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occurred to vessels wishing to enter at low tides and during northwesterly winds. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$5,970.25 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
5, 875.44 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
94.81 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
6,511.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..
6, 605.81 (See Appendix H 17.)
18. Harbor at Cape Charles City, Virginia, and approaches by Chenton (Cherrystone) Inlet.—The harbor of Cape Charles City is an artificial rectangular basin of about 10 acres area, excavated in the shore of the Chesapeake Bay, about 12 miles north of the cape of the same name. It is in Northampton County, Virginia, and forms the shore terminus of the New York, Philadelphia, and Norfolk Railroad, from which transfers of freight and passengers are made to and from Norfolk, Va. The average rise of the tide is 2.6 feet.
The project for improvement proposed, in a report on a survey made in 1889, provides for dredging the harbor to a depth of 14 feet, and the entrance thereto and the chainel in Cherrystone Inlet and across Cherrystone Bar to a depth of 16 feet, below mean low water, the width of the two last-named channels to be 100 and 200 feet, respectively, and for protective works of stone at the entrance to the harbor. The estimated cost of the project is $142,340.
The harbor was originally a small fresh-water pond, and was inclosed with bulkheads by the railroad company and then dredged, together with its new entrance leading into Cherrystone Inlet, to a depth of about 12 feet below mean low water. This depth was, however, not sufficient for the large boats and barges employed of necessity in the increasing traffic; the entrance was also too narrow, and during the prevalence of northerly winds and low tides frequent delays occurred by grounding of vessels at the entrance or in the channel across Cherrystone Bar.
The portion of the project relating to dredging was adopted in 1890, and at the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, the sum of $21,676.89 had been expended in dredging about one-half of the area of the harbor to 14 feet and in widening the entrance gradually from 50 feet at its shore end to 480 feet at its junction with the channel in Cherrystone Inlet, the depth made being 16 feet, and in removing to the same depth a small shoal in the main channel 1 mile south of the harbor. The difficulties formerly encouutered in leaving or entering the harbor have been much lessened.
There were no operations during the past fiscal year. The dredged area within the harbor and in the entrance is shoaling again, according to a survey recently made by the railroad company, and to a greater degree in the entrance than in the harbor. The material is readily swept in from the adjacent shoals on each side of the cut, and will continue to do so unless arrested by artificial works. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...
$3, 323. 11 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
668.67 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended...
2, 654. 44 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
10,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project......, $10, 400.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix H 18.)
19. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation.-During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, the following wrecks were removed under the provisions of the act of June 14, 1880: The schooner Harrey W. Anderson, off Hog Island, Virginia, and schooner Ann R. Rogers, off Cobbs Island, Virginia.
(See Appendix H 19.)
EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS, MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890,
The required preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer in charge, William F. Smith, United States agent, and reports thereon submitted through Col. William P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Southeast Division. It is the opinion of Maj. Smith and of the division engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that these localities are worthy of improvement. The conclusions of these officers being concurred in by me, Maj. Smith was charged with and has completed their survey and submitted reports thereon. The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as executive documents of the Fifty-second Congress, first session.
1. Murderkill River, Delaware. The proposed improvement contemplates the formation, by dredging, of a channel 7 feet deep at low water from Frederica to the 7-foot curve in Delaware Bay, 80 feet wide down to the mouth, and 150 feet wide at bottom and 250 feet wide at top from the mouth to the 7-foot curve in the bay; the cut at the mouth to be protected by forming an embankment of the dredged material on each side to a height of at least 2 feet above high spring tides. The cost of this work is estimated at $ 47,550. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 21. (See also Appendix H 20.)
2. Mispillion River, Delaware, with a view of cutting a canal so as to shorten the distance to the bay and making an outlet in the bay which would furnish deeper water. The improvement proposed contemplates dredging a channel 150 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water, extending from the outlet of the river in a southeasterly direction tó the 6-foot depth in Delaware Bay, the cut being protected by forming a wall of the dredged material, a stiff blue clay, along its northern side. The cost of this work is estimated at $24,000. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 57. (See also Appendix H 21.)
3. Susquehanna River, above Havre de Grace, Maryland.- The plan of improvement, proposed with a view to preventing damage by ice gorges in Susquehanna River in the vicinity of Port Deposit and Havre de Grace, Md., contemplates deepening the shoal below the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad bridge so as to enlarge the cross section of the river at that point, and constructing eight piers at the Hog Back, above Port Deposit, so as to break up the ice or cause the gorges to form at that point. The estimated cost of this work is as follows:
$315, 109.05 Construction of eight piers
Col. William P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, re. marks upon this subject as follows:
It should be understood, if this work is to be undertaken by the United States, that it is not for the benefit of Lavigation.
It is an expensive work, both in first cost and in maintenance. The shoals will surely reform and require redredging. It would be interesting to know how much an ice gorge actually costs the town of Port Deposit and its inhabitants. It might be found cheaper to let the gorges come as they do, occasionally, and for the United States to pay the expense entailed each time rather than to incur a heavy expense for works which will not guarantee protection.
Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 52. (See also Appendix H 22.)
4. Rock Hall Harbor, Maryland.—The improvement recommended contemplates dredging a 10-foot low-water channel, 100 feet wide, from the channel in Swan Creek Inlet to the old pier in the barbor, at an esmated cost of $9,513. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 56. (See also Appendix I 23.)
IMPROVEMENT OF PATAPSCO RIVER AND CHANNEL TO BALTIMORE,
MARYLAND, AND OF JAMES RIVER, VIRGINIA.
Officer in charge, Col. William P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.
1. Patapsco River and channel to Baltimore, Maryland. The depth of this channel has by successive steps been increased from 17 feet at mean low water to 27 feet, with an average rise of tide of about 18 inches.
The project of improvement first adopted and commenced in October, 1853, had for its object to give a channel 22 feet deep at mean low water, with a width of 150 feet.
Little was done before the late war, but afterwards these dimensions were increased, a depth of 24 feet at mean low water being determined upon, with a width of channel ranging from 250 to 400 feet.
This channel was completed in 1874, important changes of position having been given to a portion of it, by which the distance was materially lessened and the expense of maintenance decreased.
The object of the improvement was to permit the approach to Baltimore, at mean low water, of vessels drawing from 223 to 23 feet, and at ordinary high water of vessels drawing 24 and 241 feet. Later the project had in view a depth of 27 feet at mean low water, with a width of 600 feet, to allow the entrance and departure of the largest vessels.
Operations were brought to a close in August, 1889, for want of money and were not resumed in the year ending June 30, 1890. The channel throughout had then been excavated to 27 feet at low water. The Craighill Channel below the cut off, the Cut-off Channel, and the Brewerton above the cut-off had been excavated to 400 feet width. The Fort McHenry division was generally 250 feet in width, except at the upper end, where it was 500. All the angles were much wider, the object being to facilitate the movement of large ships at these turns. The portions of the Brewerton below the cut-off and of the Craighill above it have not been dredged for years, and are not now considered a part of the channel under improvement by the United States. Their width is about 250 feet and the depth 24 feet.
Up to June 30, 1891, the United States had expended $2,561,010.48. The city of Baltimore and the State of Maryland, chiefly the former, have also contributed to the same object more than $500,000. The expenditure up to June 30, 1892, by the United States was $2,932,517.01.
The river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, appropriated
$340,000, and the sundry civil act of March :3, 1891, an ad litional sum of $151,200. The former contained the following important proviso:
Provided, That such contracts as may be desirable may be entered into by the Serretary of War for the completion of the existing project, or any part of same, to be paid for as appropriations inay from time to time be made by law.
Operations in carrying out the approved project were resumed as soon as possible after September, 1890, and have been vigorously in progress since, under a contract with the American Dredging Company.
The work was suspended from January 20, 1892, to March 22, owing to inclement weather, and advantage was taken of this opportunity to make needed repairs to the plant. Extensive repairs of the United States tug Robert Leslie have also been found necessary. She has been nearly forty years in service.
At the close of the fiscal year the work is so well advanced that the completion of the channel to a width of 600 feet and a depth of 27 feet at mean low water throughout the whole length is expected in the calendar year 1892, although not required by the contract until the middle of 1893.
As the divisions of the channel are completed, a resurvey is made to insure accuracy of finish before final payment to the contractor. Under the contract the large amount of nearly 5,000,000 yards of material has been removed. About 1,000,000 more remains to be excavated to make the channel 600 feet wide.
Of course this channel will require repairs from time to time, like all artificial highways. The latest experience and a restudy of the conditions of the case confirm the opinion and estimate made some years ago that the maintenance of the channel after completion will require the annual expenditure of $50,000. This is, however, a small sum when contrasted with the great gain to Baltimore and her dependent interests, as well as in revenue to the United States Treasury, by the increase of the depth from 17 to 27 feet at low water, which means the introduction of many lines of deep ocean steamers to European and other foreign and domestic ports within the past twenty years, whereas there were none before of any importance.
The following remarks in regard to the commerce of Baltimore are taken from the annual statement of the collector of the port:
The tonnage movement at this port for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, shows a most gratifying and encouraging increase, both as to the number of vessels arriving and departing and in the increased carrying capacity, the latter being entirely due to the widening and deepening of the channel approaches to our harbor, which now enable vessels drawing 27 and 28 feet of water to pass up and down with perfect ease and safety.
The president of the Association of Maryland Pilots informs me that the average draft of water of the vessels in the foreign trade is 14 feet for sailing and 21 feet for steam; 31 steam vessels drawing 23 to 28 feet have passed through the channel during the past year.
The facilities for landing and transporting immigrants have been increased and are now unsurpassed.
The foreign tonnage movement shows an increase of 55 per cent.
In the matter of exports a most desirable increase is shown to the extent of $31,000,000, notably in wheat, corn, flour, all of which have gained from 100 to 200 per cent. Rosin, dried apples, oil-cake, beef, tallow, lard, pork, cotton-seed oil, show a most decided increase, while there is a perceptible increase running through 80 per cent of the entire merchandise exported.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$137, 816. 68
July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ..
66, 310, 15 $1,500.00 205, 834.03
207, 334. 03
Amount appropriated by act approved August 5, 1892
208,000.00 (See Appendix I 1.) 2. James River, Virginia.- When the improvement of the James River was regularly undertaken by the Government the navigation was obstructed by sunken vessels, by remains of military bridges, and by other obstructions put into the river during the late war to prevent the national fleets from approaching too close to Richmond.
There were also other natural obstructions. Rockett Reef and Richmond Bar had only 7 feet of water at mean low tide. From Warwick Bar to Richmond the channel was crooked and obstructed by dangerous rocks and ledges, the Dutch Gap cut-off was not then open, and the river was in a poor condition as regards its availability for commercial purposes.
The original project of improvement was to secure a depth of 18 feet at full tide (corresponding to about 15 feet at low tide) to Richmond, with a channel width of 180 feet. This project had reached an advanced state of progress when Congress, by act approved July 5, 1884, adopted another looking to 22 feet at mean low tide from the sea to Richmond, the width to be 400 feet from the sea to City Point, 300 from thence to Drewry Bluff, and 200 feet from thence to Richmond.
The total amount expended on this river by the United States up to June 30, 1891, was $1,221,505,56, which includes the sum of $490,621.01 expended since the new project was entered upon to give a depth of 22 feet at mean low water. The condition of the river June 30, 1891, was as follows:
The available draft from the sea to Warwick Bar, which is 5 miles from Richmond, was 194 feet at high water; from Warwick Bar to Goodes Rocks, 17 feet; over Goodes Rocks, 161 feet, Goodes Rocks to Chesapeake and Ohio wharves, near Richmond, 18 feet, except a space about 250 feet long at Goodes Rocks, where there was an available draft of but 151 feet.
The amount expended in the year ending June 30, 1892, has been $98,902.63.
The principal operations of the year are shown by the following table: