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place,' daughter of the great ones,' has a meaning analogous to the Psalmist's' gates of the daughter • of Zion, the city of Melkrab, the great king •;' • who loveth the gates of Zion more than all the • dwellings of Jacob'; and which gates are · open * continually for the reception of the Gentiles, as predicted by Isaiah “, and exhibited to St John. In the words thus analysed and compared, we have a reference to, and are thereby put in mind of, the ingenious work of the tabernacle, which had an aspect forward to Christ', of the imputation of something to us for our benefit, and of the proper exercise of our reasoning faculties, in meditating, or self-examining, all connected with Zion, the church, and introduced with the direct mention of • blessing. How to accommodate this to the eyes is no great difficulty— Blessed are the eyes which • see the things that ye see ",' is a warranted application : Prophesied of before-hand by Isaiah, • All the ends of the earth shall see the salva
tion of our God: Realized to good old Simeon", " Mine eyes have seen thy salvation: Explained and claimed in St John', · Your father • Abraham rejoiced to see my day, and he saw it, and was glad :' To be therefore daily and de
Psalm ix. 14. ' 2 Psalm xlviii. 3. 3 Psalm 1xxxvii. 1.
4 Chap. ls. 11. 14. 5 Rev. xxi. 25, 26.
6 Heb. ix, throughout.
9 St Luke x. 23. & Ch. xxxiii. 20. xxxv. 2. xl. 5. xlix. 7. and more pointedly, lii. 8. 10. 9 St Luke ii. 30.
jo Chap. viii. 56.
voutly' prayed for by the church, collectively and individually, with the Psalmist', 'Open thou mine • eyes, that I may see the wondrous things of thy
law. With this opening, fitting, and strengthening them for the delightful employment, our eyes will be barkuth, · blessings' to us indeed. Without such direction, our most industrious researches, our most philosophic investigations, our most extolled discoveries, will be, if not a curse, at best but vanity and confusion.'
Thy nose as the tower of Lebanon, looking towards Damascus.—A simile this of no easy adjustment in all its branches, as the analytical method, which was so serviceable in the former part of the verse, is not so here. The word for Damascus, puoi, dammesek, though, like Heshbon, the name of a city, is neither of such frequent use nor certain interpretation. As a city, it was long the capital of a great kingdom, sometimes in amity, but more frequently in enmity, with the people of God. And we find it held forth, like Egypt and Babylon, as a type of the church's enemies, and threatened accordingly”, The burden of Damascus • behold Damascus is taken away from being a
city,' &c. And again 3, • I will kindle a fire in • the wall of Damascus,' &c. The word for nose, 98, aph, is known to be much used in scripture, to VOL. II.
siga signify anger, wrath, &c.; and the word for tooking is 1993, zupheh, THOTEUWY, LXX. which implies more than barely looking, and denotes. - looking with
i Psalm cxix, 18.
2 Isaiah xvii. 1. 3 Jerem. xlix. 27.
care' or watching,' and may be employed either in a friendly, or in a hurtful sense, as by the Psalmist', « The wicked, zupheh, watcheth the righteous,
and seeketh to slay him.' So here, the nose looking towards Damascus, which construction the words will bear, may mean a look of anger directed to that hostile quarter: And, to remove any objection from the incongruity of attributing such a disposition to the fair one, let it be remembered, that, though beautiful as Tirzah, and comely as Jerusalem, she is at the same time terrible as an army with banners. And to whom shall she be terrible under these banners of her great Captain, but to his, and her avowed enemies, the Damascuses of either ancient or modern times? But as I am willing to believe that every thing in this heavenly song of loves is designed to convey pleasant ideas, I am happy to find that the words under consideration will bear a more favourable turn. The nose, we know, is the organ of smelling, and the mentioning it here, in apposition to Lebanon, the hill of incense, both in signification and fact, discovers something of an analogy that may be conceived, but cannot be well expressed. This look, therefore, from the tower of Lebanon, the incense tower, towards Damascus, may be construed in a favourable sense, as a look
.: Psalm xxxvii. 32.
of mercy and kindness, of reconciliation and acceptance: Of which we have something of a literal exemplification in St Paul's history, which tells us' how early the incense-look towards Damascus had begun, and with such success, as provoked the persecutors at Jerusalem 'to send an express messenger to put a stop to it, but in vain : And, as we have seen her made a general type for wrath and punishment, here we may view her as a general type for love and blessing, in conformity to, and in fulfilment of, the gracious prediction by Malachi, the last of the prophets ", • From the rising of the sun, to the going down of the same, my name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto me, and a pure offering-saith the Lord of hosts.
VER. 5._Thine head upon thee like Carmel, and the
hair of thine head like purple ; the king is held in the galleries.
The literal sense here seems to have the advantage over the spiritual; and it is almost the only in stance of such an advantage, as it is possible, with
the usual help of eastern figures, to adjust the com· parison in some measure to the head and hair of a
fine woman. But, according to my spiritual plan, a material question immediately arises-What, or who, is the church's head ? Yet let us try, with our 2 Q2
I Acts ix,
2 Chap. i. 15.
scripture-key, to open up this finishing branch of description, so as to accommodate it to that question. Like Carmel. This is a word of considerable importance, both literally and typically. Literally, · Mount Carmel’ is well known, as having been the theatre of that famous competition between Jehovah and Baal, under Elijah's management, which had such a fatal catastrophe for the Baalites'. Typically, we find it spoken of in high terms of praise, and blessing promised under it “the glory of Lebanon--the excellency of Carmel !--the glory of the Lord, the excellency of our : God.: •Yet a little while, and Lebanon shall : be turned into Carmel,' we read it fruitful field.' • 4 Until the spirit be poured out upon us from on
high, and the wilderness be carmel, fruitful field.' os Feed thy people with thy rod, the flock of thine
heritage, in the midst of Carmel, &c. Desolation also is threatened under it'- a. flame shall • consume the glory of his forest, and of his Carmel, - both soul and body.' "7 Gladness is taken away,
and joy out of Carmel.'8 I beheld, and lo Car: mel was a wilderness,' •? The habitation of the
shepherds shall mourn, the top of Carmel, shall wither, &c.
1 1 Kings xviii.
..? Isaiah xxxv. 2. 3 Isaiah xxix. 17.
4 Isaiah xxxii. 15. 5 Micah vii. 14.
: 6 Isaiah x. 18. 7 Compare 2 Kings xix. 23. Isaiah xvi. 10. 8 Jerem. iv, 26.,
9 Amos i. 2