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REVIEW. -- MILNER'S HISTORY OF THE CHURCH.

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REVIEW.- The History of the Church of not with the sanctity of their parents, but with the

faithfulness of an electing God.' And here he Christ, in Continuation of Milner, 8c.

refers to Romans xi. For the latter conclusion By John Scott, M.A. Vol. III. 8vo. concerning children generally, he quotes Rom. v. Seeley, London, 1831.

though he admits we have but little light upon the subject. He rejects the idea that baptism

wasbes a way original sin and condemnation. The WE hardly know whether it be more blessing, be says, is not tied to signs and symbols : mournful or pleasant, to go back through de- baptism recognizes and attests the privilege, rather

than confers it. What scripture authority, he parted ages, and drag from their half-for

asks, is there for ascribing such an effect to gotten slumbers the causes of commotions baptism? which then agitated the religious world,

“In this paper he also introduces his sentiment,

elsewhere more fully stated, concerning the virand fed the unholy fires which burned in tuous beathen. He speaks of the faith of Seneca, the bosoms of men. It is melancholy to

and quotes, as an instance of it, the well-known

sentence-'We ought so to live, as if some one reflect on the stern contention which gave could look into our hearts ; and indeed there is fierceness to the malignant passions, and

ONE who can do it.' Who,' he asks, 'first incalled into active operations a spirit which

planted this faith in Seneca's heart ?' and he

argues in support of his opinion, from such men the gospel disavows; but it is gratifying to shewing the work of the law written in their know, that we have fallen on more auspicious bearts, Rom. ii. The sentiment which he thus

maintains, he says, does not supersede Christ, days; and we may learn, from the contrast, but, on the contrary, extends his glory ; as it is to estimate and hold fast the privilege which through him alone that their (supposed) faith is

implanted, and that they themselves are accepted, we enjoy.

though they know him not."--- p. 143. In the preface to this volume, Mr. Scott vindicates Calvin from the charge of causing

That so much liberality should exist in the death of Servetus; but the defence ap- any mind at the period to which we are pears less powerful than the accusation. referred, is rather a matter of surprise than To what extent the great reformer was ac- of expectation. Intolerance was the order cessary to the burning of this unhappy of the day; and but few were thought victim of relentless and malicious bigotry, sound in the faith, who did not piously we presume not to determine. The accounts anathematize all who happened to differ transmitted to us are conflicting and con

from them. The liberal sentiments of tradictory, and no means of ascertaining Zwingle seems almost too much for the the actual truth are now within our reach. nineteenth century; for, on the quotations The death of Servetus is, however, a blot

we have given, Mr. Scott makes the folwhich has adhered to the character of lowing observations. Calvin through all generations, since the “On this subject I refer the reader to Dr. Milevent took place, and no human efforts can

ner's remarks : only adding an expression of

deeply painful regret, that there should appear, in now efface the stain.

point of fact, so little to support the conclusion, Entering on the great subjects of his work,

that the moral virtue of the class of persons

referred to, was such, or sprang from such a Mr. Scott traces the progress of the Refor

principle, as might constitute it, in any sense, the mation on the continent from state to state, obedience of faith ; and arguing, from the case of adverts to the difficulties it had to encounter,

these heathen philosophers, to whom the gospel

was offered, so little to countenance the idea that and marks its perseverance and ultimate they had any such faith as was ready to receive triumphs. Many of the distinguished in- the gospel when proposed to it.”-p. 145. dividuals who bore their part on the great

But, notwithstanding the liberality distheatre of action, are brought before

played by Zwingle in the preceding and, from numerous quotations selected from their works, we may perceive the good old orthodoxy of the times, as the

extract, he was not a dissenter from the doctrines which they taught, the disputes following short passage will most decidedly in which they engaged, and the manner

evince.
in which they employed their talents and
their

“ Predestination must be irrespective of human pens.

works, performed or foreseen, otherwise the deterIn quoting the epistles of Zwingle, and minations of the Creator are made dependent on analyzing their contents, the following ob

the actions of the creature ; and we vainly imagine

ourselves to be, or to become, something of our. servations occur, respecting infants and selves, before God could decide anything concerning heathens.

us."-p. 223, “Having discussed the disease, he comes to Here it is but just to state, that Mr. consider the remedy, which is to be found in Christ

Scott most decidedly differs from the pasalone.

And he believes it certainly to extend to all who are born under the Christian cove. sage above quoted. He pronounces it to nant, so that none shall perish without their be a conclusion repugnant, not only to all own actual transgression. He trusts also, that this blessing extends to infants universally. For the

our notions of justice and goodness, but to former couclusion he argues from the covenant ori. all those views which the scriptures lead ginally made with Abraham and his seed, and now us to take of the divine proceedings, and extended to Christians. I connect this freedom of infants (from the condemnation of original sin, contradictory to their statements at large.

us,

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Why these dogmas of polemic secta: follow Prince William-Henry through his rianism should be mixed up with what education, his novitiate while holding a subis professedly a Continuation of Milner's ordinate station in the navy, his progressive Church History, may well become a sub- gradation, the service he has seen, the conject of inquiry. Even the passive-power flicts in which he was engaged, his travels hypothesis of the late Dr. Williams has and voyages, and final advancement to the found its way into a note, the introduction command which his naval abilities merited. of which we cannot but think exceedingly Advanced to the honour of Lord High irrelevant. This appears still more Admiral, events full of interest respecting markable when, on turning to the preface, his Majesty will thicken round the biograthe author, on referring to the opinions en- pher's pen, and every step from that station tertained respecting Calvin, observes — to the elevated pinnacle on which he sits, “ It is needless to say, that I take my will render all his actions momentous, both station with neither party. In such a diver- to us and to posterity. Before the able sity of opinion, one only course is open, biographer can overtake his Majesty in his the course of honesty and independence, career through life, the new Parliament rewhich I would aim every where to pursue. cently formed will have assembled, and,

To the quantity of valuable matter in- with such a monarch at their head, and mincorporated in this volume, we can hardly isters of the first abilities, the issues which assign any measure or limits. It lays open may be brought about, baffle all calculation. the arcana of the Reformation; and, touch- At all events, the discussions and enacting those springs of action which were so ments, that are on the eve of bursting upon powerful in their effects, brings before us us, will give a zest to this memorial, which, those venerable characters who, in the from what we have already seen, and what hand of God, were rendered instrumental may be expected, promises, independently in breaking the fetters of papal tyranny. of the plates with which it will be embel.

On looking through the whole, surveying lished, to be one of the most popular works the power and prejudice to be opposed and of the present day. overcome, and the apparently inefficient means by which the mighty revolution was to be effected, we cannot but behold the Review.-O.xford, a Poem. By Robert finger of God working, through human

Montgomery. 8vo. pp. 258. Whittaker, agency, in delivering a faithful and zealous

London, 1831. people from a pretended infallible church, that by its enormities had become thé The several masterly poems which this curse of the christian world.

author has sent into the world, have so far extended his fame, and excited public expec

tation, that Oxford must be an extraordinary Review.The Life and Times of Eng, production indeed, if, on its appearance,

land's Patriot King,William IV. his readers felt nó disappointment. The With a Brief Memoir of Her Majesty Queen Adelaide. By John Watkins, and the greater the genius which it displays,

more highly any composition is finished, LL.D. Fisher, Son, and Jackson, the more strongly solicitude is awakened, London, 1831.

when, from the same pen, any thing new is No monarch, perhaps, ever ascended the about to appear; and no one seems satisfied, throne of his ancestors with more sincere unless the last shall excel all that have pregratulations from his people than William ceded it, how excellent soever they may IV.; and since the sceptre has been in his have been. We seem to think no limits hands, the enthusiasm of the people has can be set to the human powers, that they been unbounded. The frankness of his always ascend in progression, towards a manners, and the popularity of his mea- zenith of ideal perfection, of which no one sures, will form a new era in the biography presumes to give a definition. of kings, and hold him out as a bright ex- Such is precisely the relation in which ample for his successors to imitate. Mr. Montgomery stands with the public.

Of this very popular monarch, the work They had noticed his capabilities, and before us delineates the life, and bids fair learning that he was again about to pay to share in the triumphs of patriotism which them a visit, hastened before him to the it records. It is being published in num- most elevated mount that lay within the bers and parts, and is rendered doubly in- range of their conception, to wait his arteresting, by adverting to the events which rival, and behold him soaring so far above were associated with his Majesty's early all his former productions, as those proyears. So far as this work has proceeded, we ductions had originally exceeded their

REVIEW.-OXFORD, A POEM.

337 former expectations. They saw him ap

Develops all that makes our being great,

And links a human tu immortal state ?"-p. 11. proach with Oxford in his hand, the map of which, both in ancient and modern From thus awarding to intellect the claims times, he has spread before them; but not of superiority over the splendours of empire, finding it to abound with those transcendent the author conducts us to Oxford, the scene sublimities and beauties which corresponded of his poem, where intellect was nobly culwith their romantic imaginations, and tivated in former years, by men who em

The which perhaps no human mind can yield, bellish his pages with their names. the meed of praise has been but sparingly same causes, with equal application, still awarded to the merits of his muse.

produce the same effects; and if, in the In his survey of Oxford, Mr. Montgo- present age, universities are deficient in mery notices its origin, history, appearance, producing their due proportion of intellecvicissitudes, improvements, and incidents, tual greatness, it argues a defect in appliand calls our attention to the great, the cation, or a laxity somewhere, that cannot mighty, the learned, and singular indi- be surveyed without regret. viduals whom it has produced. Of their

We have heard it hinted, that, by the times and characters he has furnished an publication of this poem, Mr. Montgomery epitomized outline, and interspersed the has given great offence to some Oxonians, whole with reflections' suggested by the and on one occasion a foolish attempt was evanescence of earthly greatness, and the made to defame it with burlesque. 'There revolutions which the progress of time

can be little doubt that in the various coleffects. If these reflections are not profound, leges of Oxford great diversity of character, they are always judicious; they spring from appears. Some of these, whose morals will the occasions to which they refer, and never

not bear the light, on beholding the following tire the reader by their tedious prolixity.

pictures, may suspect that the poet is perIn the opening of this poem, Mr. Mont- sonal, and feel displeased at the faithfulness

of his mirror. gomery proposes this question :

He weaves his robes, and

leaves those to put them on, who think that “What makes the glory of a mighty land, Her people famous, and her hist'ry grand ?

they are adapted to their stature, their shape, Is it, that earth has felt her vast control,

and their deformity. Far as the wind can sweep, or ocean roll: That ships and merchandise her ports bedeck,

" But who can languish through a hideous hour, And navies thunder at her awful beck!

When heart is dead, and only wine hatlı power ? That grandeur walks each street, arrays each dome,

That brainless meeting of congenial fools, And in her temples hails a second Rome ?

Whose highest wisdom is to hate the schools, Though power and greatness, those almighty two,

Discuss a tandem, or describe a race, That move the world, and teach what man cau do,

And d-- the proctor with a solemn face, In every age has thus some empire blest,

Swear nonsense wit, and intellect a sin, And Alp-like reared their thrones above the rest;

Loll o'er the wine, and asininely grin! Yet what remains of all that once hath been ? Hard is the doom, when awkward chance decoys The billows welter where the ports were seen!

A moment's homage to their brutal joys. The wild-grass quivers o'er their mangled piles,

What fogs of dulness fill the heated room, And winter moans along the archless aisles;

Bedimm d with smoke, and poisoned with perfume Wbere once they flourished, ruins grimly tell,

Where now and then some rattling soul awakes, And shade the air with melancholy spell;

In oaths of thunder, till the chamber shakes! While from their wreck a tide of feeling rolls,

Then midnight comes, intoxicating maid ; In awful wisdom through reflective souls 1"-p. 10.

What heroes snore, beneath the table laid ;

But still reserved, to upright posture true, Having thus assigned to power and great

Beliold ! how stately are the sterling few :ness the honours which they have a right Decanters triumph, and the drunkard fails :

Soon o'er their sodden nature wine prevails, to claim, and found that “the paths of As weary tapers at some wondrous rout, glory lead but to the grave," the question

Their strength departed, winkingly go out.

Each spirit flickers till its light is o'er, is again renewed in reference to mind. And all is darkness that was drunk before."-p. 62. “ What then alone omnipotently reigns,

The shocking scene which follows is enWhen empires grovel on deserted plains, In sun-like grandeur to outdare the night,

veloped in shades of a still deeper chaThat time engenders o'er their vanished might ? racter than the preceding, and, from its "Tis mind, an imunortality below

being too dark to be applicable to any That gilds the past, and bids the future glow; "Tis mind, heroic, pure, devoted mind,

members of the university in modern days, To God appealing for corrupt mankind,

the Oxonians may resent it as a libel on Reflecting back the image that he gave, Ere sin began, or earth became a slave i

their reputation. We shall rejoice to find “ Exalting thought I wlien ages are no more, that the imputation is unjust, and gladly Like sunken billows on a far-off shore, A second life in lofty prose or song,

learn that history and imagination, without Their glories have, to light the world along !

the aid of fact, have dictated the foul asperAnd ever thus may spirit be refined

sion to the poet's pen.
For what is godhead but consummate mind ?
Or heaven, but one surpassing realm of thought, " From careless boybood to uncultured man,
With each perfection of his wisdom fraught ? Indulged to act ere principle began :
Not what we bave, but what our natures feel, With just enough of spirit for excess,
By truth unfolded for sublimest zeal,

And heart which nothing save a vice can bless 2D, SERIE3.-NO. 7.

2 u

151.-VOL. Y

i p. 132.

In Oxford see the reprobate appear !

Review.-Edinburgh Cabinet Library. Big with the promise of a mad career. With cash and consequence to lead the way,

Egypt. Vol. III. 12mo. pp. 480. SimpA fool by night, and more than fop by day!

kin and Marshal. London, 1831. What happy vileness doth his lot reveal, How folly burns with imitativc zeal, Whene'er the shadows of bis greatness falls, Wuatever may be the condition of this In festive chamber or collegiate hall !

country at present, all historians agree, that Romantic lot! to vegetate secure From all that might to mental paths allure :

it was the cradle of the arts, and the birthTo wake each morning with no deeper thought, place of science. These facts are attested T T that which yesterday's excess hath brought; Then, winged by impulse, as the day proceeds,

by the authority both of sacred and profane To follow where cox comic fashion leads.

writers; and the ruins of departed grandeur, Hark! Woodstock rattles with eternal wheels, still frowning in solitary desolation, as well And hounds are ever barking at his heels. The chapel voted a terrific bore ;

as the venerable monuments of human inThe ‘Dons' head-pieces for the college door! genuity, power, and perseverance, which The lecture scouted, the degree reviled, And Alma Mater, all save alma styled !

defy the wasting hand of time, and the Thus on, till night advance, whose reign divine, corrosions of the elements, still survive, to Is chastely dedicate to cards and wine,

give their aitestations. Where modest themes amusive tongues excite, And faces redden with the soul's delight ;

Into the history of Egypt, both ancient A Roman banquet ! with Athenian tlowers

and modern, this third volume of the Edinof festive wit, to charm the graceful hours.

burgh Cabinet Library fully enters. The Alas! that truth must Aling a doleful shade On the bright portrait which her hand hath made. whole scene of its infancy, advancement, Few years bave fed, and what doth now remain

maturity, zenith, prosperity, decline, and Of him the haughty, who but smiled disdain On all that virtue in her meekness dared,

present condition, appears to be spread in Ambition hoped, or principle declared ?

ample panorama before the author; and His friends are dead; bis fortune sunk away, In midnight hells, wliere midnight demons play;

from its rich and inexhaustible mines of A withered skeleton of sin and shame,

historical wealth, he has selected all that is With nought but infamy to track his name; valuable and important, epitomized in a The wreck of fortune, with despairing sigbs, Fades from the world, and like a felon dies.” manner that preserves its interest, without

encumbering his pages with irrelevant Of Mr. Montgomery's descriptive powers, matter. the passages we have given will enable It is universally admitted, that the Pyraevery reader to judge. Many others that mids of Egypt are either the oldest, or are superior in poetical merit, might be among the oldest, monuments in the world ; easily selected. His character of Johnson it is, therefore, natural to conceive that they is finely drawn ; and the reflections to which should have engrossed the attention of every his name, and the chambers of his residence, traveller, and have found their way into give birth, are placed before us in much numerous works which treat of human inplaintive beauty. The walk to Blenheim genuity and art. Of these, the accounts contains many exquisite touches; and before us are full of thrilling interest, and throughout the whole, the poet's retrospect- the sources whence the materials have been ive gaze on departed ages, can hardly fail derived, leave no room for any suspicion to awaken admiration.

to be entertained as to their authenticity. Were we to examine this poem with an Respecting these venerable works of eye to its defects, many blemishes might distant ages, the labours of Belzoni, and his be discovered; but the task would be invi- descriptions of the discoveries which he dious, when they are so much counter- made, will never be forgotten. In this balanced by more obvious excellences. volume all his achievements are concenAs a whole, Oxford will not outshine some trated; but the detail is too voluminous to of Mr. Montgomery's other productions, be transcribed, we therefore beg leave to but, after all fair deductions have been made, introduce another subject, which is less its redeeming qualities will leave a surplus generally known. to prove that it is not unworthy of his poeti

The Labyrinth is also mentioned by Herodotus cal reputation, to which a monument has

as one of the greatest wonders of Egypt, and the already been erected on the hills of Par- most surprising effort of human ingenuity and nassus; and although his name has been perseverance. Il exceeds, I can truly assert, all

that has been said of it ; and whoever takes the legibly inscribed on a tablet in the temple of trouble to examine them will tind all the works of Fame.

Greece much inferior to this, both in regard to

workmansbip and expense. The temples of Ephe. This poem is embellished with twelve

sus and Samos may justly claim admiration, and superb engravings, taken from the scenes the Pyramids may individually be compared to and objects which he describes. Of these

many of the magnificent structures erected by the

Greeks ; but even these are inferior to the Laby. the designs are elegant and appropriate, rinth. It is composed of twelve courts, all of which and the execution does honour to the artists,

are covered : their entrances are opposite to each

other, six to the north, and six to the south ; one and to the work which they adorn.

wall encloses the whole. The apartments are of

REVIEW.-FAMILY CLASSICAL LIBRARY.

339

two kinds ; there are fifteen hundred above the

ing of the Nile, the soil which its waters surface of the ground, and as many beneath, in all three thousand. Of the former, I can speak from

deposit, the elevation which is slowly but my own knowledge and observation ; of the latter, regularly taking place in the surface of the only from the knowledge I received. The persons who had the charge of the subterraneous a part

ground, and on the probable results which ments would not suffer me to see them, alleging time may be expected to produce. It is that in these were preserved the sacred crocodiles, stated on the authority of Dr. Shaw, that, and the bodies of the kings who constructed the Labyrinth. Of these, therefore, I presume not to “ Since the time of Herodotus, Egypt has gained speak ; but the upper apartments I myself ex. new soil to the depth of two hundred and thirty amined, and I pronounce them to be among the inches.

we lod

back from the reign of greatest triumphs of human industry and art. Moris to the time of the deluge, and reckon that The almost infinite number of winding passages interval by the same proportion, we shall tind that through the different courts, excited my warmest the whole perpendicular accession of the soil from admiration. From spacious halls I passed through the deluge to A. D. 1721, must be 500 inches, that smaller chambers, and from them again to large is, the land has gained forty-one feet eight inches magniticent courts, almost without end. The ceil. of soil in 4072 years. Thus, in process of time, the ings and walls are all of marble, the latter richly whole country may be raised to such a height, adorned with the finest sculpture; and around

that the river will not be able to overflow its each court are pillars of the same material, the banks; and Egypt, consequently, from being the whitest and most polished that I ever saw. At the most fertile, will, for want of the annual inun. point where the Labyrinth terminates, stands a dation, become one of the most barren parts of pyramid one hundred and sixty cubits high, having the universe.”-p. 39. large tigures of animals engraved on the outside, and an entrance to the interior by a subterraneous

Proceeding upon the principle advanced path."- p. 110.

in the preceding passage, some of the French In the principal facts respecting this philosophers have attempted to ascertain famous Labyrinth, thus stated by Herodotus, from the quantity of soil accumulated round

the age of many statues and monuments, he is corroborated by Strabo, who observes, their bases. From data so uncertain, nothing, that it was impossible to enter any one of however, can with any degree of accuracy the palaces, or to leave it, without a guide. be inferred. Such calculations, therefore, Pliny also refers to this famous Labyrinth,

may

be rather placed among the amusein a manner which plainly evinces that,

ments of philosophical speculation, than even in his time, its fame, if not its work

ranked with the discoveries of science. manship, still continued to command public attention. It is, however, melancholy to history of the country. This comprises its

The last chapter is devoted to the natural add, that at present no vestige of it is known

geology, and the numerous varieties of its so exist; and historians and travellers have not agreed as to the spot on which it these are particularly remarkable, especially

vegetable and animal tribes. Many of stood.

the monsters which inhabit its rivers, some Egypt having been from time imme

of its birds, its corals, and its gums. morial the grand depository of all that was rendered venerable by age and genius, a

With this very instructive and entertaining

volume we can now proceed no further. considerable portion of this volume is filled

What we have said may be sufficient to with descriptions, memorials, and eluci

place it in a favourable light, yet the whole dations, of its numerous and very won

must be examined by every one who wishes derful productions. The ruins of ancient

to become acquainted with the value of its grandeur every where appear, and in each

contents. page some hoary monument, some hieroglyphic, some ancient ulpture, rescued from gathering desolation, calls the atten

Review.- Family Classical Library. Vol.

XVII. Horace. Vol. I. translated tion, and arrests the eye. Among these the surviving remnants of scientific knowledge

by Philip Francis. D.D. 12mo. pp. 316. in ancient Egypt are not passed over in

Valpy. London. 1831. silence. Many memorials that have tri- The writings of Horace are familiar to every umphed over the corrosions of time, still classical student, and this edition of his exist, to prove, that in astronomy the at- works calculated to create classical minds tainments of the Egyptians were very in many, to whom the term is almost unconsiderable.

known. The versatility of talent, and strong Of the present inhabitants, their manners, mental powers, displayed by the Roman employment, genius, modes of life, and poet, have gained him the admiration of all general character, this volume gives a suc- the ages which have intervened from his cinct account. Each particular is replete day to the present; and the strength of with life and vigour, and every page pre- genius that is diffused throughout his works, sents something that is interesting, if not cannot fail to keep them alive, amidst all astonishing.

the revolutions to which literature may be The second chapter contains some very liable. curious calculations respecting the overflow- In the masterly translation of Philip

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