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the Chinese forces to withdraw from Korea and by obliging China to abandon her claim to the right to dominate the affairs of Korea.
2. Japan is to carry on warlike operations against China, both of. fensive and defensive; and the Korean government is bound to afford every possible facility to the Japanese forces in their movements, and to furnish supplies of provisions to them at a fair remuneration, so far as such supplies may be needed.
3. The treaty shall terminate when a treaty of peace is concluded by Japan with China.
War Formally Declared.—Japan's formal declaration of war appeared in the Official Gazette dated August 3, and is in substance as follows:
We, by the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on a throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial, do hereby make proclamation to all our loyal and brave subjects as fol: lows: We hereby declare war against China, and we command each and all of our competent authorities, in obedience to our wish, and with a view to the attainment of the national aim, to carry on hos. tilities by sea and land against China with all the means at their dis. posal consistently with the law of nations.
Over twenty years have now elapsed since our accession to the throne. During this time we have consistently pursued the policy of peace, being deeply impressed with a sense of the undesirability of being in strained relations with other nations, and have always directed our officials diligently to endeavor to promote friendship with all the treaty powers. Fortunately our intercourse with the nations has continued to increase in intimacy.
We were, therefore, unprepared for such a conspicuous want of amity and of good faith as has been manifested by China in her conduct toward this country in connection with the Korean affair. Korea is an independent state. She was first introduced into the family of nations by the advice and under the guidance of Japan. It bas, how. ever, been China's habit to designate Korea as her dependency, and both openly and secretly to interfere with her domestic affairs. At the time of the recent civil insurrection in Korea, China dispatched troops thither, alleging that her purpose was to afford succor to her dependent state. We, in virtue of the treaty concluded with Korea in 1882, and looking to possible emergencies, caused a military force to be sent to that country, wishing to procure for Korea freedom from the calamity of perpetual disturbance, and thereby to maintain the peace of the east in general. Japan invited China's co-operation for the accomplishment of that object; but China, advancing various pretexts, declined Japan's proposal.
Thereupon Japan advised Korea to reform her administration so that order might be preserved at home, and so that the country might be able to discharge the responsibilities and duties of an inde. pendent state abroad. Korea has already consented to undertake the task, but China has insidiously endeavored to circumvent and thwart Japan's purpose. She has further procrastinated and endeavored to make warlike preparations both on land and at sea. When these preparations were completed, she not only sent large reinforcements to Korea, with a view to the attainment of her ambitious designs, but even carried her arbitrariness and insolence to the extent of opening fire upon our ships in Korean waters.
China's plain object is to make it uncertain where the responsi. bility resides for preserving peace and order in Korea, and not only to weaken the position of that state in the family of nations-a posi. tion obtained for Korea through Japanese efforts—but also to obscure the significance of the treaties recognizing and confirming that posi. tion. Such conduct on the part of China is not only a direct injury to the rights and interests of this einpire, but also a menace to the permanent peace and tranquillity of the Orient. Judging from her action, it must be concluded that China from the beginning has been bent upon sacrificing peace to the attainment of her sinister objects. In this situation, ardent as our wish is to promote the prestige of the country abroad by strictly peaceful methuds, we find it impossible to avoid a formal declaration of war against China. It is our earnest wish, that, by the loyalty and valor of our faithful subjects, peace may soon be permanently restored, and the glory of the empire be aug. mented and completed.
China promptly accepted the issue thus formally raised, and published a declaration in substance as follows:
Korea has been our tributary for the last 200 odd years. She has given us tribute all this time, which is a matter known to the world. For the last dozen years or so Korea has been troubled by repeated insurrections; and we, in sympathy with our small tributary, have as repeatedly sent succor to her aid, eventually placing a resident in her capital to protect Korea's interests. In the fourth moon (May) of this year another rebellion was begun in Korea, and the king re. peatedly asked again for aid from us to put down the rebellion. We then ordered Li Hung Chang to serd troops to Korea, and, they hav. ing barely reached Asan, the rebels immediately scattered. But the "Wojen” (the ancient epithet for the Japanese, expressive of contempt, translated “pigmies," or, more strictly according to usage, “vermin "), without any cause whatever, sent their troops to Korea, and entered Seoul, the capital of Korea, reinforcing them constantly until they have exceeded 10,000 men.
In the meantime the Japanese forced the Korean king to change his system of government, showing a disposition in every way of bully. ing Koreans. It was found a difficult matter to reason with the "Wojen.” Although we have been in the habit of assisting our tributaries, we have never interfered with their internal government. Japan's treaty with Korea was as one country with another. There is no law for sending large armies to bully a country in this way and compel it to change its system of government. Various powers are united in condemning the conduct of the Japanese, and can give no reasonable name to the army she now has in Korea. Nor bas Japan been amenable to reason, nor would she listen to an exhortation to withdraw her troops and confer amicably upon what should be done in Korea. On the contrary, Japan bas shown herself belligerent without regard to appearances and has been increasing her forces there. Her conduct alarmed the people of Korea, as well as our merchants there, and so we sent more troops over to protect them. Judge of our surprise, then, when, half-way to Korea, a number of the "Wojen" ships suddenly appeared, and, taking advantage of our unpreparedness, opened fire on our transports at a spot on the seacoast near Asan, and damaged them, thus causing us to suffer from their treacherous conduct, which could not be foretold by us.
As Japan has violated the treaties and not observed international laws, and is now running rampant, with her false and treacherous
actions, beginning hostilities herself and laying herself open to con demnation by the various powers at large, we, therefore, desire to make it known to the world that we have always followed the paths of philanthropy and perfect justice throughout the whole complications, while the “Wojen” and others have broken all the laws of na tions and treaties, which it passed our patience to bear with. Hence we command Li Hung Chang to give strict orders to our various armies to hasten with all speed to root the “Wojen” out of their lairs. He is to send successive armies of valiant men to Korea in order to bave the Koreans freed from bondage. We also command Manchu generals, viceroys, and governors of the maritime provinces, as well as the commanders-in-chief of the various armies, to prepare for war, and to make every effort to fire on the “Wojen" ships if they come into our ports, and utterly destroy them. We exhort our generals to re frain from the least laxity in obeying our commands, in order to avoid severe punishment at our hands. Let all know this edict as if ad. dressed to themselves individually.
Progress of the Campaign.-So conflicting and fragmentary are the different versions given of alleged victories and defeats on both sides, that for authentic details the reader must be content to wait. We can here give only a few of the leading incidents of the struggle, the accuracy of which there seems least reason to doubt. Enough is known to indicate in which direction the general tide of victory has flowed.
At first glance the operations seem to have followed closely the tactical model of the Crimean war. The invaders have fixed upon one outlying point of a huge empire, and the efforts of the assailed to shake them off have been utterly fruitless. The parallel fails, however, in that the Chinese have been unable to maintain any considerable body of troops in Korea, while the Japanese have followed up their successes in the peninsula and the bay of Korea by an invasion of Chinese territory which threatens the foundations of the empire itself.
Sinking of the “kow-Shing.”—The first important collision at sea occurred in Prince Jerome gulf, about forty miles off Chemulpo, on July 25, one week before the formal declaration of war. The steamer K’ow-Shing (Captain Galsworthy), belonging to the Indo-Chinese Steam Navigation company and flying the British flag, which, with other vessels, had been chartered by the Chinese gov. ernment to transport the second division of troops from Taku to reinforce the Chinese army at Asan, was sunk by the Japanese ship Naniwa, with the loss of about 1,000 lives. There is great discrepancy in the newspaper accounts of the incident. According to some, the Naniwa was first fired upon by a Chinese cruiser escorting the k'ow-Shing, while others state that the transport was un
escorted. The reported firing of the Japanese upon the Chinese troops struggling in the water after the sinking of the vessel is also questioned. Accounts, however, agree in stating that after the sighting of the Kow-Shing she was twice boarded by a party sent from the Naniwa, who demanded her surrender, and that the Chinese troops persisted in refusing to allow the European officers to accede to the demand, threatening to kill them if they attempted It. The Naniwa then opened fire upon the troop-ship, which shortly afterward sank, bravely fighting its guns to the last. Captain Galsworthy was picked up by a boat from the Naniwa; Captain Von Hanneken, of the Ger. man army, a passenger on the Kow-Shing, formerly an aide on the staff of the Chinese Viceroy Li Hung Chang, was also rescued. Only a few of the Chinese troops were saved.
The Japanese minister at London promptly apologized to the British government for the attack upon its flag, and, it is said, promised reparation. He claimed that not until after the engagement was it known to the Naniwa that the transport was a British vessel. A British consular court of inquiry, called to investigate the matter, is reported to have decided, that, inasmuch as the two nations were virtually in a state of war at the time (though no formal declaration had been made), the Japanese commander was justified in his action on the ground that the K’ow-Shing was violating neutrality.
The Fighting at Asan and Ping-Yang.- About July 29 there appears to have been hard fighting at and around Asan; and the press dispatches abound with accounts of later skirmishes; but so conflicting are the respective claims of victory, that it is impossible at this stage to sift out any reliable statement of details. However, the general drift of the campaign in favor of Japan is clearly marked by the results of the great land victory of September 15-6 at Ping-Yang and the brilliant naval victory of September 17 off the mouth of the Yalu river, the details of which are fairly well known.
Early on the morning of July 29, the Chinese troops who had left their intrenchments at Asan, were attacked by General Oshima, in command of the Japanese troops, at Seikwan. After a hard fought battle, in which the Chinese loss is put at about 100 killed and 500 wounded, out of 2,800 troops engaged, while the Japanese lost less than 100, the Chinese were forced back toward Asan. During the night they evacuated that post, abandoning