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3. Hampton Creek and Bar, Virginia.-An examination and survey of this river were made in 1875 in accordance with the river and harbor act of June 23, 1874.

The channel in the river was at that time 60 feet wide and 8 feet deep at mean low water. Over the bar the depth was only 6 feet.

The plan of improvement adopted was to secure a channel 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep at low water in the creek and over the bar. This improvement was secured June 30, 1880, at a cost of $12,000.

The river and harbor act of August 11, 1888, called for an examination and survey, with a view to continuing the improvement.

It was recommended that the channel dredged in 1879–180 be widened to 200 feet in the creek and from 200 to 300 feet over the bar, at a total cost of $10,000.

This amount having been appropriated in the river and harbor act of 1890, a survey was made of the creek and a contract entered into for the necessary dredging.

The amount expended on the present project to June 30, 1891, was $127.26, which was applied to surveys and office expenses.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $9,872,74 was expended on this improvement and was applied to payments on contract, surveys, and office expenses. Eighty-four thousand three hundred and twentyone cubic yards of material was removed under contract. Through the bar the channel was increased to 300 feet in width, and in the creek to 200 feet in width for about 2,400 feet, and 160 feet for a further distance of about 1,200 feet or to the head of navigation. The depth obtained was 9 feet at ordinary low water.

The project being completed no further appropriation is required for this improvement. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$9, 872. 74 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

9, 872. 74 (See Appendix K 3.)

4. Nansemond River, Virginia.—This river is one of the important tributaries of Hampton Roads, Virginia, and is navigable at high water for vessels drawing 11 feet as far as the city of Suffolk, 16 miles from its mouth.

Five railroads, two of which terminate at this place, put this city in communication with the South and West, and two lines of steamers run between it and Norfolk and Baltimore.

In 1872, before any improvement was undertaken, the navigable channel of the Nansemond River was 5 feet deep at low water and was much obstructed by wrecks, snags, etc.

Between 1873 and 1878 the Government dredged a channel, wherever necessary, 8 feet deep at low water from Suffolk to Hampton Roads, at a cost of $37,000.

This depth not being sufficient to meet the demands of its growing commerce, in obedience to the requirements of the river and harbor act of August, 1886, an examination and survey of the river were made to determine what other improvement was necessary.

The plan of improvement then proposed and since adopted is to secure a channel not less than 100 feet wide at bottom, 12 feet deep at mean low water, from the head of navigation to the mouth of Western Branch, 5.37 miles, including a turning basin 200 feet square, 300 feet below Suffolk Bridge, by dredging and the construction of spurs and training walls, and a channel of like depth from mouth of Western Branch to deep water at Town Point, 200 feet wide at bottom at its

upper end and gradually increasing to at least 400 feet at its lower end, etc., the total estimated cost being, in round numbers, $152,500.

The amount expended on the present project to June 30, 1891, was $8,584.33, which was applied to dredging a channel 40 feet wide and 11 feet deep at ordinary low water through Suffolk Shoal, also to repairs to dikes.

Ten thousand dollars was appropriated for this improvement by the act of September 19, 1890, and contract was made with the Alabama Dredging and Jetty Company of Mobile, Ala., to do the required dredging, the work to be completed by June 30, 1892.

To June 30, 1892, the contractor had failed to begin work and on his application an extension of sixty days to the contract time of completion was granted.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $41.50 was expended, which was applied to office expenses. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$11, 415. 67 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

41.50 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

11, 374. 17 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts..

9, 700,00 July 1, 1892, balance available

1, 674. 17 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

10,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

11, 674. 17 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....... 122,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix K 4.)

5. Chickahominy River, Virginia.—This river is one of the principal tributaries of the James and is navigable at high water for vessels drawing 10 feet to Windsor Shades and for vessels drawing 12 feet to Binn Bar, 24 miles below Windsor Shades. The latter place, which is the head of navigation, is 25 miles from the mouth of the river.

Before improvement the channel from Windsor Shades to Binn Bar was obstructed by several shoals, over which the depth was 4 to 5 feet at low water; the entrance to the river was also obstructed by a bar.

The existing project of improvement is to dredge a channel from 100 to 150 feet wide and at least 8 feet deep at low water through the shoals near the head of navigation and a channel 200 feet wide and 14 to 15 feet deep at low water through the bar at the mouth. The rise of the tide is about 3 feet.

Up to June 30, 1891, $21,590.98 had been expended on this project. The channel through the bar had been completed, and that through the shoals given a least depth of 64 feet and a least width of 40 feet.

The improved portion of the river was surveyed in January, 1891, and the dredged channels found in good condition.

Work under the contract made for dredging was commenced and completed in April, 1892; 13,000 cubic yards of material was removed, with the following results: The channel at Binn Bar was dredged 60 feet in width for a distance of 1,000 feet. At Osborne Bar the channel width was increased from 30 to 60 feet for a distance of 570 feet. At Old Fort Bar the channel was dredged 80 feet wide for a distance of 550 feet, and a point below the bar 50 feet by 150 feet was removed. At Windsor Shades Bar a channel 40 feet wide was dredged 1,400 feet long. All these channels were dredged to a depth not less than 9 feet at low water. The amount expended on this improvement during fiscal

year ending June 30, 1892, was $2,221.71, which was applied 'o payments
on contract, office expenses, etc.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$2, 409, 02 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

2, 221.71 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...

187.31 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

5,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

5, 187. 31 (See Appendix K 5.)

6. Appomattox River, Virginia.—This is one of the principal tributaries of the James River, into which it empties at City Point, Va.

It is navigable as far as the city of Petersburg, about 11 miles from its mouth.

Before improvement this river had a tortuous channel, obstructed by shoals, over which there was about 64 feet of water at high tide.

The plan of improvement, adopted in 1870, was to secure a channel 12 feet deep at high tide, with as much width as the river would bear.

The amount expended by the United States up to June 30, 1891, was $397,329.54, which resulted in maintaining a channel 10 to 12 feet deep in this river since 1874 and permanently securing this depth over most of the shoals.

The method of improvement consists in constructing regulating works, revetments, jetties, dikes, etc., resorting to the dredge to remove occasional shoals formed by freshets.

As this river is subject to annual freshets, which bring down and deposit larger quantities of sand than the current in the navigable portion can carry off, a small annual expenditure for dredging and repair work will be necessary after the regulating works have been completed.

The amount expended on this improvement during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $7,258.09, which was applied to payments on contract, work by hired labor, office expenses, and care of property.

The contract work, comprising 18 jetties, with an aggregate length of about 2,200 feet, and 892 feet of pile and brush dike, was completed. By hired labor all dikes were refilled with brush; Rushmore dam was replaced by a gravel dam; the closure dike was strengthened by a brush and gravel dam in rear, and a dam of brush and gravel was placed across Steins Cut.

Complaint having been made of shoals having been formed by freshets at the lower end of Puddledock Cut and on Magazine Bend, authority was obtained and work commenced upon their removal by hired labor, the use of Government plant, and the hire of dredge belonging to the city of Petersburg, Va. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...

$11, 420.46 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

7, 258. 09 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

4, 162. 37 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

231. 70 July 1, 1892, balance available

3,930. 67 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

15, 080.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

19, 010.67 (See Appendix K 6.)

7. Inland water route from Norfolk Harbor, Virginia, to Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, through Currituck Sound.---This is one of the

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most important links in the chain of inland water communication along the Atlantic coast.

It connects Chesapeake Bay with Albemarle Sound and is composed of the following bodies of water: Elizabeth River, North Landing River, Currituck Sound, Coanjok Bay, North River, and the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal. With the exception of the canal, which was constructed and is maintained by private enterprise, all are natural waterways. . Before any improvement was undertaken by the Government there was over this route an indifferent channel 5 to 7 feet deep at low water, the navigation of which was obstructed by snags, overhanging growth, and sharp bends in all the rivers.

The project adopted was to secure a channel 80 feet wide and 9 feet deep at low water over the entire route, about 58 miles, by dredging, removing obstructions, and constructing a dike.

Steady progress has been made toward securing this result, and at present the regular steamboat lines running between North Carolina ports and Norfolk and Baltimore employ vessels whose maximum dimensions are: length, 190 feet; width, 25.2 feet; draft, 8 feet, and ton

nage, 421.

In the river and harbor acts before that of September 19, 1890, three separate items were inserted for this improvement; in that of September 19, 1890, one item was made to cover the entire route.

The total expenditure up to June 30, 1891, was $235,089.89.

Work was commenced on the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River under contract in December, 1891, and completed in March, 1892, 32,308 cubic yards of material being removed. Nine shoals, having a total length of 7,950 feet, were dredged to not less than 9 feet deep for a channel not less than 50 feet wide. Another shoal 600 feet long was dredged 25 feet wide, and a width of 50 feet was removed from a point of shoal.

The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, upon this improvement was $8,742.39, which was applied to payments on contract, office expenses, etc. Joly 1, 1891, balance unexpended ..

$9, 480.96 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

8, 742. 39 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

738.57 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

9,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

9, 738.57 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... 49, 677.08 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix K 7.)

8. North Landing River, Virginia and North Carolina.--This river forms part of the “inland water route from Norfolk to Albemarle Sound” described above.

Before improvement the navigation of this river was obstructed by shoals, over which the depth was 6 feet at low water, by snags, and by sharp bends.

The plan of improvement adopted in 1879 was to secure a channel 80 feet wide and 9 feet deep at low water by dredging shoals and removing bends and obstructions.

This project was completed June 30, 1884, at a cost of $49,777.34, and the desired channel obtained for a distance of 17 miles. Since

that time $3,057.35 has been expended on this river in removing sunken logs which have become detached from passing rafts.

There is still a small balance on hand for the continuation of this work, and no further appropriation is necessary. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$2, 665. 31 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

2, 665. 31 (See Appendix K 8.)

IMPROVEMENT OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN VIRGINIA,

NORTH CAROLINA, AND SOUTH CAROLINA.

Officers in charge, Capt. W. H. Bixby, Corps of Engineers, to October 31, 1891, with Lieut. Mason M. Patrick, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders; Lieut. Mason M. Patrick, Corps of Engineers, in temporary charge from October 31, 1891, to January 1, 1892; and Maj. W. S. Stanton, Corps of Engineers, in charge since January 1, 1892, having under his immediate orders Lieut. Mason M, Patrick, Corps of Engineers, to April 21, 1892, and Lieut. E. W. Van C. Lucas, Corps of Engineers, since April 30, 1892; Division Engineer, Col. Wm. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.

1. Staunton River, Virginia.—The improvement has been restricted to two sections, aggregating 65 miles in length and separated by an interval of 20miles.

When, in 1879, the United States commenced the improvement of the lower section, 311 miles long, from Randolph up to Brook Neal, the channel depth at about 18 rock ledges was only 1 to 2 feet, but elsewhere 4 to 5 feet at low water.

The project of 1879, not since modified, was to secure a boat channel way 35 feet wide and at least 2 feet deep at low water throughout the 311 miles.

When, in 1883, the United States commenced the improvement of the upper section, 234 miles long, from the Virginia Midland Railroad Bridge up to Pig River, the channel depth at about 20 rock shoals was only about .4 foot, and elsewhere about 2 feet at ordinary stages of water.

The project of 1883, as modified in 1884 and 1887, was to secure a bateau channel way 14 feet wide and 11 feet deep over the entire section.

To June 30, 1891, $44,500 was expended upon the improvement of the two sections.

At that date the proposed channel had been obtained for 294 miles of the middle part of the lower section, and for 184 miles of the upper section, giving for the 31} miles of the former a fairly cleared channel for steamers of 2 feet draft and of about 25 tons burden, and making navigation for pole boats fairly good over the entire upper section up to Pig River.

October 31 and November 9 the discontinuance of the improvement was recommended by the district engineer and division engineer, and approved November 10, 1891, by the Chief of Engineers.

No work has been done during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended....

$7, 981.74 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

147.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

7, 834. 74 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

34. 74

July 1, 1892, balance available

7,800.00

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