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mflection: if the emphasis does not exclude the antithesis, the emphatic word has the rising inflection. The distinction between the two em phatic inflections is this: The falling inflection affirms something in the emphasis, and denies what is opposed to it in the antithesis, while the empnasis with the rising inflection affirms something in the emphasis without denying what is opposed to it in the antithesis: the former, therefore, from its affirming and denying absolutely, may be called the strong emphasis; and the latter, from its affirming only, and not denying, may be called the weak emphasis.-We have an instance of the strong emphasis and falling inflection on the words despite and fear, in the following sentence, where Richard the Third rejects the proposal of the Duke of Norfolk to pardon the rebels.

4. Why that, indeed, was our sixth Harry's way,

Which made his reign one scene of rude commotion:
I'll be in men's despite a monarch; no,

Let kings that fear forgive; blows and revenge

For me.

The paraphrase of these words, when thus emphatical, would be, I' be, not in men's favour, but in their despite, a monarch—and let not me, who am fearless, but kings that fear, forgive.-The weak emphasis, with the rising inflection, takes place on the word man in the following example from the FAIR PENITENT, where Horatio, taxing Lothario with forgery, says,

5. 'Twas base and poor, unworthy of a man',
To forge a scroll so villanous and loose,

And mark it with a noble lady's name.

If this emphasis were paraphrased, it would run thus: 'Twas base and poor, unworthy of a man, though not unworthy of a brute.

The first of the following examples is an instance of the single em phasis implied; the second, of the single emphasis expressed; the third, of the double emphasis; and the fourth, of the treble emphasis.*

1. Exercise and temperance strengthen even an indiffer ent constitution.

2. You were paid to fight against Alexander, and not to rail' at him.

3. The pleasures of the imagination are not so gross as those of sense', nor so refined' as those of the understanding'.

* In these examples of emphasis the emphatic word alone is printed in italics; the marks above them denote the inflections.

4. He' raised a mortal to the skies',
She drew an angel' down`.


RULE.-When a sentence is composed of a positive and negative part, the positive must have the falling, and the negative the rising inflection.†


1. We can do nothing against' the truth, but for the truth.

2. None more impatiently suffer' injuries, than they who are most forward in doing them.

3. You were paid to fight against Alexander, and not to rail' at him.

4. Hunting (and men', not beasts') shall be his game.

5. Cæsar, who would not wait the conclusion of the consul's speech, generously replied, that he came into Italy, not to injure' the liberties of Rome and its citizens, but to restore them.

6. If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours' only, but also for the sins of the whole world`.

7. Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us, that we should be called the sons of God! therefore the world knoweth us' not, because he knew him` not.

8. It is not the business of virtue to extirpate' the affections of the mind, but to regulate them.

9 It may moderate and restrain', but was not designed to banish` gladness from the heart of man.

10. Those governments which curb' not evils, cause! And a rich knave's a libel on our laws.

11. For if you pronounce, that, as my public conduct

* When two emphatic words in antithesis with each other are either expressed or implied, the emphasis is said to be single.

To this rule, however, there are some exceptions, not only in poetry but also in prose.

hath not been right, Ctesiphon must stand condemned, it must be thought that yourselves have acted wrong, Lot that you owe your present state to the caprice of fortune'. But it cannot be. No, my countrymen ! it cannot be you have acted wrong, in encountering danger bravely, for the liberty and safety of Greece'. No! by those generous souls of ancient times, who were exposed at Marathon! by those who stood arrayed at Plataa! by those who encountered the Persian fleet at Salamis! who fought at Artemisium`! By all those illustrious sons of Athens, whose remains lie deposited in the public monuments! All of whom received the same honourable interment from their country: Not those only who prevailed', not those only who were victorious'. And with reason. What was the part of gallant men they all performed; their success was such as the Supreme Director of the world dispensed to each.

Note. When two objects are compared, the comparative word has the strong emphasis and falling inflection, and the word compared has the weak emphasis and rising inflection.*

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More honour'd in the breach than the observance.

2. I would die' sooner than mention it.


RULE.-The falling inflection takes place on the first emphatic word, the rising on the second and third, and the falling on the fourth.


1. To err is human'; to forgive' divine'.

2. Custom is the plague of wise' men, and the idol' of fools'.

This is the case when it is the intention of the speaker to declare with emphasis, the priority or preferableness of one thing to another.

When two words are opposed to each other, and contrasted with two other words, the emphasis on these four words may be called double.

The pause after the second emphatic word must be considerab. longer than that after the first or third.

3. The prodigal robs his heir', the miser' robs himself 4. We are weak', and ye' are strong`.

5 Without were fightings', within' were fears'. 6. Business sweetens pleasure', as labour' sweetens


7. Prosperity gains' friends, and adversity' tries' them. 8 The wise man considers what he wants', and the fool' what he abounds` in.

9. One sun by day'-by night' ten thousand shine. 10. Justice appropriates honours` to virtue', and rewards' to merit'.

11. Justice seems most agreeable to the nature of God', and mercy' to that of man'.

12. It is as great a point of wisdom to hide ignorance', as to discover' knowledge`.

13. As it is the part of justice never to do violence', it is of modesty' never to commit offence'.

14. If men of eminence are exposed to censure` on one' hand, they are as much liable to flattery' on the other`.

15. The wise man is happy when he gains his own' approbation, and the fool' when he recommends himself to the applause of those about him.

16. We make provision for this life as though it were never to have an end', and for the other' life as though it were never to have a beginning`.

17. Alfred seemed born not only to defend his bleeding country', but even to adorn' humanity'.

18. His care was to polish the country by arts', as he had protected' it by arms`.

19. Yielding to immoral pleasure corrupts' the mind, living to animal and trifling' ones debases` it.

20. Grief is the counter passion of joy. The one arises from agreeable', and the other' from dis'agreeable events,— the one from pleasure', and the other' from pain,—the one' from good', and the other' from evil.

21. Fools anger show', which politicians' hide.

22. The foulest stain and scandal of our nature

Became its boast. One murder makes a villain',


Millions' a hero'. War' its thousands' slays,
Peace' its ten thousands.

In arms opposed,

Marlborough and Alexander vie for fame
With glorious competition; equal both

In valour and in fortune: but their praise
Be different, for with different views they fought;
This' to subdue', and that' to free` mankind. *


RULE. The rising inflection takes place on the first and third, and the falling on the second of the first three emphatical words; the first and third of the other three have the falling, and the second has the rising inflection.


1. A friend' cannot be known in prosperity'; and an enemy cannot be hidden' in adversity`.

2. Flowers of rhetoric in sermons or serious discourses are like the blue and red flowers in corn, pleasing' to those who come only for amusement', but prejudicial to him' who would reap the profit.

3. Man is a creature designed for two different states of being, or, rather, for two different lives. The first' life is short and transient'; his second`, permanent', and lasting`.

4. The difference between a madman and a fool is, that the former' reasons justly, from false' data; and the latter erroneously', from just data.

5. He' raised a mortal to the skies',

She drew an angel' down'.

6 Passions' are winds to urge us o'er the wave', Reason the rudder', to direct and save`;

*Though some of the examples under the head of emphasis are not strictly emphatical, yet the words marked as such will show how simi larly constructed sentences may be read.

When three emphatic words are opposed to three other emphatic words in the same sentence, the emphasis is called treble.

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