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ESSAYS-IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL : NO. II.
173 and eligible. For the law of the new tes- all places of Worship, out of the revenues of tament dispensation is this :-" The Lord the state, if placed under proper regulations, hath ordained that they who preach the and in the hands of competent commisgospel, should live by the gospel." * Now, sioners. By this means, the utmost possible if a nation has one or twenty Christian ec- Christian freedom would be secured, in clesiastical establishments, I say, it ought to connexion with the preservation of sound maintain all the ministers thereof, which are doctrine, and the universal dissemination of sanctioned by the toleration of its govern- religious truth, under the legimate protection ment, and appointed by their respective of the Government, over every portion of congregations. But I do not say, that an the United Kingdom : while all the evils avowedly Christian government is under any enumerated and deprecated, as existing in obligation, or is even at liberty in the sight the present politico-ecclesiastical establishof God, to support, pay, nor perhaps even ment, by the author of the essay, would be to tolerate, any antichristian ecclesiastical completely avoided.* establishments within the realms of its juris- But, whatever may be the fate of the diction.
subsisting union of church and state-and I The collection of taxes in a free state, where confess its approaching dissolution, in the those taxes are imposed by the real repre- order of providence, is, in my estimation, sentatives of the people, voluntarily chosen by no means either an improbable or deby them, cannot be considered as a compul- plorable event, - I trust, England will never sory act; nor can their appropriation to the forget the debt of gratitude she owes, under purposes devised, and authorised by those God, to their joint operations, when, in representatives, be considered as any in- the auspicious reigns of Edward VI., fringement on the liberty of the subject; or Elizabeth, and William and Mary, they as an unauthorised encroachment on the grappled with, and strangled, the serpent of disposal of his property. And hence, if a popery, that had so long nestled in the popular and legitimate government
, in bosom of both—from the deadly fang of compliance with the wishes of its subjects, which, no other earthly power could then pays, indiscriminately, all the ministers of the have rescued this nation. established religion in the kingdom, a fair But while I put this important fact on yet moderate compensation for their labours, grateful record, I am constrained to confess that government cannot thereby assume my deep regret, that, as a nation, we are or exercise any control over the spiritual con- once more clasping the noxious reptile in our cerns of the church, so long as it suffers the arms, and folding it at least to the bosom members of every denomination of that of the British constitution. God grant it religion to choose their own ministers, and may not again have permission to sting its regulate their own interior economy. France, unguarded and confiding benefactors to though avowedly a Roman Catholic country, death!
S. TUCKER. has set an example, in reference to the sub- Liverpool, 10th February, 1831. ject now under discussion, which it would be well if the British government were to make the model of its own conduct, with Essays.- EVIDENCE FROM SCRIPTURE, respect to all the genuine professors of Bible THAT THE SOUL, IMMEDIATELY AFTER Christianity.
THE DEATH OF THE BODY, IS NOT IN A If the British government should, as I STATE OF SLEEP, &c. —NO. II. think it ought, dissolve its political union
(Continued from p. 118) with the established church, abolish the system of tithes, and sequester all the other It will not be foreign to the subject to inecclesiastical sources of her revenue for the quire, how the sages of Athens and Rome benefit of the nation, I apprehend the latter
came by their notions respecting a futurc would, alone, be amply sufficient to furnish
state. They must either have been innate,
or traditional. an abundant support for all the ministers of the Gospel in the United Kingdom, in a
That they were innate, cannot be proved manner far more becoming the character by the rules of sound logic. For it has of Christian ministers, and congenial to the spirit of their profession, than that which is • To imagine a government or state to be desti.
tute of a religion, recognised by it as national and now in operation, to the disgrace and injury statistical, is to stigmatise that state as worse than of religion.
heathenish. For where is, or ever was, there even Nor can I see any impropriety in allowing ization, that had not its national religion, acknow.
a heathen nation, possessing any portion of civil. certain funds to the erection and repair of ledged, sanctioned, protected, and supported by
the state? Neves, and nowhere, has this disgrace
And will any advocate • 1 Cor. ix. 14.
of the national dignity and prosperity of Englaud,
of human nature existed !
been observed by historians of unquestion consistent among the Europeans, than able veracity, that there have been whole among the Africans, the descendants of tribes and nations, which had no notions of Ham. This leads us to the legitimate conany Supreme Being, and, of course, no mode elusion, that the original inhabitants of the of worship. If then, according to Locke's three grand divisions of the old world, dereasoning, even an individual, perfect in all rived their mode of worship, and their knowhis parts, can be found without innate ideas, ledge of God, from tradition. To this source it will destroy the universality of the doc- the ramified superstitions of Greece and trine, and renderit inapplicable to the human Rome may all be traced; and their encumspecies.
brances will be found to diminish in the But whole tribes have been discovered same ratio as we advance towards their without any innate ideas of God; therefore, origin. The simple rites which distinan innate idea of God is no attribute of the guished the religion of Numa, were comhuman species. * Again, whatever is af- pletely absorbed in the cumbersome superfirmed of the species, must be universally stitions of Augustus. But the Roman affirmed of the individuals which compose superstition was a shoot taken from a that species. If the human species have an Grecian stock : for King Faunus, and his innate knowledge of God, every individual, successors, were the aborigines of Italy, and, having the right use of all his faculties, must having migrated from Arcadia, they would have an innate knowledge of God: but transport their religious opinions with them. thousands of individuals, with the right use The Greek philosophers have no claim to of all their faculties, have not had any innate be the founders of their mythology. Homer knowledge of God; therefore, it is falsely and Hesiod sung their ideal gods and affirmed, that the species have any innate goddesses ages before; they, therefore, can knowledge of God. As, therefore, those only be called the manufacturers and emnotions of the heathen were not innate, they broiderers of the trappings with which they must have been traditional.
adorned their deities. They merely sung and The proof of their knowledge, or rather, embellished the opinions of their fathers. of their crude conceptions of divine things, That the Greeks sprang from Japhet, one having been derived from tradition, may be of the sons of Noah, and who would teach satisfactorily adduced from the generally his posterity the knowledge of a supreme received opinion, that Asia, Africa, and Being, has been shewn by men eminent for Europe, were originally peopled by the de- talents, and celebrated for literature. Rollin scendants of Shem, Ham, and Japhet; observes, that the ancient Greeks were and, as these had all been instructed in the called Ionians, which name they took from knowledge and worship of the true God, Javan, the son of Japhet; the original they would, in proportion as they were in- Hebrew name, 190 by a change in the dividually influenced, communicate the pointing, or rather, without the points, being same to their posterity. As Shem seemed pronounced Iwv*. Bishop Cumberland more devout than Japhet, and Japhet more ascends a step higher, and shews that their so than Ham, we may fairly infer, that the Iafetog was the identical Japhet of the descendants of Shem would propagate the Hebrewst. To these might be added, the knowledge and worship of God more zeale sanction of the learned Bishop Newton. If, ously than those of Japhet, &c.
then, the weight of respectable testimony What is here assumed, is proved by his- give sanction to opinions, we may, withtorical evidence; for the page of history out hesitation, pronounce, that the Greeks attests, that the knowledge and worship of derived their knowledge of a supreme and God, were, for a series of ages, much superintending power from tradition. purer among the Asiatics, the descendants The propriety of these remarks will be of Shem, than among the Europeans, the obvious, when it is recollected, that this is descendants of Japhet; and much more an age, in which a superficial philosophy,
acquired without mental discipline, attempts
to account for every thing without any superplead for her degradation below the rank of hea. thenism itself? No sir, let her state continue to
natural interference; and in which human avow itself, not only Christian, but Protestant reason is panegyrized at the expense of also ; and let it, as such, cherish, protect, and up
divine revelation. hold all its Protestant ecclesiastical establishments with complete liberty of consciencé, extended to Having deviated a little from the direct such, upon all minor and controvertible points, path, it is now time to turn to the pursuit But let it not, at its peril, sanction or protect any religious system hostile to genuine Christianity.
which is to trace " the evidence from So shall the blessing of Heaven be shed upon it, in Scripture, that the soul, immediately after answer to the united prayers of all its truly Chris
# Anc, Hist. b. v. Art. 3. * Orig. Gentium • Essay on Human Under, b. i. ch. 4. & 8.
Tract. vii. ch. 1. On the Prophecies, Dis. I.
PALMER'S MONTHLY REGISTER.
175 the death of the body, is not in a state of another, to which a pencil or point is atsleep, or insensibility, but of happiness or tached. The beam containing the pencil is misery."
J. R. connected by wheelwork with a vertical Huggate, Feb. 24th, 1831.
floating rod, which, by the motion produced (To be continued.),
by the rise and fall of the tide, causes the pencil to move along the upper surface of the cylinder, the wheels being proportional
to the vertical rise or fall of twenty-four MR. PALMER'S MONTHLY TIDE AND WIND
feet, and the length of the cylinder.
It will be seen, then, that the pencil, de. MR. Palmer, the engineer to the London scribing the line of the tide, will have two Dock Company, has invented a machine for motions-one proceeding from that which the purpose of registering the progress of the the cylinder receives from the clock, causing ebb and flow of the tide. It has been our for- it to turn on its axis, which may properly tune to see various tide poles, or tide gauges, be called relative ; the other by the rise or one of which, now in operation at Sheerness, fall of the tide, causing it to move laterally the invention of A. J. Lloyd esq. a Fellow of along the surface of the cylinder; and thus the Royal Society, is certainly very superior will the whole course of the tide, and its proto the rest, but very inferior to the elegant gress every hour, be distinctly traced on the and neat invention of Mr. Palmer. The paper. This, in itself is a most important whole progress of the various tides during point, because it is known that the rise or fall an entire lunation, is not only delineated of the tide is not uniform throughout the six with a scrupulous exactness by this machine, hours of flood or ebb; and it will be here disbut the direction of the wind is also noted tinctly shewn, not only when the maximum or at the same time. What a pity that the minimum of motion occurs, but the amount force of the wayward element could not be of it also in a given space of time, or in also ascertained ; but in this philosophic other words, the libration of the tides will age, when such scruples are made of minute now be fairly investigated. quantities, we must despair of such a thing. Nor are these all the advantages attending Indeed, it would be too much to expect this valuable machine. The direction of from the machine before us, therefore ; the the wind will be faithfully registered every anemometer must still remain on the list of hour; and the motion given to the cylinder desiderata.
by the clock is so slow, and yet sufficient for We are quite aware that no description the intended purpose, that the cylinder will of ours can convey a correct idea of this contain paper of sufficient length to serve valuable machine, and that, to obtain it, re- the purpose of twenty-eight days, or to conference must be had to a close examination tain the register of the tide during an entire of the mode in which it operates, in order lunation. It is the intention of the inventor to appreciate its extraordinary power, as to have it placed in a room immediately well as the tact and ingenuity of its inventor. over a well, into which the tide will be It is small and compact-constructed of admitted through an aperture, protected brass and iron, and when placed on a table, by iron gauze. Thus the efiects of any independent of the floating rod or gauge, external agitation, which the water may does not occupy more than two or three receive from the action of the wind, the
We will endeavour at any passing of ships, or any other local causes, rate to describe it to our readers, and shall will be entirely avoided ; and a complete be satisfied if we only succeed in setting register of the tides will be obtained. forth its useful qualities.
It is impossible to be otherwise than The principal part of Mr. Palmer's tide delighted with this invention of Mr. Palmer, register consists of a cylinder of about two and, perhaps, it could not have started at a feet and a half in circumference; on which more seasonable time than the present, the paper that is to contain the register is when the effect of removing the old London received from a smaller cylinder close to it. bridge will so soon be ascertained, about The large cylinder is made to revolve on its which so many sage opinions have been axis very slowly, by means of the motion promulgated. There may, perhaps, be given to it by a clock; and at the end of enough of these at present, but it seems every hour, the direction of the wind is obvious to us, and we must take the
oppormarked on it, by the impression of a small tunity of recording it, that many parts of arrow, connected with a vane affixed to a the river now above the bridge, will be left staff. A beam is placed along the upper dry, in consequence of the ebb being accepart of the cylinder, the lower part of which lerated by the removal of the bridge; and, contains rack-work, and is traversed by as necessary consequence to this, that the
A TALE OF THE KREMLIN.
Alood-tide will be felt higher up the river, Eudocia, was felt by Sobiesky, while the causing, probably, a partial inundation of irresistibility of an appeal, made without the banks, where they are low, by arresting designing trickery to bis warm heart, by the progress of its natural stream. We beauty, virtue, and simplicity, was acknowunderstand it is intended to establish one of ledged. The thought of separation proMr. Palmer's machines both above and duced in either mind a wild agony, which below the present situation of the bridge, so was scarcely supportable. They knew not, that the register, being instituted before its until now, by what powerful ties they were removal, will enable us to see the effects united; now they felt, even more than they produced, on comparing the observations could distinctly comprehend. They walked with those made afterwards. We expect to up the pathway towards the house, and hear of its being established in all parts of again turned from it—they took the parting the kingdom, so much attention has the embrace, and embraced again ; with their theory of the tides received of late, and so hands locked in each other, they stood a well is it calculated to lay open all its mys- while, as if to say Farewell was impossible, teries. And thus will one of the most in- until at length Eudocia, fearing the call of teresting phenomena of nature be made to her fatherdiscover its own laws, by the most skilful Whisper'd a tremulous faint adieu, and ingenious, yet simple, adaptation of
The echo of a sigli, mechanical means.
and they parted, as few before had ever parted.
Darkness had not yielded to the faint
dawning of day, although its hours had [Concluded from Col. 126.]
commenced, when Chowanskoi, already “ O conspiracy!
fully equiped, entered the apartment of Sham'st thou to show thy dangerous brow by night, Sobiesky. The lamp, which Chowanskoi When evils are most free? (), then, by day, carried, threw its fickering light on the Where wilt thou find a cavern dark enongh To ask thy monstrous visage ? Seek none,
countenance of the heir of Soltikoff, and conspiracy;
presented a face which betokened how ill Hide it in smiles and affability :
at ease the heart was, of which it was the For if thou path thy native semblance on, Not Erebus itself were dim enough
index. Chowanskoi mistook its import, and, To liide thee from prevention."
reading in it a restless desire for revenge, SAAKSPRARB.
urged him to prepare for immediate de
parture. Sobiesky seemed no longer to be The morning, which had been appointed directed by his judgment, or influenced by for the departure of the dwellers in Valdai, choice; but, guided entirely by his long refor Moscow, found Sobiesky far less pre- puted father, he submitted to circumstances, pared for the journey than he had been on without scarcely inquiring what might be some former periods. The powerful desire the issue. Sofily and slowly they left the which he had long felt to visit the abode of house, the only occupants of which, now, royalty had considerably diminished, by the were Eudocia and an aged female relative; communication which Chowanskoi had re- with a trusty man-servant, who had long cently made to him; besides which, the pre- resided with Chowanskoi. Sobiesky stood ceding evening had been spent in pensive a few moments, and gazed, almost diswanderings with Eudocia, round the exten- traction, on the window of Eudocia’s roon, sive garden of her father. The fraternal at- and then, hastily rushing from the garden, tachment which they had from infancy che- left the quiet abode of his youth, and joined rished towards each other, and never was his conductor. attachment of that order more sincere and Our travellers were enveloped in dark endearing, seemed suddenly to have been cloaks, which extended to the calves of the absorbed in one of a yet more tender kind: legs, closely fitted to the body, and ornaso at least Sobiesky felt and expressed ; and, mented with numerous tucks at the bottom if the looks and language proceeding from of the waist, with a broad band, or sash, an hesitating and tremulous voice, accom- bound round the middle. Beneath these panied by suffused cheeks and downcast envelops, they wore, as substitutes for shirts, eyes on the part of Eudocia, might have been a coloured vest of striped linen, and loose interpreted; even a novice in Ovid's school trousers, leaving their legs bare, excepting might have been bold to assert, that her as they were defended by broad folds of feelings were not greatly dissimilar from the same description of material as that of
which their vests were made. Their feet The omnipotence of silent eloquence, were adorned with high shoes, manufacpoured forth from the speaking actions of tured from the bark of the linden tree,
A TALE OF THE KREMLIN,
while a conical' formed hat, with a narrow mind unconsciously drew, between those brim, completed their dress.
• departed joys” and his present circumThe business they were upon demanded stances, was made, a sigh of agony burst secrecy; for suspicion was awake. Hence forth, and his frame shook with a nervous they were obliged to take a circuitous route, convulsion. travelling wild and unfrequented tracts, The Moskwa, which wound its serpentine where the foot-print of a human being was form in the valley of the Kremlin, encombut unfrequently discovered. This precau- passing the royal residence, as it ran totion necessarily detained them a consider- wards the Volga, was passed by the travelable time, and made their journey much lers just as the last ray of light receded. longer than it would otherwise have been. from the heavens, The appearance of
Towards the evening of the seventh day nature, and the deed which was contemsince leaving Valdai, the massive cross, plated, seemed in perfect unison. Darkwhich crowned the lofty tower of the splen- ness sat heavy on our world, and enveloped did temple of Ivan Velikii, glittered in their all things in its sombre pall, as they reached view, like a blazing meteor in the rays of the city. They passed through the Spas. the setting sun; while the eye of Sobiesky, kiya Vorotui, or Gate of our Saviour, and filled with admiration, which for a while crossing from hence one of the plostchads, diverted his thoughts from painful reflec- or ill-shapen squares, into which the town tions, gazed on the cupola beneath the sign is divided, they reached the dark resort of of the Christian faith, which swelled out in some of the disaffected lords and fanatic vast dimensions like a globe of gold. The priests. This was an obscure inn, near the ardent youth would have pushed forwards emperor's residence. Sobiesky was formwith renewed alacrity, spurred on by power- ally introduced to them; and it was shortly ful curiosity, but the wily Chowanskoi, determined to inform the leaders of their who was better informed in reference to the body, of their intention to hold a final connature of their design, in their visit to the sultation that night, in the ruins of an extencity, knew, too, that discretion is the better sive residence contiguous to the palace. part of valour, and that their mission re- The inn, in which the conspirators had quired not less prudence than zeal; and, met, was thronged with Russians of the therefore, at a few versts from the conspira- lower order, who, according to the general lors' rendezvous, amidst the dark woods of custom of their country, were indulging in the Sparrow Hills, he recommended a halt. intoxication and every kind of excess. The Here, covered by the thick foliage of oaks, confusion which prevailed but ill accorded beech, mountain ash, poplars, firs, and with the state of Sobiesky's mind, who, pines, mingled together in endless variéty, amidst the quiet scene of Valdai, had they formed a pleasant and safe retreat, known no interruption to tranquillity, exuntil the day had further declined; here too cepting such as might have been produced they refreshed themselves with the last of by their evening revels, or a village fete. the supply which they had brought with He trembled in the midst of his new assothem from their own cottage.
ciates, and sighed to escape from them. A secret, yet strong revolting of mind, The keen eye of Chowanskoi was fixed upon was experienced by the noble Sobiesky, to him, and, as if he read the workings of his the work in which he had in some measure mind, drawing him aside, like another enlisted. All the information he could gain Zanga, he endeavoured, by professions of from Chowanskoi was, that vengeance was
attachment to his father's memory, and decalled for, and that it would be speedily ob- votion to the interests of his son, to lull to tained. In vain had he, at several periods quiet every aroused suspicion, and every during their journey, inquired the names awakened sentiment, either of fear or reand characters of the conspirators: once morse, and thus to secure him to his purmore, while seated in their woody covert, pose. he pressed Chowanskoi to satisfy his curio. “ To you, Sobiesky," observed the subsity; but, as before, he could gain nothing; tile director, “ the eyes of numbers are an obstinate silence was maintained on the turned, while each person, animated with a subject. Sobiesky's mind misgave him; noble spirit of revenge, feels anxious to atand, to divert its bitterness, he looked back tend your bidding ; this night they purpose to the happy days he had spent with Eu. to hail you as their chief, assured that neidocia, in the seclusions of Valdai, and ther skill nor courage can be wanting in the thought, with the ancient bard of Scotia- offspring of the brave Count Soltikoff. The “ Pleasant is the recollection of joys that are
reeking blood of your murdered sire,” conpassed;"
tinued he, “ no less than the degraded staand yet, when the comparison, which his tion to which you are reduced, calls upon 2D. SERIES, No. 4.- vol. I.