« AnteriorContinuar »
first publicly observed, in order to shew his utter Instance of Judicial Impartiality.-"In the contempt of Christian institutions, he determined autumn of 1822, the green of Tahiti, the widow of to profane the day “ in detiance of Jehovah." He Pomare, visited Huahine. Her attendants, who repaired, for this purpose, to some grounds in the followed in her train from Tahiti, requiring a piece neighbourhood of the temple, and engaged in of timber, she directed them to cut down a bread. erecting a fence; but while thus einployed, his fruit tree, growing in the garden of a poor man career of impiety was suddenly ariested. The on the opposite side of the bay, near which her twig of a tree came in contact with bis eyes ; al. own residence stood. Her orders were obeyed, most instant blindness followed; and, like Elymas, and the tree was carried away. Teuhe, the owner he was led home by his affrighted companions, who of the spot on which it stood, returning in the considered it a visitation from the Almighty.
evening to his cottage, saw that the spoiler had " I had frequent interviews with him afterwards, been there: the stump was bleeding, and the boug bis one in the precincts of his own temple, which I lay strewed around, but the stately trunk was visited in company with Messrs. Bennet, Tyerman, gone. Informed by bis neighbours that the queen's and Barff. His spirit was subdued: he subse. men had cut it down, he repaired to the magistrate quently became a humble, and, we trust, sincere of the district, and lodged a complaint against her disciple of that blessed Redeemer whom he had majesty the queen. The magistrate directed him persecuted. He died trusting in the merits of to come to the place of public justice the following Christ for acceptance with God the Father. The morning at sun-rise, and substantiate his charge : history of the conversion of the great apostle to he afterwards sent his servant to the queen, and the Gentiles interested and affected himn much ; and invited her attendance at the same hour. The next though the scales on his bodily eyes were not morning, as the sun rose above the horizon, Ori, removed, but his blindness continued until his the magistrate, was seen sitting in the open air, death, which occurred in 1824, such was the im- beneath the spreading branches of a venerable tree; pression which analogy of circumstances produced, on a finely-woven mat before him, sat the queen, that when he presented himself for baptism, he attended by her train ; beside her stood the native desired to be called Paul."-p. 10.
peasant ; and around them all, what may be termed Animated Description.-“ Sometimes we have the police-officers. Turning to Teube, the magis. been six, nine, or twelve months on the island of trate inquired for what purpose they had been Huahine, and during that, or a longer period, convened. The poor man said, that in his garden have seen no individual, except our own two grew a bread-fruit tree, whose shade was grateful families, and the natives. At length, the shout, to the inmates of his cottage, and whose fruit, with E pahi! e pahi! "A ship! a ship !"' has been that of those which grew around, supported his heard from some of the losty mountains near our fainily for five or seven months in every year; but dwelling. The inhabitants on tbe shore have caught that, yesterday, some one had cut it down, as he the spirit-stirring sound, and " A ship! a ship!” had been informed, by order of the queen. He has been echoed, hy stentorian or juvenile voices, knew that they had laws-he bad thought those from one end of the valley to the other. Numbers laws protected the poor man's property, as well as Rock to the projecting rocks or the high promoni- that of kings and chiefs ; and he wished to know tories, others climb the cocoa-nut tree, to obtain a whether it was right, that, without his knowledge glance of the desired object. On looking out, over the or consent, the tree should have been cut down. wide-spread ocean, to behold the distant sail, our “ The magistrate, turning to the queen, asked first attempt has been to discover how many masts if she had ordered the tree to be cut down! She she carried ; and then, what colours she displayed ; answered, 'Yes.' He then asked if she did not and it is impossible to describe the sensations know that they had laws ? She said · Yes, but excited on such occasions, when the red British she was not aware that they applied to her.' The banner has waved in the breeze, as a tall vessel, magistrate, asked if in those laws (a copy of which under all her swelling canvass, has moved towards he held in his band) there were any exceptions in our isolated abode.
favour of chiefs, or kings, or queens ?
She * We have seldom remained on shore till a vessel answered 'No' and despatched one of her attend. has entered the harbour, but have launched our ants to her house, who soon returned with a bag boat, manned with nativé rowers, and, proceeding of dollars, which she threw down before the poor to meet the ship, have generally found ourselves man, as a recompense for his loss. Stop,' said alongside, or on deck, before she had reached the the magistrate,' we have not done yet.' The queen anchorage. At the customary salutations, if we began to weep. 'Do you think it right that you have learned that the vessel was direct from should have cut down the tree, without asking the England, and, as was frequently the case, from owner's permission ?' continued the magistrate. London, our hopes have been proportionably It was not right,' said the queen. Then, turning raised ; yet we have scarcely ventured to ask the to the poor man, he asked, 'What remuneration captain if he has brouglit us any tidings, lest his do you require ?" Teuhe answered, “If the queen reply in the negative should dispel the anticipations is convinced that it was not right to take a little his arrival had awakened. If he has continued man's tree without his permission, I am sure she silent, we have inquired whether he had brought will not do it again. I am satisfied. I require no any supplies ; if he has answered No, a pause has other recompense.' His disinterestedness was apensued; after which, we bave inqnired whether he plauded ; the assembly dispersed; and afterwards, had any letters; and if to this the same reply has i think, the queen sent him privately a present been returned, our disappointment has been as equal to the value of the tree."-p. 214. distressing, as our former hopes had been exhilarating. We have remarked, that probably our friends in England did not know of his departure.
We had marked some additional extracts This has been, we believe, the ordinary cause why
for insertion, but other articles warn us to so many ships have arrived in the islands from England without bringing us any intelligence, desist. They are, however, too interesting except what we could gather from two or three to be wholly omitted, and are, therefore, odd newspapers that have been lying about the cabin. Though it has been some alleviation to
reserved for our ensuing number. In the believe, that, had our friends known of the con- meanwhile, the selections now before the veyance, they would have written : yet the relief
reader cannot fail, by making a strong imthus afforded is but trifling, compared with the pain resulting from the absence of more satis- pression on his mind, to awaken an earnest factory communications. Notwithstanding the solicitude for the welfare of these amiable length of time we had often been without seeing natives; and we feel assured, that a perusal cepting in our own families, we would, in general, of these volumes must tend to increase the rather the vessel had not at that time arrived, than
favourable emotions that may have been that such arrival should have brought us nu intelligence."-p. 162.
REVIEW.-NATURE, REALITY, ETC. OF TIIE ATONEMENT. 331 REVIEW.— The Nature, Reality, and of the atonement, the revealed will of God,
Efficacy of the Atonement. By Daniel and then urges his grand inquiry,—Is this Dewur, LL.D. Minister of the Tron doctrine clearly and unequivocally made Church, Glasgow. 12mo pp. 552. known in the sacred scriptures, or are the Whittaker, London, 1831.
supposed intimations of such a doctrine The doctrine of the atonement is so closely so vaguely and doubtfully expressed, that connected with the divinity of our Lord, the passages, in which it is presumed to be that they must stand or fall together. With- included, will fairly allow a negative interout his divinity, no atonement could be pretation ? made; and without an atonement, his divi- In prosecuting this inquiry, Dr. Dewar nity would be in vain. These two im- ranges through the Old Testament and the portant doctrines constitute the great and New, surveys types, symbols, sacrifices, distinguishing characteristics of the gospel. and ceremonial rituals, and thence adverts They remove the whole system beyond the to the great antitype who was appointed dominion of philosophical decision, and to take away sin by the offering of himself direct us to seek its fundamental principles once for all. On this great subject he has in the justice, love, and mercy of God. made it clearly to appear, that the lan
Philosophy, without all doubt, is of ce- guage of scripture is unambiguous and exlestial birth, but, with some few exceptions, plicit; that the whole tenor and genius of in its application, it is of the earth, and revelation inculcate this doctrine ; and that, earthly. In the affairs of this life it is our admitting the bible to be true, no art, no great and surest guide : arts and sciences sophistry, no ingenuity, can ever separate are its legitimate offspring; and the regions it from the sacred pages. From this mode of thought acknowledge its authority, and of arguing, and the luminous evidence with yield submission to its dictates.
which he is every where surrounded, it But when, from this ample range, we may be fairly inferred, that, if the atonement turn to the gospel of Christ, we enter an of Christ be not a doctrine of scripture, the empire over which philosophy can hold no bible is one of the greatest deceptions that commanding dominion. It is a higher, was ever sent into the world ; and that, a brighter, a more elevated region, in which under a pretence of unfolding a way in which faith expands her sails, and mounts from God can be just, and yet the justifier of philosophy to the throne of God. Some- him that believes in Jesus, it is a book of times, indeed, philosophy participates in imposition, calculated to delude mankind. her excursions, but the pilotage, the helm, To Unitarian objections the author has and the compass are never committed to paid. particular attention ; and from the
In her own element, philosophy cavils of philosophy, he appeals to the may issue commands, and exact obedience, authority of scripture. Even upon a supbut here she must frequently bow in ho- position, that God, through mere mercy, mage to a superior spirit
, and follow with could pardon sin without an atonement, humility the progress of her celestial guide, this, he contends, cannot take from him the while traversing through ethereal spaces, and power to pardon sin through an atonement. soaring to everlasting day.
He who can pardon without it, must be On the contrary, there are times and equally able to pardon through it; and seasons, when the religion of the gospel then it becomes no longer a question of condescends to visit the abode of phi- mere possibility, but a question of fact. losophy, and to submit to the inspection of To decide this, he appeals to the sacred all her votaries. But when, from hence, word, which asssure us, that the Lord hath these votaries attempt to infer that she is at laid on him (Christ) the iniquity of us all.” all times under their control, and ame- Having established the certainty and the nahle to their tribunal, she frowns at their necessity of the atonement, upon an impresumption, and forbids them to touch moveable basis, Dr. Dewar adverts to its what they cannot comprehend.
objects and the extent of its application. It is in a light somewhat analogous to It has, he observes, been made a question, this, that Dr. Dewar surveys the doctrine of whether the atoning sacrifice of the Rethe atonement. He views it, not as a dictate deemer was offered for all mankind, or or discovery of philosophy, but as a truth exclusively on behalf of those who shall in which God has condescended to reveal ; the event be saved by him. In discussing as a branch of that system through which this question, he takes the limited or Calhe displays his mercy, and makes his sal. vinistic side, and argues as follows : vation known to sinners.
1. “That the scriptures expressly affirm, that Partially disregarding the disquisitions of
Christ saves his people from their sins, and laid
down his life for the sheep. 2. That his death philosophy, Dr. Dewar claims, as the basis as an atonement for sin, is restricted to those who
have been given to him by the Father. 3. It is Leaving, however, the theological sentiargued from the connexion between the atonement of Christ and his intercession. 4. This position
ments of Dr. Dewar, as to the extent of the is maintained, on the ground of the connexion atonement in its application, we readily between the gift of the Son, and the gift of the admit, that, on the atonement itself, he has Christ to those for whom he died. 6. This doctrine produced an admirable treatise. is maintained, from the nature of Christ's, sureti. subject that has been so frequently handled, ship. 7. From Christ having merited faitli, bo. liness, and eternal life, for those for whom he it is not to be supposed that original matter died."'--p. 386.
is exclusively introduced. Of the writings Yet, strange as it may appear, Dr. of others be bas readily availed himself, Dewar, in a subsequent page, notwithstand and arguments that have seen much service ing the preceding restrictions, thus argues he has re-enlisted. To these he has added for the universal offer and universal accept- many judicious observations of his own, ance of Christ for salvation.
the whole of which he has so arranged, as “The language of scripture abundantly proves to give to his treatise an aspect of origithat God commandeth all men every where to repent ; and that all men, without any exception nality, and to invest the great subject on or limitation, are enjoined to believe in Christ for
which he has employed his talents and his acceptance and eternal life. This may justly be considered as the first and the great commandment
pen, with a character and importance, and which God issues to sinful men by the gospel ; and a blaze of light, which nothing but the Sun obedience to this is indispensably necessary, on their part, to prove their disposition to return to
of righteousness could impart. God. To refuse obedience to this, is to remain That the atonement of Christ is a doctrine unreconciled to God, and to be chargeable with
of scripture, whoever reads this volume that unbelief which is represented in scripture as the special ground of condemnation. He that with attention must be fully convinced. believeth not is condemned already, because he Avowing this conviction, we most heartily hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
concur in the sentiment of Soame Jenyns, “ This express warrant to every member of the which the author has expressed in the folfamily of man to believe on Christ for salvation is lowing paragraph, that occurs in his prein perfect accordance with what the gospel requires face; and with this quotation we must mankind to believe. What, ther, does the revelation of mercy require those to whom it is addressed to take our leave of Dr. Dewar and his believe? Is it not that all have come short of the glory of God; that their salvation is not to be
volume. found in themselves ; and that they cannot be
" That Christ suffered and died as an atonement accepted or justitied by their services ? Are they
for the sins of mankind, is a doctrine so constantly not commanded to rest in Christ as an all sufficient
and so strongly enforced throughout every part of Saviour, who is able to save to the uttermost all the New Testament, that whoever will seriously who come unto God by him, and to bear the burden peruse these writings, and deny that it is there, of the weary and the heavy-laden ? Is not each may, with as much reason and truth, after reading required to believe the intinite value and efficacy
the works of Thucydides and Livy, assert, that in of the blood of Christ to make him free, humbly
them no mention is made of any facts relative to trusting to it, from all condemnation, and to cleanse
the histories of Greece and Rome." him from all unrighteousness ?"-p. 392.
On the preceding passages we will offer no other remark than what is expressed in REVIEW.— The Canon of the Old and the following quotation, from the late cele
New Testament ascertained, or the brated and candid Robert Hall, in a letter
Bible complete without the Apocrypha to a friend :
and unwritten Traditions. By Archi. “I do think you have steered a happy medium between the rigidity of Calvinism, and the laxness
bald Alexander, D.D. With Introducof Arminianism, and have succeeded in the solution tory Remarks, by John Morison, D.D. of the grand difficulty—the consistency betwixt
12mo. pp. 430. Miller, London, 1831. general offers and invitations, and the speciality of divine grace. This interesting question is handled Tue professed object of this work conveys with masterly ability. On this point, the repre. sentation of Calvinists has long appeared to me
an idea of its importance.
Unless the very defective, and that, fettered by their system, canon of scripture can be clearly ascertainthey have by no means gone so far in encouraging ed, faith is without a resting-place, and and urging sinners to the use of the scriptures, self-examination, &c. as the scrip- practice without a guide. By learned tures justify. Here the Arminians, such of them christian divines this point has indeed long as are evangelical, have had greatly the advantage of the Calvinists in pleading with sinners. I lent
since been examined and decided ; but the your book to B., who is much pleased with it, and learned languages to which they constantly only wishes you had expressed yourself more fully refer, and the irrelevant matter with which
of death. I think you have asserted it by implication, though the investigations stand connected, have I wish you had asserted it unequi I am fully persuaded that it is a doctrine of scripe placed the benefit of these disquisitions beture, and that it forms the only consistent basis yond the reach of general readers. of unlimited invitation. I think that the most To detach the evidence on which the enlightened Calvinists are too reserved on this head, and that their refusal to declare, with the authenticity of the canon of scripture rests concurrent testimony of scripture, that Christ died from all foreign matter, to concentrate its esfor all men, tends to confirm the prejudices of the Methodists and others against election and special
sence, to bring the whole within a narrow grace."- Imperial Magazine for May, 1831, p. 216. compass, and to render it intelligible to
REVIEW.-CANON OF SCRIPTURE-KNOX'S REFORMATION. 333 common capacities, is one great object that tudes and manner of descent. The referMr. Alexander has had in view. Another ence made to these books by Christ and is, to shew that the Bible complete, con- his apostles, shews the exalted rank which taining all things necessary to guide the they sustained in their estimation. Our faith and practice of every sincere christian; Lord and his followers would never have and that the church is in possession of no appealed to an authority as divine, which other revelation, but what is recorded in they must have known to be spurious, upon these sacred books.
a supposition that their authors had not Mr. Alexander informs us, in his preface, been inspired by the Holy Spirit. that a considerable portion of the materials Respecting the canon of the New Testaused in composing this treatise, have been ment, nearly the same method is employed, derived from others; and, in a subsequent as that to which we have adverted in referparagraph, he gives the names of several ence to the Old. The books which comauthors, to whose works he acknowledges pose the New Testament were received as himself to be indebted. These selected genuine in the days of the apostles, and the materials, in connexion with his own ob- concurrent testimonies and appeals of chrisservations, he has wrought into their present tian writers in every succeeding age, carry form, and thus given completion to a onward the links in this chain of evidence, volume, which cannot fail to prove highly till it is connected with the present day. acceptable to every christian reader. These successive links Dr. Alexander has
Dr. Alexander is professor of theology, adduced in consecutive order; and, in conin Prince-town College, New Jersey, in nexion with the internal evidence which the America, in which country this work first books afford, they place them on a foundation emanated from the press, and obtained a which never can be removed, until all concirculation. Time brought it across the At- fidence in every species of historical testilantic, and under the auspices of Dr. Mo- mony shall be finally banished from the rison, a new edition, in England, is just world. brought before the public.
The objections to which various passages In contending for the all-sufficiency and and occurrences, both in the Old Testament exclusive authority of scripture, the author and the New, are liable, the author distinctly sternly sets his face against Jewish tradi- notices, and fairly meets. Much force is tions under the old testament, and the concentrated in his reasonings, and brought dictates of all churches under the new, and to bear upon his imbodied evidence; and, argues, that no pretence to infallibility can in the confidence which integrity inspires, sanction any community to teach for doc- he submits the result of his researches and trines the commandments of men. On testimonials to the judgment of an impartial these points, his reasonings are clear and public; from whom, we are fully persuaded, convincing. His premises appear founded he may expect a favourable decision. on a rock of adamant, his inductions are firmly linked, and his conclusions are irre. sistible.
Review.- The History of the Reformation In discriminating between the canonical of Religion in Scotland. By John Knox. books of scripture, and such as are apocry
To which are uppended several other phal, whether those bound up with the pieces of his Writings. By William Old Testament, or others with whose names
M'Gavin, Esq. Complete in 1 vol. 8vo. we are less familiar, the author adduces all pp. 650. Blackie and Co., Edinburgh. the evidence that can be expected, and the
1831. reasons which he assigns why, among the While Scotland lives, the name of John candidates for acceptance, some were re
Knox will never die. The fame of this ceived while others were rejected, are suffi- man is so blended with the history of his cient to satisfy the inquiries of every intelli- country, that the renown of its most celegent mind. Under all such circumstances, brated kings, philosophers, and heroes, is claims lead to examination, and this in the not more secure of immortality. present case has led to a decision, which On the pedestal of the Reformation, John nothing but infidelity and scepticism will Knox occupies one of the most conspicuous
stations; and so deeply are the characters The canon of the Old Testament Mr. engraven, in which his name is written, Alexander fixes on the basis of Ezra, who, that time will never be able to hide them under the influence of plenary inspiration, from posterity. The works of this extraorestablished an era in the history of the dinary man are so well known, and so duly sacred books, which relieves inquiry from appreciated, throughout the British empire, all anxiety respecting their previous vicissi- that every foe to papal tyranny must rejoice
dare to impugn.
to see them transmitted to future generations. he had not where to lay his head. Yet, His stern integrity, inflexibility of principle, through every trouble, his Almighty Father and unconquerable zeal, were adapted to preserved him, so that, after passing even the times in which he lived ; and to his through fire and water, through perils both memory they have erected a monument at home and abroad, and escaping both the formed of more durable materials, than that faggot and the sword, at the age of sixtywhich his grateful countrymen have reared seven, he ended his days in peace, in the in the city of Glasgow.
We know not what futurity may evolve. The laying the foundation stone of a Prognostics sometimes appear, which tell us, monument erected in Glasgow, to the that the period is not remote, when the memory of this extraordinary man, must active integrity of Knox will again be have been an imposing spectacle. Of this required. His name and character, there- solemn ceremony, a detailed account is fore, being hung on high, may operate as a given in this volume. A description of the bright example in seasons of future peril. process, and a record of the speeches de Some future Knox may catch his mantle livered on the occasion, and in connexion and his spirit, and, imitating his great ex- with it, furnish decisive evidence, that the ploits, perpetuate his deeds in a newly im- great principles of the Reformation are still bodied form.
retained in Scotland, and surveyed with the In the present edition of this work, is in- most profound veneration. Could the ancluded the first book of discipline complete, cestors of the present generation witness and the dispute of Knox with the Abbot of their spirit and their deeds, they would Crossraguel, which have not hitherto been find no occasion to mourn over a degenerate connected with the history of the reforma- offspring. tion of religion in Scotland.
Of the work itself, “ The History of the An advertisement, prefixed to this volume, Reformation of Religion in Scotland,” little informs us that
deed be said. It is replete with valuable " The introduction, written by Mr. M'Garin, matter, and is so marked by the local inci. contains an historical sketch of the state of religion dents and occurrences with which it is in Scotland, from the introduction of Christianity: interspersed, that the entertainment it affords prising a period of twelve centuries : and, although can only be rivalled by the important inthe materials of history, during this dark period, formation which it communicates. But the are but scanty, there is enough to show, that ori. ginally the church of Scotland was independent of
merits of this work are too well known to any foreign jurisdiction ; that her ritual was com- require either elucidation or eulogium. paratively simple and unostentatious, and how she
The letters at the close of the volume, became gradually affected by the errors of popery, and then subject to the See of Rome. The editor which passed between Mr. Quentin and has also subjoined notes to the history, for expla; John Knox, are written with much acuteness; nation or elucidation; and occasional biographical notices of eminent characters, whose names occur and in the disputation which is recorded, in the text."
all the auditors must have been deeply inThis prefatory matter is not mere pro- terested. Even to the present moment, fession. What the editor has promised, he after a lapse of centuries, and notwithhas fully performed. The sketch which he standing the great changes that have taken has drawn is luminous and comprehensive, place in church and state, the reasonings and although “ shadows, clouds, and dark- retain a considerable portion of their pristine ness rest upon” some portions of the periods vigour. To the cause which the intrepid through which the preliminary history is reformer defended, with so much ability, traced, a sufficiency remains, to mark the we feel, when reading these disputations, an progress of events, and to connect incidents increased attachment, and seem to share in which sometimes appear to have nothing the triumphs which he achieved. To us, more than an isolated existence.
indeed, they appear at present as matters of The biography of Knox, which follows the history; but of the arguments employed so introduction, though brief, is full of interest. successfully, we never ought to lose sight. It embraces the principal events and vicis- Occasions may arise, when it will be neces. situdes of his life, follows him from the sary to call them again into operation; and pulpit to the galley, and from an exile in a no generation should disregard the reasonforeign country, to an influence in his own, ings employed to establish momentous before which the power of cardinals and of propositions, from a conviction of their bishops trembled, and was glad to retreat. being true. While popery has defenders, The life of this wonderful man was passed the works of John Knox should never be in a state of almost incessant excitement; consigned to oblivion : and the present alarm and danger constantly surrounded his edition is calculated to invest them with dwelling, and frequently pursued him when renewed vigour.