic in 4,651 different instances, and took 158 children to free clinics for treatment. Of the 461 cases of physical defects 289, or a little over 60 per cent, were corrected. Of these 461 cases, 152 had defective eyesight. Of the cases of physical defects not followed up by the nurses, only about 20 per cent received attention.

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

NEWMAYER, S. W. Evidence that the school nurse pays. In American school

hygiene association. Proceedings, 1911. Springfield, Mass. American physical education review, 1911, p. 44-51, tables.

Also in New York medical journal, 93: 718-21, April 15, 1911. Reprinted.
Report of the work of the school nurses of Philadelphis for the year ending December 31, 1910.

CITY OF PHILADELPHIA.

Results obtained by a medical inspector when not aided by a nurse.

[Number of individual children reported upon, 751.)

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Results obtained during the same period by the same medical inspector when aided by a

school nurse.

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Total.

1,354

1, 204

150

88.9

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1,928

5, 146

Sobools....

39 Xurses..

9 Oid cases.

42,869 New cases

16,341 Coses eured

10, 969 Visits to schools.

5, 108 Visits to home (old).

3,096 Visits to home (new).. Total number of visits to homes..

5,024 Visits to dispensary (old)...

3, 139 Visits to dispensary (new)..

2,007 Total visits to dispensary. School consultations (parents)..

754 School consultations (pupils).

2,687 Total school consultations.

3, 441 Examinations for uncleanliness.

30, 099 Examinations for bureau of municipal research

737 NEWMAYER, S. W. A practical system of medical inspection with trained

nurses, adapted for public schools of large cities. New York medical journal, 87: 637-39, April 4, 1908. forms.

Reprinted.

Discusses the medical inspection system devised by Dr. Newmayer for use in Philadelphia schools. The chief factors considered were:

"1. The elimination of useless clerical work.

"2. Methods which would secure cooperation between medical inspector, nurse, principal and teacher, and parents.

"3. The unnecessary exclusion of pupils, and, when excluded, their return in the shortest possible time

“4. Each party concerned assumes his or her share of the responsibilities, and errors can easily be troved to their source.

"3. Records and reports are few and can readily be referred to for practical purposes." Philadelphia. Superintendent of public schools. School nurses. In his Annual report, year ending December 31, 1910. p. 44-45. table.

"The purse teaches both the pupils and the parents the value of practical hygiene and accomplishes results. She thus becomes . . . an invaluable adjunct to medical inspection."

Record of results in schools where nurses are employed as compared with schools without nurses. A comparative study by the Department of health and charities.

SCHOOLS HAVING NURSES.

Recommendations.

Schools.

Per cent

acted upon.

Number.

Acted
upon.

James Forten.
Wartoti.
Carlo
Vivod.

324
445
320
265

262
434
282
226

80.9 97.5 88.1 85.3

Total.

1,354

1,204

88.9

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