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so reported under date of December 19, 1890, and was approved by the Secretary of War December 30, 1890. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
$2,000.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
2,000.00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project
31, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix F 15.)
IMPROVEMENT OF DELAWARE RIVER, PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW JER
SEY, SCHUYLKILL RIVER, PENNSYLVANIA, AND RIVERS IN SOUTHERN NEW JERSEY; HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS IN DELAWARE RIVER AND BAY; CONSTRUCTION OF PIER AT LEWES, DELAWARE; DELAWARE BREAKWATER, DELAWARE.
Officer in charge, Maj. C. W. Raymond, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. Albert M. D'Armit, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders since May 18, 1892, Division Engineer, Col. William P. Craig. hill, Corps of Engineers, to April 1, 1892, and Col. Henry L. Abbot, Corps of Engineers, since that date.
1. Delaware River, Pennsylvania and New Jersey.—Trenton, the head of natural navigation on the Delaware River, is about 30 miles above the upper part of the port of Philadelphia. In its original condition this part of the river was obstructed by shoals at the following localities. Between Bordentown and Trenton, a distance of about 5 miles, a narrow and circuitous channel existed, which carried from 3 to 6 feet at mean low water; at Kinkora Bar, about 9 miles below Trenton, a shoal carrying from 7 to 8 feet, and at Five Mile Bar, at the upper part of Philadelphia, a shoal across the Pennsylvania channel carrying only 3 or 4 feet at mean low water, there being, however, 13 feet of water past Five Mile Bar, in the New Jersey channel, passing south of Petty Island.
Below Philadelphia the river, in its original condition, presented obstructions at Mifflin Bar which reduced the depth at mean low water to 17 feet, at Schooner Ledge and Cherry Island Flats to 18 feet, at Bulkhead Shoal and Dan Baker Shoal to about 20 feet.
In that part of the Delaware River between Trenton, N. J., and Bridesburg, Pa., efforts in the past have been directed toward relieving commerce from the obstructions which exist in the upper 9 miles of the river, or that part between Kinkora Bar and Trenton. A detailed survey of the river between Bridesburg and Trenton has been made for the purpose of obtaining the necessary data for determining upon a plan for the improvement of the river between Trenton and the upper part of Philadelphia to meet the requirements of commerce.
Previous to 1885 the efforts to improve the river between Philadelphia and the bay have been confined to dredging, except at Schooner Ledge, where solid rock has been removed, under appropriations for special localities, and also under general appropriations for the Delaware River below Bridesburg.
A Board of Engineers, convened by direction of the Secretary of War for the purpose of considering the subject of the permanent improvement of Delaware River and Bily, recommended, under date of January 23, 1885, the formation of a ship channel from a point opposite Philadelphia and about midway between the American Shipbuilding Company's yard and the Gas Trust Wharf to deep water in Delaware
Bay, having a least width of 600 feet and a depth of 26 feet at mean low water. The formation of such a channel is to be obtained, except at Schooner Ledge, where rock would require to be removed, by regulating the tidal flow by means of dikes, with recourse to dredging, where necessary, as an aid to such contracting and regulating works. The estimated cost of obtaining a channel of the above dimensions is about $2,425,000, which covers the estimated cost of the permanent improvement of the Delaware River between the upper part of Philadelphia and deep water in the bay. This estimate of cost does not include the improvement of Philadelphia Harbor, which is a separate project. With the present requirements of commerce above Philadelphia, it is not considered that the part of the river lying between Trenton and Bridesburg demands any further improvement.
The entire amount expended on the improvement of the Delaware River from 1836 to June 30, 1891, under appropriations both for special localities and the general river, was $1,980,359.55, of which $117,961.27 was expended on that part of the river between Trenton and the upper part of Philadelphia. As a result of this expenditure there had been formed at the latter date a channel of navigable width and 7 feet deep at mean low water through the bars between Bridesburg and Bordentown; a channel across Kinkora Bar 94 feet deep; a channel across Five Mile Bar 13 feet deep; a channel from 200 to 400 feet wide and from 24 to 26 feet deep through the shoal areas at Port Richmond; a channel across Mifflin Bar from 150 to 250 feet wide and from 24 to 26 feet deep; a channel through Schooner Ledge 330 feet wide and 24 feet deep, except over a small area discovered in 1889, where the depth is reduced to 23 feet at mean low water; a channel through Cherry Island Flats from 200 to 450 feet wide and from 24 to 26 feet deep, and a channel across Bulkhead Shoal 600 feet wide and from 20 to 21 feet deep.
The channel between Philadelphia and Camden across Smith Island Bar had been improved by the formation of a dredged cut protected by revetment, so as to give a channel 100 feet wide, with a minimum depth of 6 feet at mean low water.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, the sum of $100,362.21, which includes the liabilities outstanding June 30, 1891, was expended in surveys, examinations, and in dike construction and dredging at Kinkora and Bulkhead bars, making a total expenditure since 1836 of $2,080,721.76, of which $728,721.76 has been expended on present project.
The changes which have resulted during the past fiscal year are summarized as follows:
At Kinkora Bar stone has been placed in the dike to fill depressions caused by settlement. The dredged channel has shoaled consid. erably and the line of deepest water has moved to the westward. The minimum depth at mean low water across the bar is now 8 feet. At Five Mile Bar the dike has formed a channel from 12 to 13 feet deep at mean low water and from 200 to 300 feet wide. At Mifflin Bar the channel now carries a depth of 25 feet, with a minimum width of 200 feet and a depth of 24 feet, with a minimum width of 350 feet. At Cherry Island Flats the channel, which was dredged to a depth of 24 feet between 1879 and 1884, has shoaled about 1 foot over a distance of about 10,000 feet and deepened over the remaining distance. At Bulkhead Bar the east dike has been practically completed, and under its action, assisted by dredging, a channel bas been formed across the bar with a depth of 26 feet at mean low water and a mininum width of 100 feet. The 24-foot channel has a minimum width of 370 feet.
During the present year it is proposed to apply available funds to deepening and widening the channel through Cherry Island Flats and to the continuation of dike construction for the improvement of Baker Shoal. July 1, 1891, balance mexpended
$271, 640. 45 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..
100, 362. 21 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
171, 278. 24 July 1, 1892, ontstanding liabilities.
$4, 629.67 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 4, 122, 23
8, 751.90 July 1, 1892, balance available
162, 526. 34 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
50,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..
212, 526. 34 S Annount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 1, 675,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix G 1.)
2. Harbor betureen Philadelphia, Pennsylrania, and Camden, Nero Jersey. The islands in the Delaware River between Philadelphia and Camden compel the flood and ebb currents to pursue different paths, narrow the existing chamels, and prevent the extension of wharves necessary for the purposes of commerce. The plan of improvement, originally adopted by Congress provides for the removal of Smith and Windmill islands and a part of Petty Island, and the formation of a channel of ample depth and about 2,000 feet in width from Kaighn Point to Fishers Point. The project contemplates the advance of wharves and bulkheads on both the Philadelphia and Camden shores during the progress of the work. The excavation is to be done by the General Government. The advance of wharves and bulkheads is under the control of the local authorities and private owners, a portion of the material to be removed by the Government being considered available for the necessary.filling. The estimated cost of the work to be done by the United States, exclusive of the cost of the islands, is $3,500,000.
The project was modified by Congress in the sundry civil act approved March 3, 1891, so as to require that all material removed under appropriations made to that date should be deposited and spread on League Island.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, a contract was entered into with James A. Mudy & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., for all the work required for the improvement. Under this contract 10,318 cubic yards of material was dredged from Windmill Island and work was in progress upon the removal of 1,260 feet of revetment. A hydrographic survey was made before the commencement of the work. Harbor lines were established. The amount expended during the year was $9,848.17.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, under the contract with James A. Mundy & Co., 2,330 linear feet of piling and revetment inclosing Windmill Island have been wholly removed, and 923 linear feet have been removed to the level of low water; 312,111 cubic yards of material have been dredged from Windmill Island and the adjacent shoal; about 35,000 cubie yards have been removed by scour, and 287,736 cubic yards have been deposited on League Island, amount expended during the year was $54,182.48.
The accepted work of excavation since the beginning of the improve. ment has cost $35,718.29. The filling at League Island has cost $27,334.92.
Repeated surveys have been made to determine the changes in progress.
The contractors expect to excavate 250,000 cubic yards of material during July, 1892, and at least 300,000 cubic yards per month thereafter. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended .
$689, 973, 92 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
54, 182. 18 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
635, 791.44 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities..
$19, 524.54 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 616, 266.90
635, 791. 14 Amount appropriated by act approved August 5, 1892..
41,000.00 (Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 2,759, 000.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1894
500,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix G 2.)
3. Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania.- When the work of improvement was commenced in 1870 there was a channel of entrance into the mouth of the river carrying a depth of only 10 feet at mean low water.
The original project under which work was commenced in 1870 proposed the formation of a channel 100 feet wide, with a depth of 20 feet from the mouth of the river to Gibson Point, about 4 miles, and a depth of 18 feet from thence to Chestnut Street Bridge in Philadelphia, about 3 miles.
In 1875 and 1883 this project was amended so as to increase the lowwater channel between the mouth and Girard Point, a distance of about 1 mile, to 400 feet wide and 24 feet deep), and from Girard Point to Gibson Point, about 3 miles, to 250 feet wide and 20 feet deep.
The amount expended upon these projects to June 30, 1891, was $413,732.71. This work had resulted in the formation of a channel about 100 feet wide and from 18 to 20 feet deep at mean low water across the bar at the river's month; a chamel about 250 feet wide and from 20 to 24 feet deep from inside the bar to Point Breeze, except at Yankee Point, where the width is 300 feet; and from Point Breeze to Gibson Point, a channel from 100 to 200 feet wide and from 18 to 20 feet deep; from thence to Chestnut Street Bridge a channel of navigable width and from 17 to 20 feet deep.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1992, the sum of $1,299.07 was expended in dredging in the channel above Penrose Ferry Bridge to remove a dangerous obstruction, in surveys at the mouth, and in the preparation of a project for the improvement of the channel across the bar by means of dikes. During the month of June, 1892, contracts were entered into for the construction of dikes at the mouth of the river.
All the work contemplated by the project under which the improvement has heretofore been carried on will be completed with the appro. priation made by the river and harbor act approved July 13, 1832. A project for additional work at the mouth of the river (given in full with
the annual report of the officer in charge) was approved April 26, 1892; the cost of completing the work under this modified project is estimated at $44,959. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended....
$25, 017. 29 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
1, 299.07 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
23, 718. 22 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
$138, 10 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts.. 15, 657.00
15, 795. 10 July 1, 1892, balance available....
7, 923. 12 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
16, 250.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.
54, 173. 12 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project ....
44,959.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix G 3.)
4. Ice harbor at Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania.--This work, in its present plan, was commenced in 1866, the object being to provide a harbor in the Delaware River to protect vessels against moving ice.
In 1785 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania built, for the convenience of commerce, piers at Marcus Hook, extending from the shore line into the river. It is assumed that at some subsequent time these shore piers were turned over to the United States, since in 1829 an appropriation was made of $5,000 for repairing these piers, improving the harbor, and removing obstructions. No further appropriation was made until 1866.
At this latter date the project was adopted for the construction of detached piers in the harbor, consisting of stone superstructures upon crib foundations filled with stone, together with the deepening of the harbor by dredging.
In 1881 it was proposed to increase the area of the harbor by the construction of a bulkhead about 1,800 feet in length parallel to the shore line, and about 150 feet outside of high-water line and the deepening of this added area by dredging. Nothing was done towards the carrying into effect of the modification of 1881, on account of the objections of some of the abutting property owners, and in 1888 this hitherto proposed modification was abandoned and an increased depth proposed for the areas protected by the detached piers outside of the natural shore line of the river.
The amount expended from 1866 to June 30, 1891, was $208,963.64, and resulted in the construction of two shore or landing piers and seven detached ice piers, the deepening by dredging of the area protected by the piers, and the placing of mooring piles within the harbor. By this expenditure a harbor was formed with an area of about 10 acres, carrying a depth of from 12 to 25 feet at mean low water.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $36.36 was expended in examining the harbor with a view to making necessary repairs and in office expenses. A contract was made for the repair of landing piers and the replacement of mooring piles. The funds remaining after the execution of this work will be held for such incidental repairs as may be required from time to time.