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The fire began in the Armenian quarter on September 13, where looting and massacring had been going on for three days and nights steadily and where not a single Armenian remained. The doors had been smashed in and the furniture thrown into the street. The fire spread with incredible rapidity under pressure of the wind down toward the European and Greek quarters and finally destroyed practically all of the modern and best part of the city, including the American, British and French consulates. As the people were driven out of their homes they were all massed upon the quay. Truth compels me to say that the conduct of the Turks was abominable. They went among these distressed people and robbed them with insatiable greed. There was no general massacre of people on the quay, but killing was frequent and the violation of women went on continually. The most hideously sickening feature of it all was that in the harbor, but a few yards distant, there was a powerful fleet of British, French, Italian and American war-ships, to which these people were stretching their hands and vainly shrieking for help. It is impossible for Americans who have not seen massacres and deportations to realize the horror of the situation.
Hatred of the Greeks in the Near East has been largely fostered by British and American business men. The foreigner is able to exploit the Turk and get rich out of him, but he cannot exploit the Greek or Armenian who is just as shrewd as he is. In all the great foreign business houses of Turkey all the bookkeepers, clerks and confidential employees are native Christians. It would be absolutely impossible to replace these people by Turks. On the other hand, of course, the internal politics of Greece has also cast the blight of hatred upon the Greeks. I have no hope for Greece, in the future, since the Greeks, like Christians in general, are so bitterly divided among themselves.
It is sad, but seemingly true, that the Christian religion as a vital force for redeeming the world has been seriously impaired since the great war. All missionaries know that it has become extremely difficult to preach Christianity to Mussulman peoples as the creed of
peace. Christianity is now regarded as the religion of the battle-ship, the submarine, the bombing-plane, the machine-gun and poisoned gas. It suffered already from the weakness of being divided into bitterly hostile sects, as, for example, Catholics and Protestants. The effervescence of Islam in India over the possible fate of Constantinople is well known; Mussulmans, though they possess many sects, are nevertheless united in their opposition to Christianity. The elimination and extermination of the Christians from Turkey will largely deprive our mission institutions of their pupils. These schools were doing a great work in educating the most progressive population, Greeks, Armenians and other Christians. In my long life in the Orient I have never known any Turk to be converted. I knew one concerning whom a rumor said he had been converted, but he was promptly murdered by the Turks.
The sight of the battle-fleets lying in the harbor of Smyrna without a word of protest during the massacring of Christians has given great courage to the Turks. This is an era of triumphant Islam. What security have the few remaining Christians in Turkey? Statesmen know really that the day of Christianity in Turkey is over and, since Turkey is a country of incredible wealth, they naturally do not wish to compromise their business interests in the Mussulman regime that will ensue.
What is to be the future of the Ottoman Empire? Polygamy is one of the fundamentals of the Turk's religion. If he has only one wife, it is because he cannot afford two, and if he has only two, it is because he cannot afford three. Mahomet, whose example is an inspiration to all Turkish manhood, was a polygamist. Can women of a polygamous nation help to save it? The Turk is slow-witted, destructive. I do not believe that the leopard can change its spots over night. I believe that the Turk is a warrior and that whatever settlement is made at Lausanne, it will yet be necessary for somebody to stop this brave and efficient soldier on the field of battle. The Turk is deeply religious. He believes that in wiping out the Christian centers in Turkey he is performing the work of God, and when he massacres Christians, he does so for God and the Prophet. When he knocks a Christian down and jumps on his face with his heavy boots, he acts in the spirit in which the Christian smashes the head of a snake. Any student of history knows that the Turk is unique among all Christian, Mussulman and Buddhist races as having made no contribution to civilization. Among other Mussulmans he has great prestige; but it is prestige derived from the legend that he is the man who can make Europe tremble.
Recent Trends in Protestantism
Condensed from Scribner's Magazine
1. The community church, and other evidences of increasing unity.
2. The trend toward letting the congregation "do something." 3. New church homes fitted to the needs of the community.
HE head of the Allied chaplains in the Great War and also chaplain of the late pope,had been telling fascinating tales of the way in which, during the war, all faiths worshipped together under the same roof and vied with each other in acts of kindly service. With evident approval, he had told of a Jewish rabbi who, in the absence of a priest, had administered the last sacrament to a Roman Catholic soldier, and how he himself had prayed with a dying Presbyterian soldier. The moment seemed opportune, and so, over the tea-cups, I asked him what he thought of the possibility of Christian unity.
With a captivating smile he replied: "I am going to be saucy! I have heard that once certain sects withdrew from the church. Judging by the way things are going in these sects, the time is not far distant when they I will ask to come back into the church. When they do, we shall be very glad to receive them."
It must be admitted that things have not been going altogether well with "the sects." A majority of the Protestant denominations during their early history spurned the ritual and symbolism of the priests. Protestantism has held tenaciously to the right of independent thought, and has usually been open to the reception of new
truth. Its founders were fired by the divine enthusiasm and zeal of the prophets. These prophetic characteristics are the strength and weakness of Protestantism. The recognition of the right of independent thought and the authority of the living prophet go far to explain the rise of the sects and the many divisions which today separate and weaken it. In this age of coordination and cooperation, the fatal effects of these sectarian divisions are becoming ever more glaringly apparConfronted by the problems of rural and village communities, divided Protestantism, with its starved, competing sectarian churches, has thus far signally. failed to meet its responsibility. In the foreign mission fields it has in recent days been compelled to admit its inability to cope with the situation. As a result, plans for united missionary effort are being inaugurated which represent a long stride toward real Christian unity.
In more than 40 towns in the staid New England State of Vermont, Baptist, Methodist, and Congregational churches have wisely blended their resources. The result is the establishment in each town of one strong local church that elicits the cooperation rather than the criticism of the natural leaders of the community. The entire religious and moral atmosphere of the community is being transformed. It is not strange that the movement is spreading, until today there are between 800 and 900 community churches in America. Seven new community churches are being launched each month. Twenty years ago the name was scarcely known. Already sectional conferences are bringing together its leaders and unifying the movement. It promises
soon to become one of the most significant trends in Protestantism, and may furnish a satisfactory solution of the rural problem. The fusion of the four Protestant denominations of Canada and of other denominational bodies in the United States reveal forces working for Christian unity. The work of the Council of Church Boards of Education which brings into cooperative relation the educational resources of 20 leading Protestant denominations, is a potent constructive force, for it works through the educational institutions which are training the church leaders of the future. Protestant unity is coming.
2. Another trend in Protestantism is not yet strongly marked, but there are indications that the tide is strongly setting in. A typical illustrationone of many-may be cited. In one of our American cities the gifted rector suddenly died. A young curate -modest, likable, and with excellent organizing ability-was asked to take the helm until a successor could be secured. He did so on condition that all the members of the church share From the responsibilities with him. the first a new life and atmosphere pervaded the staid old church. and young found their special task and joy in doing it; and enlarged budgets to meet the needs of the rapidly growing membership and the extended community work were taken care of as by magic. Soon the people recognized that no one wished to restore the old type of church, and the young curate (whom every one called by his first name) was asked to become their rector. Today this church, made up of active, working Christians, is fast becoming the most potent religious force in a large city.
The explanation of this rebirth of a church is a simple one, Pyschologists tell us that we are interested in that to which we are able personally to contribute and in nothing else. The Master Teacher knew well this simple and vastly important principle. He saved the men and women who pressed about him, first by believing in
them and then by giving them a task which each could perform. The very essence of the Christianity of Jesus is individual loyalty to the fraternal community expressed in service. Protestantism is gradually grasping this ideal of universal enlistment, and as a result new life is coming back to many dying churches.
The principle of distributed respon sibility applies to the religious services as well. Men never lose their boyish love of "doing something." If the preacher and a highly paid chorus assume all responsibility for the ser vice, the men, as a rule seek more active occupation elsewhere.
It is a frequent subject of wonderment that when Quakers, with their complete absence of ritual, change their church affiliations, they usually join the Episcopal Church. The same bond binds these two faiths very closely together; their democracy in worship, their stout insistence that the individual worshipper shall have a large part in the service.
3. Protestantism to satisfy the needs of men, must give them a more vivid sense of the presence of God. Has it here something to learn from the priest? Most of the world's prophets have been men of the out-ofdoors. They have lived so close to God that they needed no ritual or symbolism. Today the majority of men live in cities, out of touch with nature. There is need, therefore, that the church supply that lack, even though it be through imperfect symbolism. Sermonolatry and the old reaction against all forms of religious symbolism have given Protestantism many an architectural monstrosity that is a barrier rather than an aid to true worship. And yet a hopeful trend is even here discernible. To imitate the mediaeval cathedrals would be false to its traditions. Progressive Protestantism is building, in keeping with the ideals of its prophetic Founder, church homes fitted to the needs of the fraternal community. Here the children in the church-school find a fitting habitat Here the various communal activities centre. Here, amidst symbolism that suggests the presence of the God of beauty and of love, men may learn the joy of worship. In this new type of "meeting-house" all classes in the community may meet with their common Father for communion and cooperative service. (To be continued)
Ideas Suggesting Interesting Possibilities of Wider Development
The First Skyscraper Church On the ground floor of a new skyscraper building in one of the most crowded business districts of Chicago, being erected by the First Methodist Episcopal Church, has been built the church proper, two stories high, and capable, with its balcony, of seating 1,300 persons. On the first floor are also stores, and elevators running to the business offices in the building. Several stories above the first are given over to Sunday-school classes, a pastor's study, and other religious purposes, while the remaining floors are taken up entirely by business offices. The building, 21 stories high, is admirably done in French Gothic, and has a beautiful steeple, with chimes, rising to a height of 556 feet above the street level, one foot higher than the Washington Monument. The building is being erected to give expression to the idea that religion is. not merely a "Sunday matter," but rather an integral part of life which should be of concern to the business man and worker every day in the week. Carrying out this theme, it is planned to hold services at noon throughout the week, and conduct the various charities and activities of the church within "earshot" of the worker.-Popular Mechanics (Feb.).
A "Japan Evening" on the Radio
"The Independent" has made arrangements for an entire evening to be devoted to a Japan programme at the radio broadcasting station at Newark. The programme has been arranged with the cooperation of the Japan Society of America, the presiIdent of which will be one of the speakers. A cabled greeting of good will from the Japanese Government will be read by the Consul General of Japan in New York. It is hoped that the new Japanese Ambassador
will also be present. In addition, there will be Japanese music on Japanese instruments; a rendition of selections from "Madame Butterfly," by a noted soprano; brief talks on Japanese poetry, Japanese art, and travel in Japan; and addresses by Sessue Hayakawa, the Japanese actor and motion picture star, and Mr. Shimidzu, the Japanese tennis champion. This is the first instance where an entire evening has been devoted to the life and culture of a people, in an endeavor to promote a better understanding between two nations. According to the estimate of the New York "Times," the Newark broadcasting station reaches a "listening-in" audience of a million people. The Independent (Jan. 20).
Pensions for a Million Public
One of the greatest reforms of the day is that of providing pensions for superannuated public servants. At least 1,000,000 public employees have been brought within the provisions of these new Civil Service laws, involving obligations of a billion and a quarter dollars. More than 300,000 school teachers can now look forward to the time when they can retire with an annual stipend sufficient to protect their old age from want. These figures concern only persons in the public service. Practically every railroad now pensions its workers; while hundreds of industrial and commercial institutions have adopted pension systems, finding them essential to the efficiency of their staffs. Every Government employee now works with the assurance that after 15 years of service he can retire at the age of 70, except mechanics and letter carriers and post office clerks, who can drop work at 65 and railway postal clerks, who can cease labor at 62. The Government
has always recognized this obligation with its Army and Navy.
The Government itself pays nothing into the pension fund. A deduction of two and one half per cent is made from the salaries of employees and from this accumulation the retiring allowances are made. In case an employee is separated from the public service before reaching retiring age every cent he has contributed is returned with 4 per cent interest. The time is probably not far distant when every prosperous employer of labor will have adopted some plan providing for the future of its workers. Properly regarded it is not philantrophy; it is simply business.
World's Work, (Feb.)
Across the Continent in 28 Hours
If experiments and plans of the post office authorities for night Air Mail Service prove out, mail can be carried from New York to San Francisco in 28 to 30 hours. The plan for night flying includes an emergency landing field every 25 miles, furnished with the proper lights and with a beacon light visible in excess of 25 miles. If the continuous air mail service be established, it will go on record as one of the most valuable contributions ever made to the art of commercial aviation.
Editorial, Scientific American, (Feb.) A New Sherman's March to the Sea The non-southern parts of the country are too inclined to think of the
relations between the races in the Southern States as one of continual ill-feeling and even warfare. The inevitable tendency of journalism to centre on the more exciting phases of existence is responsible for much misapprehension, in this as in other things. Thus the burning of a Negro makes more interesting copy than the description of such a journey as recently took place in Georgia. A Pullman car filled with Negroes, Principal Robert Moton of Tuskegee Institute at their head, made a trip from Atlanta to the Sea, following the route of Sherman's army. The passengers were all leaders of their race in Georgia, for the most part business and professional men; and the purpose of their adventure was to promote racial amity. The proceeding demonstrated the good feeling that exists between the Southern people and the descendants of their former slaves. At every town a stop was made; at every place but one the mayor of the town extended an official welcome. Large meetings, composed of both white and black citizens were held, addressed by both white and black speakers. It was merely a "goodwill tour;" its chief purpose was to advertise the fact that whites and blacks were members of the same community, that they must work as friends, not as foes. The demonstration was not headline making, but it was well worth while. World's Work, (Feb.)
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