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hat kind which attracts most admiration at in the extinction of the earthly existence of a distance. It was so genuine and solid, this admirable man. that it grew in estimation the more closely “ Having expatiated so largely on the it was inspected. It is possible some men eminent benefits accruing to mankind from have extended their induence to a wider the services of our departed friend, let me circle, and moved in a more extended sphere. request your attention for a few moments But where influence is diffused beyond a longer, while I endeavour to portray more certain limit, it becomes attenuated in pro. distinctly a few of the leading features of portion to its diffusion; it operates with an his character. The predominant property energy less intense. Mr. Robinson com- of his mind, intellectually considered, appletely filled as large a sphere of personal peared to me to be, a strong and masculine agency as it is perhaps possible for an indi- understanding, copious in its resources, vervidual to fill. He left no part of it unoccu- satile in its operations, and eminently prompt pied, no interstices unfilled, and spread in its decisions. Ile saw with a rapid himself over it with an energy in which glance the different bearings of a subject, there was nothing irregular, nothing defec- and the proper measures to be adopted in tive, nothing redundant.

the most intricate concerns. He possessed “Our deceased friend was eminently dis- good sense in an exquisite degree, rarely or tinguished by a steady uniformity of con- never misled by illusions of imagination, duct. While he appeared to multiply either in himself or others. To this was himself by the extent and variety of his ex- united a warmth and vivacity of temperaertions, the principles upon which they were ment, which made business his delight, acconducted, the objects they were destined tion his element, accompanied with a resoto promote, were invariably the same. He lution in the pursuit not to be relaxed by was not active at intervals, and at other fatigue, nor damped by disarrangements, times torpid and inert; he did not appear nor retarded by difficulties. To resolve and the public man at one time, and at another to execute, or at least vigorously to attempt absorbed in selfish pursuits : his efforts to execution, were with him the same thing. do good in season and out of season were “He joined, in an eminent degree, the constant and uninterrupted, and his course fortiter in re with the suaviter in modo ; knew no other variety than that of the none more inflexible in his purposes, none shining light, which shineth more and more more conciliating in his manners. Without unto the perfect day. His goodness, found- losing a particle of his dignity, without ed on principle, and corroborated by habit, meanness, artifice, or Aattery, he knew how operated with the steadiness of a law of to adapt himself to all sorts of society; and nature, the beneficial results of which can was equally acceptable in the character of never be sufficiently appreciated till they are the saint, the sage, and the cheerful engaging suspended. They who contemplated Mr. companion. By his amenity of manners, and Robinson at the distance of forty years, benignity of mind, he smoothed the asperities viewed him with the same emotions which of contradiction, and left to the machine of he excited at a more advanced age, mode- public business the least possible friction. rated, however, and chastened, by the ap- “It is almost unnecessary to state, that he prehension, that it was possible some un- laid the foundation of public confidence in expected temptation might occur, to divert his integrity, which was such, that it was not him from his career: we have seen it com. only never sacrificed, but, as far as my inpleted, we have witnessed his perseve- formation extends, never suspected. They rance and his conquest, and have seen who might differ from him the most on his virtues and his fame placed under some subjects of a religious or political the safeguard and seal of death and im- nature, never called in question the honesty mortality.

of his intentions. To this he joined, as a “Though he had reached that period of necessary incitement of success in active life, life which constitutes old age, it was a an uncommon share of prudence; by which cruda viridisque senectus. His age had I mean, not that timid policy which creeps impaired little or nothing of his vigour: its along the shore, without venturing to comchief effect was that of imparting additional mit itself to the ocean ; which shuns dandignity to his countenance, and weight to ger, without aspiring to conquest; his pruhis character. He fell like a noble tree, dence was of a more generous and enlarged after two or three strokes, with all his sap sort; the result was not so much of calcuand verdure, with extended boughs and lation at the moment, as of well-regulated rich foliage, while thousands were reposing passions and established principles. He under bis shadow and partaking of his fruits. loved mankind too well to betray, or to Seldom has death gained a richer spoil than speak evil of any. Vanity never made him 2D. SERIES.-NO. 8. VOL. I.

2 Y

152,- VOL. X

loquacious, nor pride capricious. Having with men whose zeal and activity qualify
purified his mind, under the influence of reli- them for able leaders, as well as associates,
gion, from vanity, pride, and resentment, the in this great work.
chief temptations to imprudence were pre- But why call these free-born ? for that is
cluded. His ardent mind left him no the peculiarity in question. It is a peculi-
leisure for trifling; and the great object he arity, I confess; and gladly enough would
so steadily pursued, precluded the least dis- I stand convicted of absurdity in using it,
position to mingle with the details of scan- were it a distinction without a difference.
dal, or the privacies of domestic life.” Yet, is there not a cause? Are all Great

Britain's transatlantic sons free-born? Would

to God they were! But in noting leaders WEST INDIAN SLAVERY,

and associates meet for the sons of France, Mr. EDITOR.

are all the transatlantic sons of Britain fit Sir,-Permit me, in your pages, to subjects for these dignified stations? Answer, answer the following letter :

O ye merchants of the seas; speak, Oye “To Mr. Wm. Coldwell.—Sir: On look. kings; ye who sway the oceans and the isles, “ing over your article, headed, ' Europe in give ye answer; for with you does the secret " the Winter of 1830-1,' inserted in the Im- lie. Ye answer not; yet it comes ! it comes ! “perial Magazine for February last, I read, loud and deep are its groans ! They have

page 83, • Gladly would the mind dwell traversed the Atlantic, wide and wild as

upon the future, in glorious anticipations. are its waves; like a hurricane have they “ It would paint France, aroused from the dashed upon the land; and their echo from “ apathy of ages, following, yea, united with, the cliffs of Albion is, Slave! Slave! re" the efforts of Great Britain and her free- echoes the ocean, and tosses back the sound “ born transatlantic sons, in the great work amidst the caverns, while these rebellow, “ of civilizing and christianizing the whole Slave! “ world.'-Being at a loss to make out the A slave! a slave! Live there then to Bri“ meaning of the association you here con- tain, sons other than free-born ? Yes; the “ template, and also of the peculiar expres- secret will out, rank with blood; it raises up “sion, free-born,' I should feel gratified if the ghosts of deeds long done; haunting the

you would favour me with the idea which perpetrators and blabbing forth to all, Great “ induced you at the time to use that com- Britain, free and lordly as is her ports, has

pound term; and remain, Sir, respectfully transatlantic sons, from generation to geneyours,

" W. R.”

ration, slave-born. To a civil inquiry, a civil answer is due; A free-born son, a slave-born son, sons and although I do not see any difficulty in of the same nation; of the same nation, did the passage quoted above, or in any portion I say? Yes, of the same man, and this of its phraseology, yet, as an explanation is man a free-born Britain. He has a wife, required, it shall be given.

and his children by her are free-born, and Great Britain and her free-born transat- continue freemen; he has also a slave, and lantic sons are held up as proper leaders, or he debauches this slave, and his children by associates, for the sons of France, in the her are slave-born, and continue slaves. civilization and christianization of the world. Horrible to think upon-slaves to their own The assertion implies, that Great Britain has father ! who can, and often does, like any of within her European dominions, and also in his chattels, or a head of his cattle, sell them her domains on the western shores of the to whomsoever he pleases, whenever he wills Atlantic ocean, sons who are free-born, civil- it. A detestable wretch, who calls himself ized christians. Because a slave, a savage, a Britain, sells his own progeny! a pagan, or an infidel, cannot, in the nature Where is the boasted freedom of Britain ? of things, be a fit associate for a free, civil- Slumber they who execute her laws? Issuing ized christian, in an attempt to civilize and from the womb, having done no act, having christianize the world, much less to become spoken no word, having thought no thought the leader of such an enterprise.

of good or evil, are the sons of the same That Britain possesses free-born men, parent free-born and slave-born, the one incivilized men and christians, who can doubt? heriting all the rights of the father, and the That she has free-born transatlantic sons, other reduced to a mere chattel ? Are the who can dispute? In North America, as well birthright privileges which flesh is heir to, as in South America, and in the islands which and which are its inherent and indubitable lie between these continents, the colonies of rights, dissevered by the gripe of avarice Britain contain thousands ; to say nothing of from the babe new-born, yea, from the firstthe United States, where millions of her free- born son, ere he beholds the light? Where born sons have formed a republic, fraught is the boasted freedom of Britain? I repeat

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it-where? “ The moment a slave rests me with its liosts of darkness, and its miseries his feet_upon the shores of Britain, he is were interminable. Forgive me.

If I am free !” The boasted freedom then of Britain beside myself, it is to God, it is for the cause is in Britain, and on few places else in of freedom. her dominions. Upon other shores, men Born of pagan parents, the first ideas inculmay be trepanned or dragged into sla- cated within these infant minds are heathen; very; and the horrible deed, once perpe- as they increase in stature, and become ob. trated, these continue slaves; and all who servers, pagan rites are impressed upon proceed from these, male and female, weakly them; and, ere they attain to manhood, they or robust, are born slaves, and continue slaves become partakers of the horrid mysteries of from generation to generation.

darkness, and actors in the filthy orgies of Hark! it is the voice of multitudes, that idolatry. Thus shut up in pagan darkness, dwells upon the ear; they rush towards the they clank their chains amidst horrid dunocean, and the clank of their chains is hor- geons, on all sides bound with deaths, while rible; upon its utmost beach, their longing gospel light blazes around their prisons, and eyes, stretched athwart the billows, strain to the messengers thereof strive, but strive in catch the view, and the groans of their sup- in vain, to throw these rays upon their plications, louder than the thundering surfs gloomy souls. Here we have the acmé of beneath them, dolorous cry, “ Where are refinement in destruction. The sordid slavethe shores of Britain ? O waft us there, ye holder, amidst bis delusions, calculates upon winds, bear us, ye foaming billows, place rebellion if the slave is instructed, and thereon these shores our feet-there, there we fore holds him in chains of darkness, and shall be free!" The sun sinks beneath the guards, with tyrannic vigilance, every avenue horizon; darkness, like a curtain, falls upon by which light could approach him. The the ocean; the view is broken; it is no muscles, yea, the very sinews of these most more; and despair, horrible in its groanings, wretched of the wretched, are wasted by seizes upon the multitudes anew; they clank excess of labour, beneath the horrid lash, aptheir chains, clasp their hands iu anguish, plied unsparingly to enforce undue exertion. and their moanings pierce the skies. Is In the very bloom of life, the scars of the this unreal? Was there not recently such a white tyrant bloat out upon the skin, dismoveinent? Let the sceptic land upon these figure the countenance, and maim the trunk; islands of slavery and chains, and his scep- in mature age, when the robust and hardy ticism will sink into a shadow, before the would, in a state of freedom, be the characreality of a bondage undescribed by the an- teristics of male and female, decrepitude and cients, and, until our day, unknown to man. premature old age stare forth on the observer,

In writing the term “free-born,” my ideas and, ere half his days are accomplished, he certainly attached thereto importance. It was sinks into non-existence. Into non-existence, a frenzied thought-a momentary madness did I say? Happy would it be for the slave, of the brain which possessed me, while I were this the case; but the refinement of thought of slavery-of men stolen by men, ruin, on the part of his oppressor, while it of men the slaves of men, of men held destroys the body, does all that mortal man by force from freedom; and then I thought can achieve to ruin the immortal soul. This of the softer sex, of women stolen by men, it shuts up in heathen darkness, and bars of women the slaves of men, of women held every avenue to the entrance of christian by force from freedom; and the cracking of lighi and life, forcing the soul, as far as the horrid whip, and the slashing of the human prowess can force, to live and die frightful lash, and the spurting forth of blood, without God, without hope, without the and the quivering of the dissevered muscle, grace of life, and to plunge into endless and the sobs of the lacerated female, har- ruin. Who can weigh in the scale of equity rowed up my soul. And then, and then my this mass of wrong doing--the mischief done, mind ran through the birthright of genera- and the mischief predicated thereby ? tions yet unborn; and I thought of infants, Over the tongue of the European, the new-born infants, infants of a day, and be- sweet morsel is incessantly rolled ; his coffee, hold these were slaves; and I heard the lash his tea, his preparations of fruit, his delicious upon the youth, upon manhood, upon age; sauces, his conserves, his confectionaries, &c. and said, surely here end thy torments, 0 fraught with sugar duly refined, deal to bim oppressor! But, no; the idea returned in delights daily. But this is the blood of the violence, and whelmed upon my soul the oppressed, wrung from bis veins by the anguish of generations yet unborn-for I scourging of the oppressor; and blood cries beheld the offspring of all these, and they for blood-its voice ascends to heaven; God were slaves! No breath of right came with hath heard it, and will avenge the cause of the infant breath; no, futurity rushed before the oppressed. Judgment, although hitherto

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it has slumbered, is even now at the door: if the consequences of this horrid system do for the judgments of the Lord are on the not follow him into eternity. earth already: kingdoms shake, thrones Stolen in the bloom of life, he is torn totter, society is convulsed to its very centre from the companions of his youth, from around us, and shall the man-stealer or the every thing near and dear to him on earth, vile consumer of his fellow-men, escape? loaded with chains, marched down to the Impossible! The sword, or the pestilence coast, embarked on board a slave-ship, so which walketh in darkness, or both, in awful closely stowed with human beings, that mulvisitation must descend. “Alas! who shall titudes perish during the voyage; if he surlive when God doeth this?"

vives the passage, he is landed in the West To enumerate the individual instances of Indies, exposed for sale like a beast, inspectcruelty and oppression which have already ed, handled and exercised before the buyers, occurred in the nefarious traffic and oppres- life an ox or a horse; he is purchased, urged sive bondage of the West Indian Slavery, by a slave-driver with a whip, to the field of would require volumes. Indeed, volumes, labour; and there no particle of the man is already filled to surfeiting, are before the suffered to escape the horrid machinery of public, and the very reading of only extracts slavery. Muscles, sinews, blood, bones, yea from these harrows up the soul; to read the spirit, body and soul, all enchained in bondwhole, would be a task upon which few age, are wasted at the pleasure of a master, ought to venture; for the disgusting and dis- whose tender mercies are cruel. He beholds graceful matters with which they necessarily his children, but slavery is there also; and abound, are too much for hundreds, whose the intolerable anguish of despair seizes upon nerves are delicate and ought not to be thus his soul, for these to the latest generation are unstrung. Even in the bosoms of pious and slaves! O Lord ! can these be the acts of devout men, a holy indignation at the atro- men ? city of those oppressors takes precedence The sum of the whole matter is, the exof every other feeling; and thousands of istence of slavery within the British domihonourable Britons feel so greatly ashamed nions is a national disgrace; the continuance of the actors in slavery, that they hold them- of slavery is a national crime, and will bring selves disgraced by their national affinity. upon Great Britain national judgments: it

During the last ten years, it is calculated is therefore the duty of every Briton to exert that more than forty-five thousand human his utmost powers, in order to remove this beings have been immolated upon the crying evil, and thereby avert these judgbloody altar of this modern Moloch, and ments. Applications to the legislative bodies the sacrifices daily made add incessantly to of this realm, in a firm, yet respectful tone, the number of victims. To these wide- ought instantly and universally to be resorted wasting murders, every man who does not to, and persevered in unremitingly, until this lift up his voice against the murderers, be- is accomplished. comes a party ; thus national crimes bring

WM. COLDWELL. down national judgments, and, amidst these, King Square, June, 23, 1831. who can count upon his individual escape? If means are within our reach, whereby we may counteract these gross enormities, it be

TIIE GENUINE PHILOSOPHER. comes every Briton to stand forth boldly, and

By the Rev. J. Young. use these means to the utmost of his ablility, with the greatest promptitude; and as unity

"With aspect mild, and elevated eye, is strength, to unite himself with as many as

Behold him seated on a mount serene, are like-minded, that they may present a

Above the fogs of sense, and passion's storm ; formidable front to the adversary, and carry, (Like harmless thunders breaking at his feet) by unanimous efforts, the complete emanci

Excite his pity, not impair his peace.

Earth's genuine sons, the sceptred and the slave, pation of every slave in the colonies of

A mingled mob! a wandering herd! he sees, Britain.

Bewildered in the vale, in all unlike!

His full reverse of all ! what higber praise ? A system of intolerance and tyranny, un

What stronger demonstration of the right ?" paralleled in history, and at war with every

DR. YOUNG. principle of right, of reason, and of religion, pervades the whole machine of slavery. It Some few mouldering fragments, partly hid commences with robbery, man-stealing, and by wild briars and thorns, and partly covered cruelty, and these enter into the details of with upturned mounds from the plough, yet this horrible durance, even to the minutest remained, which, two centuries before, were points, from the moment of the first theft, parts of the ancestral mansion of the celeuntil death releases the captive from his brated but unfortunate Earl of Derby, who chains; and happy will it be for the slave, suffered the penalty of death in 1651, for pro

All the black cares and tumults of this life



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claiming Charles II. Over these remains of in that celebrated seminary, he was elected
worldly splendour, the youthful hero of my to Christ Church College, Oxford, and, in
tale was in the habit of wandering, before he the twenty-first year of his age, took the
entered his teens, and, as he surveyed the degree of M.A.
ruins which man and time had made, a On returning one evening from a lonely
silent tear would ever and anon steal down stroll by the side of the meandering Isis,
his rosy cheek, while he thought of those conversing with men of other days through
from whom in a long line he had descended, their works, which time had spared, his ser-
and felt the import of Johnson's touching vant delivered to him a letter, bearing his

address, on one corner of which“ speed" "Wealth heaped onwealth,nor truth nor safety buys; stood conspicuous. He hastily tore it open, The dangers gather as the treasures rise.

and soon learned, that his instant return Let history tell, where rival kings command, And dubious title shakes the madded land,

home was indispensable. His father had When statutes glean the refuse of the sword, been suddenly seized with fever, and his life How much more safe the vassal than the lord :

was then despaired of. Filial affection, Low lurks the hind beneath the reach of pow'r, And leaves the wealthy traitor in the tow'r,

above every other consideration, influenced Untouched his cottage, and bis slumbers sound, him, and, throwing himself into a chaise, he Though confiscation's vultures hover round.”

was driven off rapidly, and in a few hours The tears, however, thus early shed by was set down at the door of his parental Alphonso, were not those of regret, but of residence. With breathless anxiety, he sympathy. Already his mind had been inquired of the servant who opened the better instructed ; a principle of a loftier door to him, concerning his father. The nature than the honours of a titled ancestry extent of his danger, and the degree of afcould impart, had been impressed there. fection in which he was held by his servants,

His father, at the period of his birth, were powerfully evidenced by a silent but enjoyed a princely fortune, and resided in a significant shake of the head, while a flood mansion, such as a less unfortunate king than of tears gushed from the eyes of the old the exiled Charles might have been proud domestic, to the total prevention of utterto possess. Alphonso was the only surviv- ance. ing child of his parents : several children Alphonso required no more information. had preceded him, but when the fair buds He ascended the stairs as though his ethereal of nature were just breathing forth into at- part had been so strengthened as to supertractive flowers, they drooped, as if a worm sede the necessity of the employment of his lay concealed in the core of their being,

material powers.

He entered an ante. and died away. That he should therefore chamber near that in which his parent lay, engage the whole attention of his parents, and was instantly announced. As he ennaturally affectionate, is not surprising; and tered the chamber of death, his eye fell on they beheld in the boy a thousand charms, the withered countenance of his beloved which others might not immediately have father ; the struggle was nearly over-his discovered. His face indeed was not hand- eye brightened for a moment as Alphonso some, but it was open as the morning. It leaned over the bed. The good old man bore the impress of masculine energy, rather blessed his son-his enervated grasp let go than the soft attractive glow or infant loveli- the hand which he had taken-a gentle sigh

He was the last, too, of an only escaped him, and he was not-for God honourable line, and the heir to extensive took him. possessions. In him the hopes, therefore, Another moment elapsed, and the arms and the honours of his father's house were of his widowed mother were thrown half deposited.

franticly around his neck. His manly What improvement he might have made frame supported her, while, with subdued of his superior advantages, during his early feelings, he whispered in soothing accents, years, I am not able to declare. All I

“My mother, let us not sorrow like those know is, that if the best masters that could who have no hope. Remember who hath be furnished, and the utmost care and at- said, “Blessed are the dead who die in the tention which attendants could yield, availed Lord. He who lately was dear to us on any thing, he must have profited greatly. earth, is now dear to us in heaven, 'for, to As soon,

however, as his preparatory studies be absent from the body is to be present were completed, he was sent to Westminster with the Lord.'” This was not the lanschool ; here, the talents with which nature guage of heartless insensibility, or apathetic had endowed him, shone forth with attract. indifference. Oh no! he felt the bereaveive lustre, while his assiduity gained for him ment as man, but he bowed as a Chrishonourable distinction among the scholars tian to His decree, who“ doeth according of his day. After a residence of a few years to his will in the army of heaven, and among


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