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water 14 miles long extending in a general northwest and southeast direction on the east branch of the Shears, off Cape Henlopen, Delaware; and construction of a row of ten ice piers across the upper end of the harbor, to protect the anchorage against ice descending the bay. The total cost of this work is estimated at $4,665,000.
(See Appendix G 12.)
IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN DELAWARE AND ON
EASTERN SHORE OF CHESAPEAKE BAY, MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA, AND OF INLAND WATER WAY FROM CHINCOTEAGUE BAY, VIRGINIA, TO DELAWARE BAY, DELAWARE.
Engineer in charge, William F. Smith, United States agent, Major of Engineers, U. S. Army, retired; Division Engineer, Col. William P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.
1. Wilmington Harbor, Delaware.- Previous to 1836, when the first appropriation for the improvement of Christiana River was made, the depth of water at the entrance was about 8} feet. The minimum depth in the channel of the portion of the river below Third Street Bridge was 8 feet. This depth was increased by dredging in that year to 10 feet. Under a project commenced in 1871 and completed in 1881, a 12-foot channel from 100 to 200 feet wide was made from the mouth to above the city of Wilmington. The present project was adopted in 1881 and is for a 15-foot low-water channel from the mouth of the river to the Pulp Works, with a width of 150 feet from the mouth to the Rolling Mill Wharf ;
100 feet to the Delaware and Western Railroad Bridge; and 75 feet to the Pulp Works. The project included further, a channel 12 feet deep and 50 feet wide from the latter works to the Delaware Railroad Bridge and the construction of a jetty on the north side of the mouth of the river. Dredging operations and the construction of the jetty were begun in the following year. The original estimate was $175,551, which was increased in 1883 to $191,384 by changing the width of the proposed channel to 150 feet throughout. In 1884 the project was amended by raising the height of the jetty 4 feet; an extension of 322 feet to the jetty as then built was also proposed and approved, but has not yet been carried out.
Up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, the sum of $188,057.83 had been expended under this project. There was then an improved channel 15 feet deep at low water and 150 feet wide between the Delaware River and a point about 600 feet above the Third Street Bridge of a total length of 5,200 feet.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, dredging operations under a contract previously made were continued. The contract was completed August 14, 1891, the dredged channel having been extended 1,000 feet since July 1, reaching the Pusey & Jones shipyard.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..
$15, 692, 17 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
13, 346.83 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended...
2, 345, 34 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
40,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 .....
42, 315. 34 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project
47, 634.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix II 1.)
2. Ice harbor at New Castle, Delaware.--This ice harbor is one of the oldest in the Delaware River, its construction for the protection of vessels against floating ice having been commenced during colonial times. Since the beginning of the present century its improvement has been carried on by the General Government at various intervals, the total amount expended up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, being $223,593.15.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, a new ice-pier was constructed in the harbor under contract with the Delaware Construction Company of Wilmington, Del., at a cost of $9,500. The pier was begun on October 1 and was completed on December 28, 1891. Whilst this work was going on, the contractor also removed, under the same contract, one of the old piers (H), which had been in a dangerous condition. During the past year the harbor lines, approved by the Secretary of War on June 26, 1891, were permanently located.
The existing project as far as it relates to the construction of icepiers is completed. The harbor in its present condition affords the best shelter on the Delaware River for deep-draft vessels in winter, and the necessity for increasing the protected area is already apparent. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.....
$15, 190, 79 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
11, 313.99 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
3, 816.80 (See Appendix 2.)
3. Appoquinnimink Rirer, Delaware. This stream is a tidal tributary of Delaware Bay, flowing through New Castle County, Del. It is navigable for vessels of light draft from the inouth to above Odessa. A bar having only 11 feet of water over it at low tide obstructs the mouth of the river. The average rise and fall of the tide at the bar is 6 feet; at Odessa it is 3.2 feet.
The project for improvement proposed in a report on a survey of the river made in 1889 and adopted under an appropriation made by the river and harbor act approved September 19, 1890, provides for dredg. ing a channel 8 feet deep at mean low water with a width of 100 feet from the mouth to New Bridge, near Townsend's Wharf, and thence 80 feet wide to the county bridge at Odessa, the estimated cost of the improvement being $39,963. Up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, the sum of $1,963.72 has been expended, giving a greatly increased harbor space at the town of Odessa.
Nothing was done during the past fiscal year. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$36. 28 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.... Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
ū,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
5, 036.28 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... 29, 963.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix H 3.)
4. Smyrna River, Delaware.-This river, formerly called Duck Creek, had, before improvements began in 1879, a minimum depth of 24 feet within the river and about 4 feet over the bar at the mouth. Navigation was possible only at high tide, and was carried on by one steamer and seven sinall schooners,
In 1878 a project was made for the improvement of the whole river, including a plan for deepening the channel across the bar at the mouth. By special direction of Congress the improvement of the bar was commenced first, and during the following four years three appropriations, aggregating $10,000, were expended in dredging a channel across this obstruction 100 feet wide and 8 feet deep at mean low water. The dredged channel soon filled up again.
A new project was submitted in 1887 for a 7-foot low-water channel, 60 feet wide inside the river and 100 feet at the bar, the channel at the latter point to be protected on each side by stone jetties. The estimated cost of this project is $90,698.40. The portion of the project relating to dredg. ing has been adopted.
At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, the sum of $12,536.35 had been expended in dredging inside the river. At that date a channel had been dredged 40 feet wide and 64 feet deep at mean low water from Smyrna Landing to Brick Store Wharf, a distance of 3 miles, with the result of opening navigation for vessels drawing 6 feet to the first-named point, which formerly they were not able to reach. The main landing on the river was thus brought about 2 miles nearer the town of Smyrna.
At the beginning of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, dredging operations under contract with the National Dredging Company, of Wilmington, Del., were in progress. The contract was completed on August 10, 1891, the proposed channel, 40 feet wide and 6 feet deep, having been extended farther down the river since July 1, to Eagle Nest Landing, about 24 miles below Brick Store Wharf. The narrow channel thus far made has been of great benefit to the existing shipping, and has considerably facilitated expeditious and regular transportation, which heretofore was impossible. It is contemplated by the steamboat company to put larger boats on the line after the full projected width and depth in the channel have been made. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$4, 697.28 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
4, 607.61 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
89. 67 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
3,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893...
3, 089. 67 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 19, 365, 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix H 4.)
5. Mispillion Creek, Delaware.-The entrance to this creek has a mean low-water depth of only 14 feet. Within the stream the original depth was, before improvements were begun, from 4 to 5 feet. The original project for improvement, which was made in 1879, is for a 6-foot low-water channel, 40 feet wide, from Milford, at the head of navigation, to the mouth. But for a small shoal near the mouth which remains to be dredged, the projected channel is completed, $17,000 having been expended up to June 30, 1889. A report upon a survey of the mouth of the creek embodying a new project was submitted during the past fiscal year (see Appendix H 21). Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
$12,000.00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 14,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix H 5.)
6. Broadkiln River, Delaroare.-In its original condition the depth of water in the river was from 3 to 4 feet at the numerous shoals which impeded navigation. The depth at the entrance was and still is from 11 to 2 feet at low water.
A project for a 6-foot low-water channel inside the river from Milton to the mouth and for a new entrance across Lewes Cape was submitted in 1871, at an estimated cost of $80,447. This estimate was reduced in 1881 by a revised project to $51,450. At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $35,000 had been expended, and the channel inside the river was completed. After entering, vessels are now no longer detained by the shoals at low tide and proceed directly to their destination. Whilst the results are of great benefit to the existing shipping it is not apparent that the latter has increased to any appreciable extent. Nothing was done during the past fiscal year. Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....... $21,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix H 6.)
7. Inland water way from Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, to Delaware Bay, at or near Lewes, Delaware.—This improvement is made with the view of forming an inland navigation route, about 75 miles in length, between Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, and Delaware Bay, at or near Lewes, Delaware.
The project adopted in 1886 contemplates an open channel 70 feet wide at the bottom and 6 feet deep below the mean low-water level in the Delaware Breakwater Harbor, beginning in Chincoteague Bay and fol. lowing approximately deep water in Synepuxent, Isle of Wight, and Assawoman bays; thence across the country for about 4 miles, between Little Assawoman Bay and Indian River Bay, and across the latter into and up Rehoboth Bay; thence from the head of Rehoboth Bay across Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred, for about 8 miles, to Delaware Bay. The originally estimated cost of the improvement was $350,000. A modification of the project was submitted during the past fiscal year to the Chief of Engineers, at the request of the Delaware Congressional delegation, for a reduction in the proposed width of the water way from 70 to 20 feet. The reommendation was approved by the Secretary of War on March 2, 1892.
There are several shoals within the bays named where the present depth of water does not exceed 24 feet. It is estimated that the amount of commerce created by this improvement, when completed, will be $2,000,000 per annum.
Three appropriations have been made for this work, one of $18,750, and one of $50,000, to be expended between Chincoteague Bay and Indian River Bay, and one of $50,000 to be expended between Chincoteague Bay and Delaware Bay.
Up to June 30, 1891, the sum of $58,585.28 had been expended and a cut 20 feet wide at the base and 4 feet deep had been made connecting the 4-foot depth in Assawoman Bay with that in Indian River Bay. Three temporary wooden bridges had also been constructed across this canal.
During the past fiscal year these bridges were provided with draws and a few shoals at the inlet of lateral drains in the canal were removed. A few small schooners and sloops are now making occasional trips between Ocean View at the northern end of the canal and Chincoteague Island. The depth made in the canal is maintaining itself.
The route for the section of the inland water way between Rehoboth Bay and Delaware Bay was finally located during the past winter. The commissioners appointed by the legislature of the State of Delaware are now engaged in the appraisement and condemnation of the land appropriated for the canal, and it is proposed to begin active operations on this section soon after the title has been obtained. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$60, 164. 72 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
9, 347.59 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...
50, 817. 13 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..
75, 817. 13
S Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....... 206, 500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix H 7.)
8. Susquehanna River above and below Havre de Grace, Maryland.Before improvements were begun in this section of the river the least depth of water over the shoals between Havre de Grace and Spesutia Island was 5 feet at low water. The channel between Watson Island, above Havre de Grace, and the shoal running out from the west shore was narrow and was believed to be one of the causes of ice gorges at and near Port Deposit.
Improvements have been in progress since 1852. The present general project is for a 15-foot low-water channel below Havre de Grace and for the removal of the shoal opposite Watson Island to a depth of 8 feet below mean low water.
The channel below Havre de Grace was dredged the last time in 1885. It has shoaled again. The channel at Watson Island has been widened about 400 feet, but the shoal which was removed las nearly entirely reformed since the discontinuance of work in 1889. At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $158,687.65 had been expended in these improvements.
There were no operations during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892. A report on the survey of the river in this locality was submitted De. cember 26, 1891, with estimates for a new project (see Appendix H 22).
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$4, 202. 35 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
107.66 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
4,094. 69 Amount appropriated by act approvod July 13, 1892
4, 000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....
8, 094. 69 Amount (estimated) required for annual dredging .....
20,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix H 8.) 9. North East River, Maryland.—This river is a small tributary of Chesapeake Bay, and joins the latter at the head of the bay, east of the · mouth of the Susquehanna River. Its tidal portion is in Cecil County, Md., and is broad but shallow, and about 5 miles long, the town of North East being at the head of navigation. The average rise of the tide is 27 feet. The river is obstructed by a bar about three-fourths of a mile below the town. The original depth of water on the bar was 18 inches at low tide.