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OPENING OF THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.

other missiles, till, having no other weapons set-stairs to London-bridge, and through left, they launched the persons of their living which the royal procession was to children from the walls, on the heads of their had taken up their appointed stations we assailants, and finally put each other to the Saturday. sword, rather than die by the hands of the Several of these, particularly those in multitude. Ai Vitri, also, fifty Jews dis- the lines opposite Somerset-house, MERE tinguished themselves by a similar act of decorated with all the national flags of horrible despair. They chose with com. Europe, presenting in this, as well as in the posure two of their number, a young woman gay attire of the respectable parties of ladies and an old man, who received the charge to and gentlemen seated on platforms on their put the rest of their company to death. decks, one of the most brilliant and in Those intrusted with the execution of this posing spectacles that ever rested on the fearful duty executed their intructions with- bosom of old Father Thames. out dispute or resistance on the part of the The balustrades of Waterloo we sufferers. When the others were all slain, crowded at an early hour, many persoas the old man next received his death at the having taken up their stations there as early hand of the female, and, to close the tragedy, as between five and six o'clock in the this last either fell or threw herself from the morning. Most of these showed, that, if the walls of the place; but having broken her weather permitted, they were determined thigh-bone in the fall, she was plunged by to “make a day of it," for they brougka the besiegers alive into the fire which con. with them, not only prog for breakfas, sumed the dead bodies. -Scott's Tales of a lunch, and dinner, but also materials for Grandfather.

their evening repast, and before the close of the day there were not a few quietly enjoying their tea in the line of waggons,

with awnings, which were drawn up along, Tus grand ceremony, the preparations for side the pathway of the bridge. Some which had occupied so much attention in these waggons were fitted up with seats, as the metropolis for some time past, look the speculations of the owners, and from place on Monday, August 1, 1831, the the prices demanded, and readily given, anniversary of the baule of the Nile, and we should judge that they turned to good presented the most splendid spectacle that account. Others were stationed there bg has been witnessed on the Thames for private parties, for the accommodation of many years. The grand attraction of the their friends, and, considering their temscene was, of course, the presence of their porary character, were very convenient. Majesties, who graciously condescended to The appearance of the front of Somersettake that opportunity of honouring the house added greatly to the effect of the citizens of London with a visit.

whole spectacle. On the whole length of It was originally intended that his the terrace, several tiers of seats were Majesty should have proceeded through erected, which were occupied even at an the park, and have embarked at Whitehall; early hour with a most respectable combut his Majesty, with a truly paternal pany, chiefly ladies. The windows beanxiety to afford the gratification of a view hind, and the tops of the building in every of the procession to the largest number of place which could command a view, were the inhabitants of the metropolis, consented also thronged with spectators. to embark at the stairs of Somerset-house. At Mr. Calvert's premises, tiers of seats By this alteration, the whole of the pro- were erected to a very considerable extent cession was visible to all the inhabitants of for the accommodation of the friends of Pall-mall, Cockspur-street, and the greater “the house," who, we understood, to the part of the Strand, and a vast addition was number of 1,000, were also sumptuously made to the splendid arrangements of regaled on this occasion. the day.

The arrangements made at SomersetThe preparations were carried into effect house for the reception of their Majesties, with a precision and regularity which reflect partook of the same order and regularity the highest credit, not only on the foresight which distinguished those in the whole line and good taste of those by whom the of the Bridge. The order of the barges arrangements were planned, but also on appointed to receive the royal party was the discipline and good order of the se- committed to Lieut. Cooley, R. N. The veral parties on whom their execution stairs leading from Somerset-house, as well devolved,

as the platform, were covered with dark Many of the boats and barges which cloth, over which was laid red cloth in that were to form the double line from Somer- part by which their Majesties were to pass,

OPENING OF THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.

419 * At the end of the stairs were placed two of their Majesties' approach. Everybody splendid union jacks, of rich silk, and of rushed to the side of the Bridge. A royal immense size, but they were not unfolded salute was fired from the brig stationed off until a few moments before the arrival of Southwark Bridge, the shouts from the the Royal party,

people on the river increased, the bells of The Royal Family and their Majesties' the churches struck up a merry peal, and LL. suite assembled at the Palace about two in a few minutes the foremost of the royal 26 o'cl

and at quarter before three the barges was discovered making its way so e grand procession, consisting of twelve car- through the centre arch of Southwark

riages, was formed in the gardens of the bridge. ** Palace. The King, who appeared in the It is impossible to give any notion, by

Windsor uniform, entered the last carriage, description, of the enthusiastic cheering e accompanied by the Queen, the Duchess which accompanied their Majesties from

of Cumberland, and the Duchess of Cam- Southwark-bridge to the landing-place at & bridge.

London-bridge.
At three o'clock the hoisting of the Royal Their Majesties proceeded to the top of

Standard of England over the centre of the stairs without resting, although sofas La Somerset-house announced the arrival of had been placed on the landing-places for

their Majesties. The signal was received the use of their Majesties in case they
with loud huzzas from the crowds on the should feel themselves fatigued with the
water and at both sides, and was followed long ascent. His Majesty walked up the
by discharges of cannon of all sorts from tremendous flight of steps without the
the wharfs and barges. A guard of honour, slightest appearance of fatigue.
of the Foot Guards, with their band, and Upon reaching the top of the stairs, the
also the bands of the household troops, sword and keys of the city were tendered
were in the square of Somerset-house, and to his Majesty by the Lord Mayor. His
received their Majesties on their arrival, the Majesty was graciously pleased to return
bands playing the national anthem, which them to the Lord Mayor, and to signify
was responded to by loud and continued his wish that they should remain in his
cheering from the surrounding crowds. Lordship's hands. The chairman of the
1. When the King and Queen appeared on committee then presented his Majesty with
the steps descending to the platform from a gold medal, commemorative of the open-
which they were to embark, the cheers ing of the Bridge, having on one side an
were renewed so as to be almost deafening. impression of the King's head, and, on the
Their Majesties graciously acknowledged reverse, a well-executed view of the new
the compliment by bowing repeatedly to Bridge, with the dates of the present cere-
the assembled multitudes. His Majesty mony and of the laying of the first stone.
looked extremely well, and descended the As soon as these formalities were com-
stairs with a firm step, declining the aid of pleted, and the whole of the royal party
the proffered arm of one of the lords of had assembled in the Pavilion, their Ma-
his suite.

jesties proceeded to the end of the Bridge Upon his Majesty's arriving opposite amidst that most grateful music to a mothe barges, the band struck up, “God save narch's ears, the enthusiastic plaudits of a the King;" and the discharge of cannon people. Their Majesties were attended by seemed to attract the attention of his Ma- their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Cum. jesty, who graciously condescended to berland and Sussex, and by the principal acknowledge the compliment by taking off members of the royal family. The officers his hat. Between Southwark and London of the royal household, nearly all the mibridges the scene on the river, at both nisters, and a vast number of the nobility, sides, was equally grand with that above and of the members of the House of Com Blackfriars.

mons, composed the royal procession. The procession moved very slowly along Among these were Sir Robert Peel and his in its way down, from the very considerate lady. In going to and returning from the wish of their Majesties that all those in the Surrey end of the Bridge, their Majesties line should have a full opportunity of see- threw medals to the spectators on each ing the royal party.

In consequence of side. this slow progress, it was past 4 o'clock As soon as it was announced that their before the royal barges reached the Bridge. Majesties were approaching the Bridge, The coup d'æil from the Bridge was of a Mr. Green had caused his balloon to be novel and striking character.

filled, and, just as the Royal procession Shortly after 4 o'clock, the loud and reached the Surrey side of the Bridge, general cheering from the river gave signal Mr. Green, with a Mr. Crawshay for his

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are registered ; and has led to the discovery of the same year, 160,000 - ditto, 25 April, of innumerable important and curious facts, 1809, 40,000; ditto, 5 October, ditto, and disclosed the existence of whole classes 36,000; ditto, 13 Dec., 1810, 160,000 ; of celestial objects, of a nature so wonderful ditto, Holland, Rome, Tuscany, and the as to give room for unbounded speculation Hanseatic Towns, 1808-9-10, 11,066 ; on the extent and construction of the uni- ditto, 20 Dec. 1811, 120,000 ; ditto, 13 verse.

March, 1812, 100,000 ; ditto, 1 Sep., ditto, Among these, perhaps, the most remark- 137,000; ditto, 11 Jan., 1813, 100,000; able are ihe revolving double stars, or stars ditto, 11 Jan., 1814, 150,000; ditto, ditto, which, to the naked eye, or to the inferior (Guards of Honour,) 10,000 ; ditto, 3 telescopes, appear single; but, if examined April, 1813, (classes 1807, 1812,) 80,000; with high magnifying powers, are found to dito, ditto, (National Guard,) 90,000 consist of two individuals placed almost ditto, 24 Aug., 1813, (Dept. of the South, close together, and which, when carefully 30,000; ditio, 19 Oct., ditto, (remaining watched, are (many of them) found to re- Dep.,) 120,000; ditto, ditto, (class 1815,) volve in regular elliptic orbits about each 160,000; ditto, 15 Nov., 1813, arrears other; and, so far as we have yet been able 1804 and 1814,) 300,000. Total of levies, to ascertain, to obey the same laws which 2,965,965. This detail, which is derived regulate the planetary movements. There from Napoleon's official journal, the Moniis nothing calculated to give a grander idea teur, under the several dates, is deficient in of the scale on which the sidereal heavens the excesses which were raised beyond the are constructed than these beautiful systems. levies ; but even if we deduct' the home When we see such magniticent bodies united casualties, as well as the 300,000' men dis in pairs, undoubtedly by the same bond of banded in 1815, we shall be much under mutual gravitation which holds together our the mark in affirming, that he slaughtered own system, and sweeping over their enor- two millions and a half of human beings, mous orbits, in periods comprehending many and these all Frenchmen. But we have centuries, we admit at once that they must yet to add the thousands and tens of thoube accomplishing ends in the creation which sands of Germans, Swiss, Poles, Italians, will remain for ever unknown to man; and Neapolitans, and Illyrians, whom he forced that we have here attained a point in science under his eagles, and, at a moderate compuwhere the human intellect is compelled to tation, these cannot have fallen short of acknowledge its weakness, and to feel that half a million. It is obviously just to no conception the wildest imagination can

assume, that the number who fell on the form, will bear the least comparison with side of his adversaries was equal to that the intrinsic greatness of the subject.-- against which they were brought. Here, Herschel's Discourse on Natural Philo- then, are our data for asserting,' that the sophy.

latter years of his glory were purchased at

no less a cost than six millions of human NAPOLEON'S SACRIFICE OF HUMAN LIFE.

lives. This horrible inroad on the fairest Never was there a conqueror who fired portion of the population of Europe ended more cannon, fought more battles, or over- in the abandonment of every conquered threw more thrones, than Napoleon. But territory, the bringing of foreign enemies we cannot appreciate the degree and quality twice, within four-and-twenty months, under of his glory, without weighing the means he the walls of Paris, and the erasure of his possessed, and the results he accomplished. name from the records of dominion ! O Enough for our present purpose will be curas hominum ! O quantum est in rebus gained, if we set before us the mere re- inane! sources of flesh and blood which he called into play, from the rupture of the peace of Amiens, in 1804, down to his eventful exit. At that time he had, as he declared to Lord

THE REVOLUTION OF JULY, 1830. Whitworth, an army on foot of 480,000 As no property had been destroyed, and no men. The decree of the 17 Ventose, an. industry perceptibly interrupted, the only VIII., in arrear, 30,000; ditto 28 Floreal, luss to be deplored on the part of the people an. X., 120,000; ditto, 6 ditto, an. XI., was the blood which had been shed in the 120,000 ; ditto 25 Ventose, XIII., 2,000; commotion; and, on this subject there has ditto 3 Germinal, an. XIII., 30,000; ditto been great exaggeration. Life, indeed, was 27 Nivose, an. XIII., 60,000; ditto, 3 Aug., profusely scattered on the two last days; 1806, 80,000 ; ditto, 4 Dec., ditto, 80,000; prodigally thrown away on the part of the ditto, 7 April, 1807, 80,000; ditto, 21 people, and mercilessly destroyed by the January, 1808, 80,000; ditto, 10 Sep., hands of the guards; but the number of

KILLED AND WOUNDED IN PARIS DURING

THE MASSACRE OF THE JEWS AND LEPERS.

417

THE MASSACRE OF THE JEWS AND LEPERS.

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victims has been ridiculously magnified by whole number of killed and wounded, to wondering ignorance or factious prejudice. about three thousand, including soldiers as Accounts have been published, in which well as citizens. The number of killed and more of the troops are slaughtered than wounded of the guards, gendarmerie, and came into action, and in which thousands of other troops, exposed during the three days the people are represented as killed, who to the attacks of the people, is stated by have probably swelled the crowds of subse- official accounts at three hundred and quent riots. When we hear of grape-shot seventy-five, of which the killed are about a sweeping the streets in an instant, of cart- fifth part, or about seventy-five. Of these, loads of dead being carried from the field of the Swiss composed about a fourth.- Dr. battle after a discharge, we naturally ima- Lardner's Cabinet Library, Vol. III., gine that the slaughter of forty or fifty hours' being. Vol. I. of Annual Retrospect of fighting must be immense. But this is a Public Affairs for 1831. wrong view of the case. Except at the Hotel de Ville on Wednesday, and before the colonnade of the Louvre on Thursday, the citizens never presented themselves in a The Jews, who had been persecuted and compact body before the troops. They fired banished from France by Philip the Fair, from windows or corners, from behind and restored by his successor, as necessary to pillars or parapets, but never uselessly ex- the existence of the state, once again became posed themselves to the discharges of the the objects of popular hatred, not only on guards. On the other hand, the troops on account of their religion, and because their the Tuesday and Thursday suffered little; wealth rendered them the ready objects of because, on the former day, the people were plunder, but also from a new accusation, to not armed, and on the latter the soldiers which so ignorant an age alone would have were protected by the interposition of large listened. A pestilential or epidemic disspaces between them and their assailants. ease was at this time scourging France, where

When scattered through the streets on bad living and dearth of provisions rendered Wednesday, their loss was considerable, but such infectious disorders very fatal. To acit would, perhaps, be overstated at five hun- count for the present pestilence, it was said dred men killed and wounded. On this that the Jews had accepted a bribe from the subject we have fortunately a statement Mahometan princes, and had undertaken to of fact, on which considerable reliance can poison all wells, fountains, and rivers. The be placed, from the pen of Dr. Prosper charge of participation in this crime was ex. Meniere, surgeon in the hospital of the tended to a set of unfortunate wretches, who Hotel Dieu, at Paris, who details the his- were rather the objects of disgust than of tory of what passed in that great infirmary compassion. Those afflicted with the leand other hospitals, " pendant et apres les prosy, who were obliged to live in hospitals trois grands journées," with apparent good apart from the rest of mankind, were stated faith and knowledge. He states, that the to have joined with the Jews in the iniquinumber of dead bodies deposited at the tous project of poisoning the waters of the Morgue amounted to one hundred and kingdom. It was an accusation easily untwenty-five; the number interred under the derstood, and greedily swallowed by the colonnade at the Louvre, to eighty-five; vulgar. The populace, of course, being the number buried on the other side of the already in arms, turned them against the Louvre, at the end of the street Fromenteau, Jews and the lepers, considering both as to twenty-five; in the Marché des Innocens, a species of wretched outcasts, whose sufto seventy; in the vaults of St. Eustache, to ferings ought to interest no healthy Christian. forty-three ; in the vaults of the Quai de Without any formality, of trial or otherwise, Gevres, to thirty-four ; and in the Hotel these ignorant fanatics seized upon great Larochefoucault, to eight: making a total numbers both of the Jews and of the lepers. of three hundred and ninety. The number and tore them to pieces, or burnt them alive of citizens who were wounded, and brought without scruple. "The Jews, though of late to the different hospitals, or attended to at years they may be considered as an unwarlike their own houses, the doctor estimates, from people, have always been remarkable for the the best authority, at about two thousand. obstinacy of their temper, and for their opTo these he adds three hundred of wounded posing to popular fury a power of endursoldiers in the military hospitals. Of those ance which has often struck even their opwho were brought to the hospitals, three pressors with horror. Five hundred of these hundred and four died in the course of a men, upon the present occasion, defended a week. The number of deaths, therefore, castle, into which they had thrown themamounted to about seven hundred ; and the selves, with stones, arrows, javelins, and 20. SERIES. NO. 9. VOL. I.

36

153,- VOL. XIII.

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were

OPENING OF THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.

other missiles, till, having no other weapons set-stairs to London-bridge, and through left, they launched the persons of their living which the royal procession was to pass, children from the walls, on the heads of their bad taken up their appointed stations oe assailants, and finally put each other to the Saturday. sword, rather than die by the hands of the Several of these, particularly those in multitude. At Vitri, also, fifty Jews dis- the lines opposite Somerset-house, were tinguished themselves by a similar act of decorated with all the national flags of horrible despair. They chose with com- Europe, presenting in this, as well as in the posure two of their number, a young woman gay attire of the respectable parties of ladies and an old man, who received the charge to and gentlemen seated on platforms on their put the rest of their company to death. decks, one of the most brilliant and im. Those intrusted with the execution of this posing spectacles that ever rested on the fearful duty executed their intructions with- bosom of old Father Thames. out dispute or resistance on the part of the The balustrades of Waterloo sufferers. When the others were all slain, crowded at an early hour, many persoas the old man next received his death at the having taken up their stations there as early hand of the female, and, to close the tragedy, as between five and six o'clock in the this last either fell or threw herself from the morning. Most of these showed, that, if the walls of the place; but having broken her weather permitted, they were determined thigh-hone in the fall, she was plunged by to “ make a day of it,” for they brought the besiegers alive into the fire which con. with them, not only prog for breakfast, sumed the dead bodies. -Scott's Tales of a lunch, and dinner, but also materials for Grandfather.

their evening repast, and before the close of the day there were not a few quietly enjoying their tea in the line of waggons,

with awnings, which were drawn up along. Tuis grand ceremony, the preparations for side the pathway of the bridge. Some of which had occupied so much attention in these waggons were fitted up with seats, as the metropolis for some time past, took the speculations of the owners; and from place on Monday, August 1, 1831, the the prices demanded, and readily given, anniversary of the battle of the Nile, and we should judge that they turned to good presented the most splendid spectacle that account. Others were stationed there by has been witnessed on the Thames for private parties, for the accommodation of many years. The grand attraction of the their friends, and, considering their temscene was, of course, the presence of their porary character, were very convenient. 7 Majesties, who graciously condescended to The appearance of the front of Somersettake that opportunity of honouring the house added greatly to the effect of the citizens of London with a visit.

whole spectacle. On the whole length of It was originally intended that his the terrace, several tiers of seats were Majesty should have proceeded through erected, which were occupied even at an the park, and have embarked at Whitehall; early hour with a most respectable combut his Majesty, with a truly paternal pany, chiefly ladies, The windows beanxiety to afford the gratification of a view hind, and the tops of the building in every of the procession to the largest number of place which could command a view, were the inhabitants of the metropolis, consented also thronged with spectators. to embark at the stairs of Somerset-house. At Mr. Calvert's premises, tiers of seats By this alteration, the whole of the pro- were erected to a very considerable extent cession was visible to all the inhabitants of for the accommodation of the friends of Pall-mall, Cockspur-street, and the greater “the house,” who, we understood, to the part of the Strand, and a vast addition was number of 1,000, were also sumptuously made to the splendid arrangements of regaled on this occasion. the day.

The arrangements made at SomersetThe preparations were carried into effect house for the reception of their Majesties, with a precision and regularity which reflect partook of the same order and regularity the highest credit, not only on the foresight which distinguished those in the whole line and good taste of those by whom the of the Bridge. The order of the barges arrangements were planned, but also on appointed to receive the royal party was the discipline and good order of the se- committed to Lieut. Cooley, R. N. The véral parties on whom their execution stairs leading from Somerset-house, as well devolved,

as the platform, were covered with dark Many of the boats and barges which cloth, over which was laid red cloth in that were to form the double line from Somer- part by which their Majesties were to pass.

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