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of a navigable channel through the creek 7 feet deep at mean low water. The mean rise and fall of tide is about 7.1 feet.
The estimated cost of the improvement is $38,590.
Prior to improvement the low-water depth at some places did not exceed 3 feet.
During the fiscal year just closed there was removed from the outer shoal, by dredging, 13,000 cubic yards of material.
The expenditures during the year, including all outstanding liabilities, amounted to $3,559.79. The total amount expended to June 30, 1892, including all outstanding liabilities, is $12,448.01, and has resulted in securing a navigable channel with a low-water depth of not less than 4.8 feet. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.....
$3, 611. 78 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
3,559, 79 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.....
51.99 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
7,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
7,551. 99 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 18, 590.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix N 8.)
9. Cumberland Sound, Georgea and Florida.-The plan of improvement under which operations have been carried on at Cumberland Sound during the last fiscal year was adopted in 1879, and revised in 1891. The project contemplates the establishment of a navigable channel across the bar 19 feet deep at mean low water. The mean rise and fall of tide is 5,9 feet. The estimated cost of the improvement is $2,079,500, exclusive of work done prior to 1891.
Prior to improvement the low-water depth of the entrance varied from 11 to 12.5 feet, with a mean rise and fall of tide of 5.9 feet.
During the fiscal year just closed there were placed in the north jetty 58,759.61 square yards of brush mattresses, 11,429.93 cubic yards of stone, extending the foundation course 5,146.5 feet. The total amount expended to June 30, 1892, including all outstanding liabilities, is $590,624.08. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
$108, 173. 78 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
106, 050. 69 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..
2, 123. 09 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.
247, 17 July 1, 1892, balance available
1, 875, 92 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
170,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.
171, 875.92 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project... 1,817,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix N 9.)
10. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation.—The wrecks of the steamers Molton and St. Matthews, in Darien Harbor, and of a large unknown vessel in Savannah Harbor, were, after due advertisement, removed by contract during the year,
(See Appendix N 10.)
EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS, MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.
The required preliminary examination of the inside route between Doboy and Sapelo (Sopelo), Georgia, with a view of making the same navigable for seagoing vessels, was made by the local engineer in charge, Capt. (then Lieut.) Carter, and report thereon submitted through Col. William P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Southeast Division. In this report Capt. Carter, November 25, 1896, stated that the proposed route “ forms a part of the inside route between Savannah, Ga., and Fernandina, Fla., and to that extent is worthy of improvement,” but whether or not the locality is worthy of improvement to the extent contemplated by the act would depend upon the first cost and the probable cost of maintenance. These could not be determined with any degree of accuracy without a detailed survey and a thorough investigation of the tidal conditions in the locality. These views of the local officer being concurred in by the division engineer and by me, a survey was ordered and made, and report thereon submitted.
In the report on the survey Capt. Carter says: I am of the opinion that the “inside route between Doboy and Sapelo, Ga., with a view to making the same navigable for seagoing vessels,” is not worthy of improvement. The division engineer agrees with Capt. Carter in this opinion.
The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 62, Fifty-second Congress, first session. (See also Appendix N 11.) The required preliminary examinations of the following localities were made by the local engineer in charge, Capt. Carter, and reports thereon submitted through Col. William P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Southeast Division. It is the opinion of Capt. Carter, and of the division engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that these localities are worthy of improvement. The conclusions of these officers being concurred in by me, Capt. Carter was charged with and has completed their survey and submitted reports thereon. The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as executive documents of the Fifty-second Congress, first session.
1. The inside route between Savannah, Georgia, and Fernandina, Florida, with a view of obtaining a steamboat channel of 7 feet depth at mean lowo water.– To establish a continuous channel not less than 7 feet deep at mean low water between Savannah, Ga., and Fernandina, Fla., will require dredging and other work of channel improvement at four points, Romerly Marsh, Mud River, Little Mud River, and Jekyl Creek. The cost of the work is estimated as follows: Romerly Marsh (Habersham Creek route)
$53,000 Mud River....
16, 000 Little Mud River
1,000 Jekyl Creek (completion of existing project)
105,000 The proposed improvements of Romerly Marsh and Mud River will require to be maintained after completion, and the annual cost of such maintenace is estimated as follows: Romerly Marsh
$500 Mud River...
Capt. Carter states: Irregular and inadequate appropriations will greatly increase the cost of the work and delay its completion, and it is therefore recommended that unless the total sum required for its completion, viz, $105,000, can be appropriated at one time no appropriation for the work may be made.
Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 41. (See also Appendix N 12.) 2. Brunswick Outer Bar, Georgia, to determine the feasibility and cost of deepening the same to 26 feet at ordinary high water.—The proposed improvement contemplates a chanel across the Outer Bar, opposite the entrance to St. Simon Sound, 300 feet wide and 26 feet deep at mean low water, to be obtained by the construction of two jetties and by dredging, the jetties extending eastwardly from St. Simon and Jekyl islands to points outside the bar, the least distance between the two jetties being 5,000 feet. The total cost of this work, in round numbers, is estimated at $2,700,000. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No, 34. (See also Appendix N 13.)
IMPROVEMENT OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN FLORIDA.
Officers in charge, Capt. W. M. Black, Corps of Engineers, to November 20, 1891, with Lieut. D. DuB. Gaillard, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders to November 6, 1891; and. Maj. J. C. Mallery, Corps of Engineers, in charge since November 20, 1891; Division Engineer, Col. Wm. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers.
1. St. Johns River, Florida.-Operations for the improvement of this river have been carried on in conformity with a project submitted in 1879 by the late Col. Q. A. Gilmore, Corps of Engineers. The plan contemplates the formation of a continuous channel 15 feet deep at mean low water from Jacksonville to the ocean. The points where work is required are in a reach near Dames Point, 12 miles from the mouth, and on the bar at the mouth. Near Dames Point the mean low-water depth varies from 12 to 13 feet, with a tidal range of about 2 feet. The bar at the mouth is formed of sand. Before work began the mean lowwater channel depth across it varied from 5 to 7 feet, with a tidal range of 5.8 feet. The channel across the bar shifted continuously north and south through a mile range. The work was divided into two parts: (1) The formation of a channel across the bar at the mouth, by the concentration and direction of the tidal currents by two jetties, to start from the opposite shores of the entrance, and to converge, until, on the bar, their outer ends should be approximately parallel and 1,600 feet apart; and (2) the improvement of the Dames Point Reach, by dredg. ing, and the construction of works of protection, under a project approved June 11, 1891, and approved in a modified form March 30, 1892.
As the improvement at the mouth was at first most urgently needed, the five appropriations up to that of 1886, inclusive, aggregating $675,000, were made for improving “the channel over the bar at the mouth,” under the estimate for that part of the total project. Since 1887 the depth on the bar has been greater than that in the Dames Point Reach, and the interests of commerce have demanded that work at the latter point should be started. Accordingly, the appropriations since 1888 were made for improving the river 66 from Jacksonville to the ocean, including the channel over the bar at the mouth,” under the estimate for the entire project. The work of improving the channel at Dames Point is now being carried out by means of an appropriation of $300,000 made by Duval County.
At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $865,146.99 had
been expended. The south jetty had a total length of 7,147 feet. Of this 1,740 feet was built to the full height and capped; 4,680 feet was. above mean low water excepting a few gaps at the outer end, and the depth over the remaining 727 feet sloped from mean low water to 13 feet below. The total length of the north jetty was 10,165 feet. Of this 553 feet was built to full height and capped; 6,514 feet was above mean low water excepting a few gaps. The average mean low-water depth across the remaining 3,098 feet was 5 feet. Prior to 1886 the jetties were built by alternate layers of mattresses and rock. Since that date mattresses have been used in the foundation course only. A survey of the Dames Point Reach was made in 1889 and a survey of the Mile Point Bank in 1892.
Work by contract under the appropriation of 1890 was continued. During the fiscal year 1891-'92 there were placed in the jetties 25,359 yards of mattresses, 28,577 tons of riprap stone, 1,343.4 cubic yards of shell, and 227.1 cubic yards of concrete. The south jetty foundation course has been extended 1,146 feet, and 920 feet of its superstructure raised to the level of mean low water. The north jetty foundation course has been extended 826 feet, 1,990 feet of its superstructure has been built to the level of mean low water, and 276 feet was capped with concrete blocks.
The southward movement of the south channel has continued. The depth over the outer bar is now about 12 feet, as against 13 feet last year. Over the inner bar it is now 151 feet as against 111 feet last year. The area of the 6-foot curve on the bank at the mouth of the jetties has diminished very much, and the bottom slope towards the sea has become generally steeper. The width of the bar across the North Channel has decreased from 700 feet to 300 feet, and there seems a possibility of temporarily using this channel pending the opening of the South Channel across the bank under the influence of the prolonged south jetty. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$154, 853.01 August 10, 1891, amount refunded by land-grant railroad..
154, 853.89 93, 448.41
June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
July 1, 1892, balance available.....
17, 153.50 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
112,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
129, 653.50 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project. 284,500.00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1894 284,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix O 1.)
2. Ocklawaha River, Florida.-The portion of the Ocklawaha River which it is proposed to improve, lies between Leesburg, on Lake Griffin, and the mouth, a distance of 94 miles. The channel width varies from 30 to 70 feet, and the depth from 5 to 9 feet. From the outlet of Lake Griffin, for a distance of 28 miles, the river is sluggish in current, has numerous bends, and is badly obstructed by floating islands and
grass. For the remaining 58 miles the current is strong and the prin. cipal obstructions are snags and overhanging trees.
The approved project is to clear the channel between Lake Griffin and the mouth by removing snags and the worst overhanging trees, and by moving the floating islands out of the channel and staking them in place by piles.
The amount expended on this improvement up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, was $2,455.68.
Under the appropriation made by act approved September 19, 1890, a survey and map of the river were made and the channel was cleared of its worst obstructions from the mouth to the prairie, a distance of 60 miles. A total of 3,881 snags and 705 overhanging trees were removed, and 84 trees were trimmed.
On account of the number of submerged snags being so greatly in excess of the estimate and the very low stage of the river, which prevented the boat going further up than the prairie, no work was done on the floating islands.
The unprecedented low water developed a few shoals which it appears desirable to have removed, and more effective means being proposed for keeping the channel clear of floating islands, the officer in charge recommends a further appropriation of $15,000 and subsequent annual appropriations of $1,000 for maintaining the channel. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$7,544.32 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
6, 320.01 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
1, 224. 31 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities July 1, 1892, balance available.....
275. 17 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
1,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
1, 275. 17 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 6,510.90 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix 0 2.)
3. Volusia Bar, Florida.- Volusia Bar is situated at the head of Lako George, and is formed by materials brought down by the St. Johns River and deposited at the point where the current of the narrow river loses its velocity as the bed widens to form the lake. The usual depth on the bar, before operations began, was from 3} to 41 feet, with a very crooked channel. At times this depth was diminished so much as to stop navigation entirely.
The adopted plan of improvement was to contract the waters on the bar by the construction of two converging jetties formed of brush and stone, with a view to causing a scour to the depth of 6 feet. Should the depth caused by the jetties not be sufficient, recourse was to be had to dredging. Between the jetties on the bar lines of guide piles were placed to keep vessels off the jetties and to define the channel clearly.
In 1887 it was decided to limit the channel depth sought to the 5 feet then obtained, on account of the evident shoaling in the lake beyond the jetties, and because that depth was sufficient for the requirements of the existing river commerce.
Up to June 30, 1891, $25,495.87 bad been expended, including liabilities then outstanding. The jetties had been built to their full length and to a height sufficient to produce the desired effect; two lines of firmly set fender piles defined the jetty channel on the crest of the bar,