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ment, gathered every noon for their one adequate meal of the day. A celebrated chemist said that he had been obliged to give up plans for a holiday picnic for his wife and children because now it would cost fifteen cents instead of ten for the luncheon and carfare. Another professor arrived and was hailed by the tables because he had just received a suit from a friend in America. It was too small, but that did not matter. The man's other suit was patched and threadbare from seven years' continuous wear. A professor of history was discouraged because street-car fares had gone up, and this increase of his budget would force him to get up an hour earlier and walk four miles down town.
Another professor announced that a well-known lawyer was about to solve his economic problem by taking a job as a chauffeur. The consensus of opinion seemed to be that the man was lucky to have found such a job. "At least he will not have to live on $20 a month as I do," said the chemist. "You are fortunate; I make only $11," said an under professor. "See my boots; and I cannot buy new ones this winter." He revealed shoes tied to his feet by extra shoelaces. They had been mended and remended many times until the leather would no longer hold the stitches.
Thousands of the hunger-ridden population go on foraging expeditions every Saturday and Sunday, walking great distances with packs of goods on their backs to exchange for food. The peasants are not often willing to accept worthless crowns for their products. The Viennese must bring them instead bolts of cloth, aprons, stockings shirts, or some coveted for the women.
Many members of the fallen aristocracy cannot be convinced that the present state of things is to continue. They meet among themselves and talk vaguely of a new
regime, a dictator of their own class, who will restore their lands and social position. In one palace a baroness is living, surrounded by valuable paintings and first editions which she refuses to sell. Last winter she had no money to buy coal and was obliged to remain in bed during zero weather.
4. On the edge of the city the traveler will come upon curious little patches of gardens, each with a makeshift fence and a wooden building that looks like a child's playhouse. Women and children are weeding and carrying water. They do not waste ground by having paths, but step carefully between the plants. There is no end to these garden homes. They surround the city like a ragged girdle, and are the result of the housing famine that has driven thousands of families to live here in huts, even in cold weather. The housing crisis in Vienna is the worst in history. All dwellings, whether palaces or tenements, are listed and the number of rooms compared with the number of persons. After the comparison, all available space is commandeered by the city. Baronesses and wives of workingmen alike are forced to take in lodgers. No one may have an extra room while homeless thousands are sleeping in barracks, parks, and freight cars. The congestion is due to the fact that all building ceased during the war, also that war profiteers flocked to the city from the provinces, followed by thousands of recalled Austrian officials.
The Health Department's report states that 90 per cent of the children under twelve years have symptoms of rickets from undernourishment, and that 50 per cent of those between twelve and six have tubercular infections. Having nearly perished the child life of the city was salvaged by American relief organizations, which established hospitals, dispensaries, and health centers, while feeding and clothing thousands of adults.
The Increasing Use of Drugs
Condensed from Hearst's International (Feb.)
1. Dope a much greater menace than realized.
2. Some small towns use more than all New York hospitals. 3. The dope fiend's 3 drugs. 4. The greatest single breeder of crime.
5. The increasing use of drugs.
OPE may seem very unreal to you and very remote. Yet there is a dope problem. It is an American problem which increases from day to day and demands immediate consideration. Actually it concerns every city and town in the country. By official government estimate there are from one to four million drug addicts in the United States. This country now. dope than all the rest of the world combined. You can buy it almost where and how you will. And these facts are based on irrefutable and scientific evidence.
2. Somerset, Kentucky, is a lovely place of five thousand inhabitants, as decent a community as you could find, the center of a prosperous farming countryside, with no underworld, no slums. An entry in the books of a wholesale drug concern sent one of our investigators lately to Somerset to inspect the affairs of Stigall, the druggist. This gentleman had, in the past 18 months, filled 5,000 prescriptions for morphin, a matter of 200 ounces. A surgeon administers one-eighth of a grain of morphin before a major operation. quarter of a grain will put the average individual to sleep. An ounce contains 437 grains. Doctors wrote
the prescriptions which the drug store filled. Dr. Bolin wrote 1,197 prescriptions during these 18 months. Dr. Jasper did not even require the shelter of an office for his prescribing. Dr. Cain prescribed morphin to 500 different persons. Our investigators examined addicts in Somerset. One woman of forty said:
"The doctor started giving it to me for rheumatism. Now I couldn't work if I didn't take it. About half the town is using it."
No epidemic. Only a normal community of 5,000 people, who used 202 ounces of morphin in 18 months. The people weren't sick. In 1921 the Bellevue and allied hospitals in New York, to which all of New York's accident and emergency cases go, used only 922 ounces for the treatment of 64,103 patients and the 27 principal hospitals of Philadelphia absorbed only 90 ounces of morphinless than half the amount absorbed in Somerset. And you can match the story of Somerset in every state in the Union. We have found dozens of villages similarly stricken by this thing. 3.
Cocain, morphin and heroin are the three drugs of the dope prob. lem. They rank among the most valuable medicines known to man. They have been perverted to create the most wicked and destructive of his vices. Cocain, made from coca leaves of South America, is the murderous stimulant of the disreputable. Raise alcohol to the Nth power and you have cocain. A cocain jag is a whisky jag intensified to frenzy. The "dope-fiend" sniffs cocain from his hand-his "snow" forms the most demoralizing habit of all three of these drugs. He is completely and
unutterably vicious. Morphin, by contrast, seems a respectable article. Morphin allays pain and quiets the nerves. The morphin user may have commenced his addiction during illness. Under the influence of this drug he is more pitiable than dangerous, though he will turn criminal to secure the dose he craves. The cocain sniffer indulges his hunger for a "kick." The morphin addict seeks his drug to halt the real torture of doing without, bows to his agonized need for a sedative which will restore his body to working shape and make his life endurable. He may take his drug in tablets; he is likely to prefer the hypodermic needle. Heroin combines the iniquities of morphin and cocain, for it adds stimulant to sedative.
4. But the menace of dope is far more important than the physical misery of its victims. Says Dr. Lockwood, Superintendent of the correctional institutions of Minneapolis: "Where one crime can be traced to liquor, a hunDope dred are the result of drugs." is undoubtedly the greatest single breeder of crime. The situation becomes all the more serious because the ear-marks of a drug habit are not obvious. You can recognize a drunkard at a glance. The moderate drug addict may well defy any but the most painstaking medical examination.
5. Customs entries show that over the last 50 years our annual importation of opium containing nine per cent and over of morphin has increased more than twice as fast as our population. The same period saw the war on narcotic patent medicines, hence the medical demand for opium should have decreased. A report made in 1919 by the Treasury Department averaged the per capita consumption of opium in different countries. In Germany the average ran 2 grains; in France, 3 grains; in the United States, 36 grains. The American Medical Association believes that about two per cent of the population are sick in the course of any normal
year. If we accept the conservative government estimate of a million drug addicts in this country, then that number is equal to half the total number of American sick each year.
And the thing increases. The total legal importation of drugs for the first eight months of 1922 gained 40,000 pounds over the same total for 1921. Dr. Alexander Lambert of New York has tabulated the opiates prescribed by hospitals in every part of the country and of every sort. After allowing a generous 10,000 pounds over his closest calculation to cover the requirements of the country doctor who has no hospital at his disposal, and the needs of dentists and veterinarians, he finds that we import through our customs houses about ten times the amount of opium our doctors require. Beyond and above all this, so the 1919 government report concludes "there is the so-called underground traffic which is estimated to be equal in magnitude to that carried on through legitimate channels which is the affair of the so-called dope peddlers who appear to have a national organization for procuring and disposing of their supplies," which has developed "to enormous proportions in recent years and is a serious menace at the present time." Further, the government estimates that "about seventy-five per cent of the cocain manufactured annually in this country is used for illict purposes and this does not include that quantity which is smuggled into the country of which no estimate can be made."
To meet such conditions, the Federal Government employs 173 Narcotic Enforcement Agents. It is a woefully light brigade. The Boston office musters six men to discipline New England. One agent's territory includes the three Pacific Coast States and Nevada. During 1922, a total of 6,651 cases of criminal violation of the narcotic laws were reported to the Federal authorities with 71,151 ounces of narcotic drugs brought into government possession by seizure. There are peddlers who go abroad and to Canada and bring their stocks home with them in their trunks. There are dealers who operate through every legitimate channel known, and somehow pay no duty and go unmolested. The Federal Agent in New York seized smuggled narcotics from the Greek ship King Alexander in New York harbor that all but sank his launch.
A New Day in Pictures
Condensed from McCall's Magazine (Feb.)
For years Gene Stratton-Porter has been receiving tremendous offers for the film rights to her enormously popular books (of which ten million copies have been sold), but she has refused to consider them fearing her stories would be marred in an unsympathetic transition from the book to the screen. And so it happens that this famous author is now in Hollywood, filming her own stories.
HE salacious pictures of recent years were the result of wonderful box-office returns, which made producers believe that they were the kind of picture the public demanded. Then certain pictures began to be record-breakers, to stand outside all past experiences in popularity. They were "The Miracle Man," "The Four Horsemen," "The Old Nest," "Over the Hill," "The Silent Call," and "Grandma's Boy," the last two of the list being such record-breakers that they forced home the great and shining truth that the picture which the great mass of our people demands is a plain, simple presentment of life and character, absolutely devoid of any salacious touch, stripped of suggestiveness, and in such settings as those to which we are daily accustomed. They settle forever the distressing question: "What kind of picture do the people want?" The pictures listed above are pioneers in this direction. Big, beautifully conceived and executed pictures, improved in many mechanical ways, have been coming out the past year, and a long list of such wonderful
and uplifting pictures as the world has not previously dreamed of, are in the making. I know of no single producer who has not rallied to the standard carried by Will Hays. Producers, directors, actors, the entire industry has felt the magnetism of this great leader.
In another way, which I hope to see mended speedily, moving pictures have failed a large part of its audience. On the screen working people are portrayed living in beautiful houses, finely furnished, they are fashionably dressed and riding in automobiles, enjoying a degree of luxury far above the day laborer of the audience, and he justly feels that somewhere, somehow, he has lost out in Life's deal and is not getting his deserts, and rebellious thoughts begin to fill his mind. Elaborate settings, costumes and unfair portrayal of the daily life of the working people have done much in this country toward breeding unrest and Bolshevism. The class of pictures that are going big today, "Grandma's Boy," for example, shows that thoughtful producers have taken heed to this very point, and carefully dressed their sets to correspond with the real life the picture portrays.
A new day has been ushered in for pictures. At last the public may have what cultured, far-seeing folk long have hoped for, sane, clean, educative and superbly beautiful pictures. This being the case it is now up to every man and woman of our land to forget the past of movingpictures. There is such a little bit of that past, it should not require great effort.
Bonds of Better Understanding-4
Agencies That Are Promoting International Friendships
ALK about broadcasting American idealism, here it is. Women have found the way. Ten million churchwomen of the United States and Canada launched out on a great adventure and were promptly reenforced by students from Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, Goucher, Mount Holyoke, and sixty other women's colleges in these countries. Through their united efforts seven colleges for women have been established in the Orient, including a women's medical college in India, where a familiar proverb runs "Educating a woman is like putting a knife in the hands of a monkey.'
An old Japanese proverb says, "When women are friends men do not fight." Well, if it's as easy as that there need never be another war-certainly not between the East and the West. Women believe that it is more important to build friendships than it is to build battleships, and enlightened women on five continents are rapidly coming to the same view.
Because this great adventure is based on friendliness, even the Governments and high dignitaries of the Old World are accepting it demonstration of good-will from the women of the West to the women of the East. Oriental women, so many of whom live in the dark shadows of old superstitions and traditions, call it "a gift from the sunny side of the world."
No wonder the coolie women of India carried bricks with which to build Vellore Medical College, which was opened in 1918, for in all of that vast country there are only 159 women doctors to minister to 150,
000,000 women. Yet only a woman doctor can attend the secluded women of India. Would Hindu women ever take so radical a step as to study medicine? Well, last year 150 were turned away for lack of room.
Yes, the light is breaking through to women in the Far East. "The world is made for women, too," is the motto over the door of the first women's club in India. Think of ita real modern women's club in India, where only one per cent of the women can read; where millions and millions of women never saw a doctor or a nurse; where a million girls are dedicated to prostitution as temple girls, being "married to the gods"; where over ten per cent of the women are married under ten and over fifty per cent under fifteen years of age; where maternity at twelve is the common lot! In India, as you read these words, there are nine million child wives, many of them betrothed in babyhood and destined to be widowed before they are women.
America should have pride in the fact that our college girls are standing squarely with the churchwomen in this great undertaking for the submerged millions of women on the other side of the world. This is the first world-wide effort to make the younger generation understand one another-and this understanding may be the key to world peace that will last forever. Every girl in Ginling College in China has a friend to write to in Smith College, and she writes her letters in English, too. And how Chinese women need the light! In America we have an average of one doctor to every 750 people; in China the average is one to every 400,000 people. Ninety per cent of all the people who become ill in China are without medical attention.
Every one of us should have a part in this great adventure of world neighborliness. This is woman's greatest adventure in internationalism. If you are interested in it write to the Joint College Committee, 300 Ford Building, Boston. Ida Clyde Clarke in Pictorial Review, Feb.