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$5,036. 36

36. 36

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.
July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts.

5,000.00

$111.21 1,011.31

1, 125.58

July 1, 1892, balance available

3,874.42 (See Appendix G 4.)

5. Ice harbor at head of Delaware Bay, Delaware.- The act of August 2, 1882, appropriated $25,000 for the commencement of work on the ice harbor at the head of Delaware Bay, to include the removal of some sunken piers, the remains of an old ice harbor, in the channel east of Reedy Island, Delaware.

The desirability of an ice harbor at the head of Delaware Bay has been long recognized, but until the improvement of the main ship channel shall have been materially advanced it is believed that appropriations can be applied, with better results to commerce, to the improvement of the channel rather than to the formation of an ice harbor suited to the requirements of the case. As to location, tlie prevailing judgment would place the ice harbor at or very near Liston Point, but since the works already planned for the improvement of the channel in this part of the river involve the construction of about 11 miles of dikes, the changes which may result from such extensive constructions render the prior location of an ice harbor hazardous.

The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $8,763.07, of which $3,700 was applied to the removal of the sunken piers back of Reelly Island, as provided in the act of August 2, 1882, making the appropriation of $25,000. The balance was expended in surveys, examinations, preliminary studies, and office expenses.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, no expenditures were made. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

$16, 236, 93 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

16, 236.93 (See Appendix G 5.) 6. Construction of iron pier in Delancare Bay, near Lences, Delaware:The original project for this work proposed the construction of a land ing pier about 1,700 feet in length, extending from the shore south of the breakwater into Delaware Bay to a depth of 22 feet at mean low water, the pier to consist of a substructure of wrought iron screw piles surmounted with a timber superstructure. The work was commenceel in 1871, and completed, except as to superstructure, in 1880.

The amount expended to June 30, 1890, was $368,453,66, and resulted in the construction of 1,155 linear feet of pier 21 feet in width, and 516 linear feet 42 feet in width, or a total length of 1,701 feet. The depth of water at the outer end of the pier head was about 21 feet at mean low water.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $7,033 was expended in replacing about 200 linear feet of the pier destroyed by the collisions of wrecked vessels in 1889, and in placing tender piles along 1,200 linear feet of the shore arm of the pier. The total amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, including inspection and office expenses, was $9,623.39.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1992, $422.15 was expended in office expenses.

From the decayed condition of the timber superstructure of a large

part of the pier it is not available for use by the railroad, to which the right was given to use the pier under the provisions of the act of July 15, 1870.

If the pier is to be rendered available for the general purposes of railroad traffic, as contemplated in the act above referred to, it will be necessary to replace the present decayed wooden superstructure by an iron construction, which has been estimated at $93,000.

The sundry civil act of March 3, 1891, contained the following provision:

And the Secretary of War is hereby directed to assign to the Secretary of the Treasury so much space on the Lewes iron pier as may be necessary to enable the Marine-Hospital Service to establish and conduct thereou such disinfection machinery as may be required for the proper disinfection of the cargoes of vessels detained at the quarantine, and when the breakwater shall have been completed then the said pier shall be permanently assigned to the Treasury Department: Provided, That such occupation and use of the pier by the Marine-Hospital Service does not interfere with the engineering operations of the War Department in the completion of the breakwater improvement.

It is understood that the use of the pier as above provided will at times prohibit its use for any other purpose. The pier is of considerable value to vessels frequenting the breakwater harbor, being the only communication with the shore; it is necessary for the purpose of the Light-House Service, and its free use at all times will probably be indispensable for many years for the engineering operations of the War Department. It is not suitable for quarantine purposes, because the maximum depth at the end of the pier head is only about 21 feet at mean low water. The depth is still less on the sides. Since the pier is much exposed to storms, it could not be safely used in rough weather by vessels of a greater draft than about 15 feet. The great majority of vessels frequenting this harbor (including nearly all that arrive from foreign ports) could not generally be taken to this pier for the purpose of disinfection. It is therefore suggested that other arrangements be made for the requirements of the quarantine service. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.....

$422, 45 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..

422. 45 (See Appendix G 6.)

7. Delaware Breakwater, Delaware. Under the act of Congress, May 7, 1822, $22,700 was appropriated for a survey of Delaware Bay, near Cape Henlopen, for the purpose of determining upon the site for a harbor of shelter. In 1828 an appropriation of $250,000 was made for commencing the work under a plan submitted by a board of commissioners appointed by Congress.

The project of the board contemplated the construction in the coilcavity of the bay, just inside Cape Ilenlopen, of two massive works on the pierres perdues or riprap system, separated by an interval or gap of 1,350 feet, the greater, called the breakwater, to afford safe anchorage during the gales from the north and east; the other, called the ice, breaker, to protect shipping against northwesterly gales and the heavy drifting ice of the bay.

This project was completed in 1869, under aggregate appropriations, including the first for survey, of $2,192,103.70). The stone used in the work amounted to 892,528 gross tons, and varied from one quarter of a ton to 7 tons in weight, the smaller constituting the bulk of the mass, the larger used to cover the exterior slopes.

As completed in 1869 the breakwater is 2,558 feet long, and the icebreaker 1,359 feet long on top. The average width on top is 22 feet, and at base 100 feet. The top is from 12 to 14 feet above mean low water.

In 1882 a project was adopted for closing the gap between the breakwater and the ice-breaker by means of a random stone foundation with a concrete superstructure. The random stone foundation was to be brought to a height of 12 feet below low water, with a width on top of 48 feet; the concrete superstructure to have a width on bottom of 24 feet, rising to a height of 12 feet above mean low water, with a width on top of 12 feet. The estimated cost of this project was $675,000.

In 1883 and 1884 the project was modified by providing a foundation of brush mattresses for the random stone superstructure and omitting the construction of a pile bridge across the gap, which formed part of the project of 1882 for closing the gap.

In 1890 the concrete superstructure was further modified by estab. lishing its base at 15 feet below mean low water by inaking it rectangular in section, with a width of 27 feet and height of 27 feet, and by constructing the work to above the plane of high water of large concrete blocks, above which concrete in mass is to be used. The estimated cost of the modified project, including the $356,250 appropriated from 1882 to 1888 was $856,250.

In 1891 the random stone substructure having been practically completed, the project for the hitherto proposed concrete superstructure was modified by substitution of random stone for the remaining part of the work, so as to raise the structure to a height of 14 feet above mean low water, with a width on top of 20 feet, the width at low water to be 40 feet, and the slopes below this plane to be such as may be formed by the action of the sea, between low water and the top the slopes to be about 1 on 0.7 formed by heavy stones laid in position, The estimated cost of completing this part of the work is $320,000, or, including the $436,250 appropriated from 1882 to 1890, the cost of closing the gap is $756,250.

From the beginning of the work in 1822 to June 30, 1891, the total amount expended was $2,549,155.79, of which $357,052.09 was expended on the project of 1882 for closing the gap.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, the sum of $78,212.08 was expended in raising the structure in the gap to the level of mean low water over a distance of 1,006 feet. It is important that this work should be completed as soon as possible, since in its present condition it is a serious danger to commerce.

The increase in the dimensions and draft of vessels since the present harbor was designed in 1822, together with the shoaling which has ensued behind the breakwater, renders the present harbor under these changed conditions inadequate for the requirements of commerce. Upon the completion of the present project of closing the gap, additional anchorage area will be added to the harbor and make it of great and continued value to coasting vessels. July 1, 1891, balance inexpended

$79, 197.91 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

78, 212.08 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

50,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....

50), 985. 83 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project ...... 270,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix G 7.) 8. Rancocas River, New Jersey.-In its natural condition Rancocas River carried a minimum low-water depth of about 11 feet between the

985.83

mouth and Centerton, a distance of about 7} miles, and from Centerton to Mount Ilolly, a distance of about 5 miles, a ruling depth of about 21 feet.

The original project of 1881 proposed the formation, by a dike at Coats Bar and dredging elsewhere, of a channel from 150 to 200 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water from the mouth to Centerton, and from thence to Mount Holly a channel 5 feet deep.

Operations were carried on under this project from 1881 to 1884, under appropriations aggregating $20,000 made in 1881 and 1882. To the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $28,702.64 had been expended in the formation of a channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water between the mouth and Centerton, and in the removal of three wrecks.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $1,197.27 was expended in the formation of a channel 25 feet wide and 4 feet deep at mean low water between Centerton and Mount Holly. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended....

$1, 197.27 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

1, 197.27 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

5, 000.00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...

46,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix G 8.)

9. Alloway Creek, New Jersey.-In its original condition Alloway Creek was obstructed between its mouth and Quinton, a distance of about 104 miles, by shoal areas in the upper half of the stream, which reduced the low water depths to about 4 feet.

The original project of 1889 proposed the formation, by dredging, of a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water and 60 feet wide from Quinton to a point about 1,000 feet above the Upper Hancock Bridge; from thence a channel of the same depth and 75 feet wide to a locality known as the Square, where the work is to be supplemented by a dike. At a locality known as the Canal, in addition to a channel of the lastnamed dimensions, the width of the stream was to be increased to about 150 feet between its low-water lines.

The appropriation of $6,000 by the act of September 19, 1890, was the first made for this work.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $3,467.88 was expended in deepening to 6 feet at mean low water the channel at the Canal, Square, and Upper Hancock Bridge.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $2,131.73 was expended in deepening the channel. There are now channels 75 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water through the worst bars at the Square, Canal, and Upper Hancock Bridge. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$2,532. 12 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

2, 131. 73 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

400. 39 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

3,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

3,400. 39 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project

16, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix G 9.)

10. Maurice Rirer, New Jersey.--In its original condition Maurice River had a depth of 5 feet at mean low water over the bar at its mouth and a channel of over 10 feet deep extending from its mouth for a distance of about 20 miles, or to within 4 miles of Millville. For the remainiug distance of about 5 miles, to the head of navigation at Millville, there were shoal areas which reduced the low-water depth to about 2 feet.

The original project of 1882 proposed the formation, by dredging, of a channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water through the 4 miles of river below Millville Bridge, and from thence to the head of navigation a channel of the same width and 4 feet deep. In 1891 the project was modified by extending the 6-foot channel to the head of navigation, and in 1892 by a further extension of 500 feet with a width of 50 feet.

At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $34,916.34 had been expended in the formation of a 6-foot channel from a point 4 miles below to about 1,400 feet above Millville Bridge.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $8,083.77 was expended in the full completion of the improvement. The river is now navigable at all stages of the tide to a point 1,400 feet above Millville Bridge.

The estimated cost of this improvement was $112,000. The conditions having been very favorable, it has been completed at a total cost of $43,000. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$8,083.77 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

8, 083. 77 (See Appendix G 10.)

11. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or entlangering navigation.-During the past fiscal year the following wrecks were removed under the provisions of the act of June 14, 1880: The scow Paddy Ryan, from Rancocas River, New Jersey; the iron steamer Nuphar, from the outer bar at Townsend Inlet, New Jersey; the canal boat Agatha Brady, from Delaware River, opposite Fairmount avenue wharf, city of Philadelphia.

(See Appendix G 11.).

EXAMINATION, BY BOARD OF ENGINEERS, FOR LOCATION AND PLAN

FOR HARBOR OF REFUGE FOR DEEP-DRAFT VESSELS NEAR MOUTH OF DELAWARE BAY, MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.

In compliance with the provisions of the act a Board of Engineers, consisting of Col. Wm. P, Craighill, Maj. C. W. Raymond, and Capt. W. H. Bixby, Corps of Engineers, was constituted by the Secretary of War to examine “ Delaware Bay, with a view of determining the best site near the mouth of the same for a national harbor of refuge suitable for deep-draft vessels,” and submit “ report thereon, with a project and estimate of cost of construction of such a harbor of refuge.”

A preliminary report on the subject, dated December 11, 1890, was printed as Appendix G 22 of the Annual Report, Chief of Engineers, for 1891.

The final report, dated January 5, 1892, was submitted, transmitted to Congress, and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 112, Fifty-second Congress, first session.

The plan and location proposed for the forination of a deep harbor of refuge at this locality contemplate the construction of a stone break

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