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destitution, issued a command that no one was my family. Upon my telling him, should speak in praise of their good qua- he said, Be not uneasy, for all will be lities, on penalty of condign punishment. well : then beckoning to a slave, he whisNotwithstanding this order, a venerable pered something in his ear.

After this, old man daily repaired to the ruins of the à change of rich apparel was brought me, deceased minister's palace, which had been and he insisted upon my staying all night, råzed to the ground. Seating himself upon though I wished to be dismissed, as my a heap of rubbish, he made bitter lamen- mind was uneasy about my family, who tātions, and harangued the passing crowd would be anxiously expecting me.

To on the splendid virtues of the unfortunate this Fuzzul replied, As they are in the house family. When Haroon was informed of of God, he will be their protector. In this, his anger was roused, and he ordered short, I remained all night, and in the the offender to his presence. The old man morning he permitted me to depart, sending was instantly dragged before him, when the a domestic with me; but instead of leading Caliph ordered him to be put to death. The me to the mosque, he conducted me to an culprit exclaimed, “For God's sake, per- elegant house, in which I found my wives mit me, 0 Commander of the Faithful, to and children. They informed me they had utter a few words before I die.” “Speak,” been brought thither the evening before by replied the Caliph.

a slave of Fuzzul, and put in possession of “My name, said the old man,

“is the mansion. Need I say more, O Com-' Munder of Damascus, and my ancestors mander of the Faithful, in excuse for my ranked among the most respectable of dwelling on the virtues of the liberal BerSyria; but the vicissitudes of fortune at- mekies ? If I should forget them, should tacked me, and the dawn of my prosperity I not incur the stigma of ingratitude here, was soon clouded by the evening of adver- and its merited punishment hereafter ?? sity. Overwhelmed by misfortunes, I left Haroon was appeased. He applauded the my native city, and repaired with my old man, and presented him with a purse family, in hopes of obtaining employment, of gold; upon receiving which, the sage to the capital of Islaam ; at the gate of said, “This also, O Caliph, comes from which I left my wives and children in a the Bermekies." mosque, while I sought a lodging. I en- In the same history are some remarkable tered the city, and had not advanced far, particulars of the death of the Caliph Ha when I beheld a long train of persons of roon al Rasheed, related by his physician, quality, who, I perceived, were going to Gabriel, who constantly attended him. In å marriage feast; and, as I was pressed by the year (of the Hegira) 192, says Gabriel, hunger, I joined the procession. We ar- I attended Haroon in camp at Rukha, and rived at a magnificent palace, and were one morning early, repairing to the foot of admitted by the porter. No questions were the throne, I found the Caliph very pale asked me, and I sat down among the and melancholy; upon which I said, “I guests, of one of whom I inquired who perceive thee, O Commander of the Faithful, owned the mansion? He answered, Fuzzul unusually sad and dispirited. If the cause Bermeki, who was celebrating his nuptials. be bodily illness, inform me, that I may When the ceremony was concluded, a basin administer relief; but if some misfortune of money was presented to every one pre- of state, trouble not thy mind with reflecting sent, and to myself among the rest ; after upon it, for the Almighty will destroy thy which, written grants of houses, lands, and enemies.” Haroon replied, “It is neither ; goods, were thrown among us, two of but I have had a horrible' dream, for the which fortunately fell into my lap. The meaning of which I am alarmed. Í beheld assembly at length broke up, and I was a naked arm extended from beneath my taking my departure, when a slave plucked throne, the hand of which was filled with me by the sleeve. Í supposed he wanted red earth, and at the same instant heard a to take from me the money and the deeds; voice saying, Such is the earth, O Haroon, but he led me respectfully to Fuzzul, who of thy grave. I exclaimed, where ? At mildly said, “I perceive thou art a stranger, Toos, returned the voice; after which the and wish to know thy situation ; relate hand disappeared, and I awoke.' then thy adventures without exaggeration.' I said," continues Gabriel, " this dream, I replied, Seek not to know what will give my lord, was the effect of indigestion, and thee pain: it is not right thy present joy can mean nothing : probably you were should be damped by sorrow,

After much thinking last night of the affairs of Khou! importunity, I related my adventures, from rasaun, and the rebellion of Rafee, son of my entrance into life till that day. Fuzzul Leshe.” “I was so," answered Haroon. wept at my misfortunes, and asked where I now recommended that he should one's

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a banquet, and divert his mind; which he and in public. Flattery, of course, must did, and the impression of the vision was be a standing reproach against this class of soon done away. In the course of the year, bards; yet from this imputation their Euro. however, the Caliph moved with a mighly pean brethren are not exempt; while, from army from Bagdad, against the rebels of Major Laing's report, it appears that there Khorasaun, but was taken ill upon his is often present a sable Tyrtæus, who remarch, in the province of Jirjaun, and, when proaches the apathy of the prince and the he arrived at Toos, became daily worse. people, and rouses them to scenes of valour, Here he received intelligence that the rebel Specimens are wanting of the African muse; Rafee had been defeated, and his brother yet, considering that its effusions are nutaken prisoner, by Hersima, who sent him merous, inspired by nature, and animated in chains to court. On his arrival, Haroon by national enthusiasm, they seem nof unordered the unfortunate criminal to be cut likely to reward the care of a collector. The to pieces by a butcher in his presence; but few examples actually given, favour this the execution was no sooner over, than the conclusion. How few among our peaCaliph was seized with a Upon santry could have produced the pathetic coming to himself, the dream occurred to and affecting lamentation which was uttered his mind, and he exclaimed, “This place, in the little Bambarra cottage over the disGabriel, is Toos, and here is my grave.'

tresses of Park! These songs, besides, He then ordered the attendant Mesroor to handed down from father to son, contain fetch a handful of the soil, which he brought evidently all that exists among these nations with his sleeve drawn up to the elbow. of traditional history. From the songs of " By the Almighty,” exclaimed Haroon, the Jillimen of Soolimani, Major Laing was w this is the very arm, and hand, and soil, enabled to compile the annals of this small which I beheld in my dream !" From that kingdom for more than a century.--Edin instant his agonies increased, and he ex- burgh Cabinet Cyclopædia. pired three days afterwards, in the year of the Hegira one hundred and ninety-two.


The blood which flows in the veins of animals is not, as it seems, an uniformly red liquid. It consists of small red globules, floating in a transparent fluid called serum.

In different species these globules differ both NorwITHSTANDING so great a deficiency, in figure and in magnitude. In man, and all (the absence of a written language among animals which suckle their young, they are them,) the African must not be imagined perfectly round or spherical. In birds and as sunk in entire mental apathy. The en. fishes they are of an oblong spheroidal formă. terprise of a perilous and changeful life In the human species, the diameter of the develops energies which slumber amid the globules is about the 4000th of an inch. general body of the people in a civilized Hence it follows, that in a drop of blood society. Their great public meetings and which would remain suspended from the palavers exhibit a fuent and natural ora- point of a fine needle, there must be about tory, accompanied often with much good á million of globules. sense and shrewdness. Above all, the pas- Animalcules have been discovered, whose sion for poetry is nearly universal. As soon magnitude is such, that a million of them as the evening breeze begins to blow, the does not exceed the bulk of a grain of sand; song resounds throughout all Africa : it and yet each of these creatures is composed cheers the despondency of the wanderer of members as curiously organised as those through the desert; it enlivens the social of the largest species; they have life and sponmeeting; it inspires the dance; and even taneous inotion, and are endued with sense the lamentations of the mourner are poured and instinct. In the liquids in which these forth in measured accents. Their poetry live they are observed to move with astonishdoes not consist in studied and regular ing speed and activity; nor are their motions pieces, such as, after previous study, are blind and fortuitous, but evidently governed recited in our schools and theatres ; they by choice, and directed to an end. . They are extemporary and spontaneous effusions, use food and drink, from which they derive in which the speaker gives utterance to his nutrition, aud are therefore furnished with a hopes and fears, his joys and sorrows. All digestive apparatus. They have great musthe sovereigns are attended by crowds of cular power, and are furnished with limbs singing men and singing women, who, and muscles of strength and flexibility. wybenever any interesting event occurs, cele. They are susceptible of the same appetites, brate it in songs, which they repeat aloud and obnoxious to the same passions, thre




415 gratification of which is attended with the able amount of this parallax; but, as assame results as in our species. Spallanzani tronomical instruments have advanced in observes, that certain 'animalcules devour perfection, the quantity which they have others so voraciously, that they fatten, and successively assigned to it has been conbecome indolent and sluggish by over-feed- tinually reduced within narrower and naring. After a' meal of this kind, if they be rower limits, and has invariably been comconfined in distilled water, so as to be de- mensurate with the errors to which the prived of all food, their condition becomes instruments used might fairly be considered reduced; they regain their spirit and acti- liable. The conclusion this strongly presses vity, and amuse themselves in the pursuit on us is, that it is really a quantity too small of the more minute animals which are sup

to admit of distinct measurement in the plied to them; they swallow these without present state of our means for that purpose; depriving them of life, for, by the aid of the and that, therefore, the distance of the stars microscope, the one has been observed must be a magnitude of such an order as moving within the body of the other. These the imagination almost shrinks from consingular appearances are not matters of idle templating. and curious observation; they lead us to

But this increase in our scale of dimeninquire what parts are necessary to produce sion calls for a corresponding enlargement such results. Must we not conclude that of conception in all other respects. The these creatures have heart, arteries, veins, same reasoning which

aces the

irs at muscles, sinews, tendons, nerves, circulating such immeasurable remoteness, exalts them Auids, and all the concomitant apparatus of at the same time into glorious bodies, simia living organized body? And if so, how lar to, and even far surpassing, our own sun, inconceivably minute must those parts be! the centres, perhaps, of other planetary sysIf a globule of their blood bears the same tems, or fulfilling purposes of which we can proportion to their whole bulk as a globule have no idea, from any analogy in what of our blood bears to our magnitude, what passes immediately around us. powers of calculation can give an adequate The comparison of catalogues, published potion of its minuteness ! - Dr. Lardner's at different periods, has given occasion to Cabinet Cyclopedia, vol v.

many curious remarks, respecting changes both of place and brightness among the stars, to the discovery of variable ones, which

lose and recover their lustre periodically, The distance of the fixed stars is so im- and to that of the disappearance of several mense,

that every attempt to assign a limit, from the heavens, so completely as to have within which it must fall, has hitherto failed. left no vestige discernible, even by powerful The inquiries of astronomers of all ages telescopes. In proportion as the construchave been directed to ascertain this distance, tion of astronomical and optical instruments by taking the dimensions of our own par- has gone on improving, our knowledge of the ticular system of sun and planets, or of the contents of the heavens has undergone a corearth itself, as the unit of a scale on which responding extension, and, at the same time, it might be measured. But, although many attained a degree of precision which could have imagined that their observations af- not have been anticipated in former ages. forded grounds for the decision of this in- The places of all the principal stars in the steresting point, it has uniformly happened, northern hemisphere, and of a great many either that the phenomena on which they in the southern, are now known to a degree irelied have proved to be referrible to other of nicety which must infallibly detect any causes, not previously known, and which real motions which may exist among them, the superior accuracy of their researches and it has in fact done so, in a great many inhas for the first time brought to light, or to stances, some of them very remarkable ones. errors arising from instrumental imperfec. It is only since a comparatively recent tions, and unavoidable defects of the obser- date, however, that any great attention has vations themselves.

been bestowed on the smaller stars, among The only indication we can expect to

which there can be no doubt of the most obtain of the actual distance of a star, would interesting and instructive phenomena being consist in an annual change in its apparent sooner or later brought to light. The miplace corresponding to the motion of the nute examination of them with powerful earth round the sun, called its annual paral telescopes, and with delicate instruments lax, and which is nothing more than the for the determination of their places, has measure of the apparent size of the earth's indeed already produced immense cataorbit as seen from the star. Many observers logues and masses of observations, in which have thought they have detected a measur- thousands of stars, invisible to the naked or




are registered ; and has led to the discovery of the same year, 160,000-; ditto, 25 Apni, of innumerable important and curious facts, 1809, 40,000; ditto, 5 October, ditto, and disclosed the existence of whole classes 36,000; ditto, 13 Dec., 1810, 160,000; of celestial objects, of a nature so wonderful ditto, Holland, Rome, Tuscany, and the as to give room for unbounded speculation Hanseatic Towns, 1808-9-10, 11,065; on the extent and coustruction of the uni- ditto, 20 Dec. 1811, 120,000 ; ditto, 13 verse.

March, 1812, 100,000; ditto, 1 Sep., ditto, Among these, perhaps, the most remark- 137,000; ditto, 11. Jan., 1813, 100,000; able are the revolving double stars, or stars ditto, 11 Jan., 1814, 150,000; ditto, ditte, which, to the naked eye, or to the inferior (Guards of Honour,) 10,000 ; ditto, : telescopes, appear single; but, if examined April, 1813, (classes 1807, 1812,) 80,000 with high magnifying powers, are found 10 diito, ditto, (National Guard,) 90,000; consist of two individuals placed almost ditto, 24 Aug., 1813, (Dept. of the South, close together, and which, when carefully 30,000; ditto, 19 Oct., ditto, (remaining watched, are many of them) found to re- Dep.,) 120,000; ditto, ditto, (class 1815, volve in regular elliptic orbits about each 160,000; ditto, 15 Nov., 1813, arrear other; and, so far as we have yet been able 1804 and 1814,) 300,000. Total of levies, to ascertain, to obey the same laws which 2,965,965. This detail, which is derived regulate the planetary movements. There from Napoleon's official journal, the Moniis nothing calculated to give a grander idea teur, under the several dates, is deficient in of the scale on which the sidereal heavens the excesses which were raised beyond the are constructed than these beautiful systems. levies ; but even if we deduct' the home When we see such magnificent bodies united casualties, as well as the 300,000 men dis in pairs, undoubtedly by the same bond of banded in 1815, we shall be much under mutual gravitation which holds together our the mark in affirming, that he slaughtered own system, and sweeping over their enor- two millions and a half of human beings, mous orbits, in periods comprehending many and these all Frenchmen. But we have centuries, we admit at once that they must yet to add the thousands and tens of thoube accomplishing ends in the creation which sands of Germans, Swiss, Poles, Italians

, will remain for ever unknown to man; and Neapolitans, and Illyrians, whom he forced that we have here attained a point in science under his eagles, and, at a moderate compuwhere the human intellect is compelled to tation, these cannot have fallen short of acknowledge its weakness, and to feel that half a million. It is obviously just to no conception the wildest imagination can assume, that the number' who fell on the form, will bear the least comparison with side of his adversaries was equal to that the intrinsic greatness of the subject.- against which they were brought. Here, Herschels Discourse on Natural Philo- then, are our data for asserting,' that the sophy.

latter years of his glory were purchased at

no less a cost than six millions of human NAPOLEON'S SACRIFICE OF HUMAN LIFE. lives. This horrible inroad on the fairest Never was there a conqueror who fired portion of the population of Europe ended more cannon, fought more battles, or over- in the abandonment of every conquered threw more thrones, than Napoleon. But territory, the bringing of foreign enemies we cannot appreciate the degree and quality twice, within four-and-twenty months, under of his glory, without weighing the means he the walls of Paris, and the erasure of his possessed, and the results he accomplished. name from the records of dominion! 0 Enough for our present purpose will be curas hominum! O quantum est in rebus gained, if we set before us the mere re- inane! sources of flesh and blood which he called into play, from the rupture of the peace of Amiens, in 1804, down to his eventful exit.

THE REVOLUTION OF JULY, 1830. At that time he had, as he declared to Lord Whitworth, an army on foot of 480,000 As no property had been destroyed, and no men. The decree of the 17 Ventose, an. industry perceptibly interrupted, the only VIII., in arrear, 30,000; ditto 28 Floreal, luss to be deplored on the part of the people an. X., 120,000; ditto, 6 ditto, an. XI., was the blood which had been shed in the 120,000; ditto 25 Ventose, XIII., 2,000; commotion; and, on this subject there has ditto 3 Germinal, an. XIII., 30,000; ditto been great exaggeration. Life, indeed, was 27 Nivose, an. XIII., 60,000; ditto, 3 Aug., profusely scattered on the two last days; 1806, 80,000; ditto, 4 Dec., ditto, 80,000; prodigally thrown away on the part of the ditto, 7 April, 1807, 80,000; ditto, 21 people, and mercilessly destroyed by the January, 1808, 80,000; ditto, 10 Sep., hands of the guards; but the number of





victims has been ridiculously magnified by whole number of killed and wounded, to wondering ignorance or factious prejudice. about three thousand, including soldiers as Accounts have been published, in which well as citizens. The number of killed and more of the troops are slaughtered than wounded of the guards, gendarmerie, and came into action, and in which thousands of other troops, exposed during the three days the people are represented as killed, who to the attacks of the people, is stated by have probably swelled the crowds of subse- official accounts at three hundred and

quent riots. When we hear of grape-shot seventy-five, of which the killed are about a - sweeping the streets in an instant, of cart- fifth part, or about seventy-five. Of these,

loads of dead being carried from the field of the Swiss composed about a fourth.--Dr.
battle after a discharge, we naturally ima. Lardner's Cabinet Library, Vol. III.,
gine that the slaughter of forty or fifty hours' being Vol. 1. of Annual Retrospect of
fighting must be immense. But this is a Public Affairs for 1831.
wrong view of the case. Except at the
Hotel de Ville on Wednesday, and before
the colonnade of the Louvre on Thursday,
the citizens never presented themselves in a The Jews, who had been persecuted and
compact body before the troops. They fired banished from France by Philip the Fair,
from windows or comers, from behind and restored by his successor, as necessary to
pillars or parapets, but never uselessly ex- the existence of the state, once again became
posed themselves to the discharges of the the objects of popular hatred, not only on
guards. On the other hand, the troops on account of their religion, and because their
the Tuesday and Thursday suffered little; wealth rendered them the ready objects of
because, on the former day, the people were plunder, but also from a new accusation, to
not armed, and on the latter the soldiers which so ignorant an age alone would have
were protected by the interposition of large listened. A pestilential or epidemic dis-
spaces between them and their assailants.

ease was at this time scourging France, where When scattered through the streets on bad living and dearth of provisions rendered Wednesday, their loss was considerable, but such infectious disorders very fatal. To acit would, perhaps, be overstated at five hun- count for the present pestilence, it was said dred men killed and wounded. On this that the Jews had accepted a bribe from the subject, we have fortunately a statement Mahometan princes, and had undertaken to of fact, on which considerable reliance can poison all wells, fountains, and rivers. The be placed, from the pen of Dr. Prosper charge of participation in this crime was ex. Meniere, surgeon in the hospital of the tended to a set of unfortunate wretches, who Hotel Dieu, at Paris, who details the his- were rather the objects of disgust than of tory of what passed in that great infirmary compassion. Those afflicted with the leand other hospitals," pendant et apres les prosy, who were obliged to live in hospitals trois grands journées," with apparent good apart from the rest of mankind, were stated faith and knowledge. He states, that the to have joined with the Jews in the iniquinumber of dead bodies deposited at the tous project of poisoning the waters of the Morgue amounted to one hundred and kingdom. It was an accusation easily untwenty-five; the number interred under the derstood, and greedily swallowed by the colonnade at the Louvre, to eighty-five; vulgar. The populace, of course, being the number buried on the other side of the already in arms, turned them against the Louvre, at the end of the street Fromenteau, Jews and the lepers, considering both as to twenty-five; in the Marché des Innocens, a species of wretched outcasts, whose sufto seventy ; in the vaults of St. Eustache, to ferings ought to interest no healthy Christian, forty-three ; in the vaults of the Quai de Without any formality, of trial or otherwise, Gevres, to thirty-four ; and in the Hotel these ignorant fanatics seized upon great Larochefoucault, to eight: making a total numbers both of the Jews and of the lepers. of three hundred and ninety. The number and tore them to pieces, or burnt them alive of citizens who were wounded, and brought without scruple. The Jews, though of late to the different hospitals, or attended to at years they may be considered as an unwarlike their own houses, the doctor estimates, from people, have always been remarkable for the the best authority, at about two thousand. obstinacy of their temper, and for their opTo these he adds three hundred of wounded posing to popular fury a power of endursoldiers in the military hospitals. Of those ance which has often struck even their opwho were brought to the hospitals, three pressors with horror. Five hundred of these hundred and four died in the course of a men, upon the present occasion, defended a week. The number of deaths, therefore, castle, into which they had thrown themamounted to about seven hundred ; and the selves, with stones, arrows, javelins, and 20. SERIES.-NO. 9. VOL. I.

153,---- VOL. YIII.

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