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Bonds of Better Understanding-2

Agencies That Are Promoting International Friendships

1. The National Student Forum plans a unique speaking tour. 2. The university women of many nations are banding together.

3. The "International House" a step in the right direction. 4. Women of all lands who oppose war are uniting forces.

HE Student Forum, an

Taffiliation of liberal groups in

American colleges and universities invited six students from European universities to under. take a speaking tour through American institutions. The students are from England, Denmark, Holland, Germany and CzechoSlovakia. Two "missions" will be organized, each of which starting in January, will visit and speak in 25 colleges between the two coasts. The Forum hopes to stimulate student interest in international questions. The plan seems most admirable as a means of overcoming the provincialism of the average American student group.

The Survey, Dec., 15, '22.

The International Federation of University Women is a league of women whose aim is "to promote understanding and friendship between the University women of the nations of the world, and thereby to further their interests and develop between their countries sympathy and mutual helpfulness." Here, on a small scale, in a small cross section of humanity, a little group of women of some 17 different nations are today proving world friendship to be a reality, and are gaining from it immense enrichment and enlightenment. They are banded togeth

er in a determined effort to substitute mutual knowledge, sympathy and confidence for the ignorance, jealousy and suspicion that have hitherto characterized international relations. The members of this Society believe, and have indeed already proved it true, that if you get to know a person or a nation you generally find something to like in them, and that only by the knowledge which comes of informal meetings and straightforward and sincere discussion in small groups, only in short by personal relations, can divers national points of view be understood, mutual respect and liking be engendered and the ground prepared for the disposition towards friendliness and cooperation, without which the machinery of the League of Nations is but an empty name.

The International Federation was formed three years ago by the American, British and Canadian Associations of University women federating together. At that time there were only six national associations in existence. During the following two years 11 more were formed, and from messages received from China, Greece, Japan, Poland, South Africa and Switzerland we hope very shortly that 6 more will join us. The American Association is the largest, with over 14,000 members.

One of our chief practical activities at present is the endowment of international fellowships and the provision of facilities for exchange of University teachers and students. The establishment of Club houses in all the great cities of the world is another branch of our work. These are supplemented by local hospitality committees, SO that a University woman travelling in any country shall be at once welcomed by the people in it of her own kind, and in

troduced to those she would be specially interested to meet.

We are but on the threshold of what we believe to be a very far reaching movement, the results of which are incalculable. At present, it would appear that the world is peopled chiefly by madmen bent on self destruction. It is clear from

modern research that with a comparatively small increase of time, money and energy devoted to it, human life could become, from the physical and mental point of view, so infinitely more wonderful and beautiful than it is today as to be scarce. ly recognizable. Everyone could have sunshine and fresh air, wholesome and pleasant food, change of scene, practically everyone could be healthy, strong and vigorous, and enjoy interesting work and happy leisure. But the nations cannot spare the time or money to follow up these clues, leading to physical and mental vigor, liberation and enrichment, for they are too busy fomenting quarrels and piling up armaments in preparation for a war which, if it comes, it is generally recognized must mean the extinction of civilization as we know it. Only one thing can prevent such a catastrophe, and that is the mental enlightenment and consequent will to peace of the larger proportion of the individuals forming the nations.

Caroline F. E. Spurgeon, Our World, Dec. '22.

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Tomb, will accommodate 500 resident students and will be unrestricted as to religion, nationality, race or color. This building with its assembly and social rooms, cafeteria and gymnasium, is expected to fill a long-felt need in the lives of strange boys and girls coming to study in and near New York, who have found it difficult to procure living quarters near their study halls. The director of the club states:

"The club's purpose is to unite for mutual benefit, socially, intellectually and morally, students of all the schools in New York; to promote friendly relations between foreign and American students and to bring foreign students in contact with American home life. Dinners are given frequently at the homes of the club's well-wishers, excursions are planned to interesting places, and on 'national nights' the different groups exhibit their music, art, manners and customs. International forums are also held, at which questions of national and international scope are discussed in order to bring about sympathetic understanding of the various viewpoints of the different groups."

Mr. Rockefeller, who it is said has been much impressed by the club's service, stated in his letter of gift that he was glad to be identified with an undertaking whose "possibilities for good seem almost limitless."

New York Times, Dec. 17, '22.

The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom has Jane Addams as President, with Professor Emily G. Balch in the International Office in Geneva. It aims at binding together women in every country who oppose all war and who desire to promote "the creation of international relations of mutual cooperation and good will in which all wars shall be impossible; the establishment of political, social and moral quality between men and women; the introduction of these principles into all systems of education."

This organization has sections functioning in 21 countries and publishes at Geneva a weekly paper deal. ing with the International activities of women.

Our World, Dec. '22.

Bonds of Better Understanding-3

Condensed from Our World

William Pierson Merrill

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The church is making such a beginning. The "World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through the Churches," officially indorsed by many church bodies, is rapidly gaining power and influence. It is based on a simple convictionthat the church of Christ, in all its parts, and in all countries, ought to act as leading agent for good will between nations; and that it can so act at once. With this goes another conviction, that the best way to foster the spirit of good will is to bring men of different races and points of view face to face in a common spirit of faith and hope and good will.

The Conference held in Copenhagen in August was an impressive demonstration of the widespread and deep feeling in the church that it must stand for good will between nations and races. About 250 men and women were present, strong and representative figures-the best of many denominations from 26 coun

tries. Live topics were discussed in virile fashion, such as the rights and wrongs of minorities, and disarmament. Hot words were spoken; nothing was covered up or smoothed over. But the spirit of good will was ever present and prevailed as the predominant note in the gathering. The French and German delegates clashed over disarmament, and it was a dramatic moment when a report on the subject was unanimously adopted, the leaders of the German and French groups standing with clasped hands. One felt that the spirit of Christ can indeed bring and hold men together despite all their tragic differ

ences.

What did the Conference accomplish? It adopted strong resolutions on the Rights of Minorities and on Disarmament; voiced emphatically the Christian condemnation of war; called all Christians to be apostles of good will; sent greetings to the League of Nations, to which it refer. red the question of justice to oppressed minorities. But the chief results were not in word, but in fact. It made the men present more aware of the vast possibilities that lie in Christian fellowship, and in the common faith and spirit of Christians everywhere. It confirmed the hope and courage of the national councils in the 26 nations which had part in the movement. It sent back to every nation a group of church leaders, better-informed about their neighbors, surer that men of other races and nationalities are like themselves with a new generosity of outlook, and a new determination to stand for good will as the practicable solution of the desperate state of world affairs.

It set forces in motion that may mean much. A Scotch minister of the best type, Alexander Ramsay, was taken from his church in London and appointed organization Secretary for Europe. He is bringing about group conferences at critical points, Hungarian churchmen with Roumanian, Polish with German, and the like. Long strides were taken toward the holding, probably in 1925, of a Universal Conference of the Churches of Christ, to consider the common life and work of the churches. All Christian bodies will participate in that conference, except the Roman church.

Leaders in the Roman Catholic Church have expressed warm interest in the proposed conference of religions. The Board of Trustees of the Church Peace Union is made up of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews.

While the World Alliance Movement has been able thus far to bring into effective cooperation only Protestant and Greek forces, beginnings have been made of a parallel movement in the Catholic Church, in close touch with the World Alliance.

The American delegation came back resolved to awaken America to her international duty and opportunity, to rouse the religious folk of this coun_ try to demand of the government immediate and fuil cooperation with the other nations of the world. They are starting a campaign which will soon be heard all over the country.

It is only a beginning; but, in a new and hopeful sense of the old phrase, it is the beginning of the end; and the end is the reign of the spirit of brotherhood. Our World, Jan. '23.

(Continued from Page 654)
By Max Nordau

There will be no moral advance internationally until there comes to be a single standard of honesty both for individuals and for nations. A man steals a gold watch, and he is put into prison. A nation steals a gold field. But who is there to put it into prison? In the one case the world calls it theft. In the other, conquest. You see, then, don't you, that might makes right in this civilization of ours? In a real League of Nations there may be salvation. There must be the administration of all the goods of the earth in the interest of all the peoples of the earth-and the spirit that should be behind such an administration!

McCall's Magazine, Jan. '23.

Women in English Elections NGLISH newspapers containing

elections reveal a number of fascinating details which eluded the cables:

While only the two women who already held seats were elected to the new Parliament, the thirty-one women candidates this year received a total of 212,000 votes, or an average of 6,000 per candidate, as against 58,000, or 3,000 per candidate, in 1918.

Forty-two members of the new Parliament are miners: seven are brewers; twenty-three newspaper owners or writers.

Of thirty-two Jewish candidates eleven were returned. Six of these were Conservatives; Mr. Shinwell is the first Jewish representative of the Labor Party to sit in Parliament. The Nation, Jan. 3, '23.

The American Jail

Condensed from The Atlantis Monthl}
Joseph F. Fishman

1. The result of untrained wardens.

2. Reforms needed in our jails. 3. The curse of idleness.

4. The tragedy of innocent sufferers.

5. The Michigan Board.

(Continued from the December) Digest)

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NE of the chief causes of the con. ditions existing in our jails and prisons today is that in so many cases the wardens, and their subordinates, are entirely untrained for their positions. On the one hand, the new warden is surrounded by young persons just starting on the downward path. On the other hand, he has to deal with the most vicious, rescurceful, and determined criminals, quick to take advantage of the slightest opportunity to "beat the game." Into this seething cauldron the new warden is projected. The inevitable reaction takes place. At the end of a year or two, after he has found that the vicious class has deceived and imposed upon him, the bewildered and disillusioned official entirely loses sight of the human element and looks upon every man or woman in his charge, whether young or old, convicted or unconvicted, as an utterly hopeless scoundrel, who is not entitled to any more consideration than a beast. He entirely loses sight of the other class-the smaller class it is true, but nevertheless sufficient in numbers many times over to justify efforts at reclamation. It follows, then, as a matter of course, that every method of administration is designed, not to help the smaller

class, but to hold in check the more vicious class.

The State of Michigan is an encouraging illustration of what a state can do toward remedying conditions in its penal institutions. Michigan, like a very few other states, has a law under which the State Board of Charities can condemn and close institutions which are unfit. Michigan also makes a particular effort to separate the juveniles from the older offenders. This Board is doing a splendid work in the right direction. But, even so, many Michigan jails are still dirty, out of date, and the great curse of idleness is still the prevail. ing condition.

2. It seems very clear that, if we are to reduce danger to the community and check the tremendous social and economic loss due to crime, we must first reform the jails. First of all, they should be kept clean. Every jail should have a sufficient number of shower baths-not tubsand a sufficient amount of hot water at all times. Every prisoner should be compelled to take a bath immediately upon his arrival, and at regular intervals thereafter. Not five per cent of the jails of the country have compulsory-bathing rules. If the prisoner is found to have vermin, he should be at once separated from the others, and his clothes fumigated.

Of course, the overcrowding in many jails should be discontinued, and every prisoner allowed the amount of cubic space which physicians hold necessary to health. This is now the exception instead of the rule. And that the heating should be sufficient, and the plumbing modern, is too obvious to require comment. There should certainly be a

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