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In Old Tampa Bay the channel through the outer bulkhead bad been dredged to a depth of 20 feet for a width of 100 feet, and from 16 to 20 feet for the remaining 100 feet in width, and that through the inner bulkhead for a width of 150 feet with a mid-depth of 19.7 feet.

By the act approved September 19, 1890, $25,000 was appropriated for continuing the improvement.

Under this appropriation work was resumed in Old Tampa Bay December 19, and in Hillsboro Bay April 7. The channel called for by the project was completed in Old Tampa Bay May 12. Work still continued in Hillsboro Bay at the end of the fiscal year. On June 30 a continuous channel 8 to 9 feet deep and 70 feet wide had been secured from the mouth of the Hillsboro River to the 8-foot contour in Hillsboro Bay, near Ballast Point. In a bend in the channel near Spanish Town Point the channel has been made 100 feet wide. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...

$24, 806.00 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

14, 801.36 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....

10, 004. 64 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

$5, 327.59 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts.

4, 080.67

9, 408. 26 July 1, 1892, balance available

596. 38 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

10,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

10, 596.38 (See Appendix O 10.)

11. Withlacoochee River, Florida.--This river is 120 miles long and has a normal width varying from 75 to 180 feet, though at numerous points a defined channel is almost lost in broad marshy lakes and cypress swamps. The low-water depth varied from 1 to 71 feet. Before improvement the river was so obstructed by shoals, loose rocks, spags, fallen trees, floating-grass islands, and bars as to be practically impassable excepting in isolated reaches,

The river was examined with a view to its improvement in 1879. The approved project calls for the removal of snags, overhanging trees, loose rocks, and some of the worst shoals between the Gulf of Mexico and Pemberton Ferry, a distance of about 77 miles, so as to permit boats of 2 feet draft to navigate the river during one-half the year.

Prior to June 30, 1891, the river had been cleared and made navigable as called for by the project between Pemberton Ferry and Dunnellon. Work was still required on some of the ledges in order to make navigation safe. Work was also required below Dunnellon.

The amount expended up to June 30, 1891, was $17,859.83.

In the act approved September 19, 1890, $5,400 was appropriated for continuing the improvement. Work under this appropriation was begun March 23 and still continued June 30. On account of the very low stage of the river the United States spag and dredge boat Suwanee could not be taken up where the work was most required. The boat was laid up and a party formed from the crew and the work of removing obstructions was carried on from the small boats and from the banks; 79 snags and 10 overhanging trees were removed; 465 cubic yards of rock was blasted and 296 cubic yards of rock was removed from the channel; 128 linear feet of dams was built.

The channel called for by the project is nearly completed,

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
August 10, 1891, amount refunded by land-grant railroad

$6,040.17

3.57

6, 043. 74 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

3, 193.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

2, 850.74 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

762, 74 July 1, 1892, balance available.

2,088.00 (See Appendix O 11.)

12. Harbor at Cedar Keys, Florida.—The improvement of this harbor has been carried on from time to time under various appropriations made since 1872. It was obstructed by a shoal, known as the Middle Ground, lying in the Main Ship Channel opposite War Key and by shoals elsewhere in the channel and at its outer extremity. At these points the general channel depth of 12 feet was reduced from 7 or 9 feet by outcropping rocks with sand and shells.

The existing project for the improvement has for its object to form a channel 200 feet.wide and 104 feet deep through these shoals. Work under this project has been carried on under various appropriations made since 1884. The total expenditure up to June 30, 1891, was $19,852.92. A clear channel of the required depth from the Gulf up to Cedar Keys had been obtained. Near Buoy No. 12 and in the Middle Ground the width was insufficient. Some further dredging was done in the Middle Ground. When work stopped the cut there had a width of 200 feet and a least depth of 94 feet. Along its east side the depth was 10 feet. In the act approved September 19, 1890, $2,500 was appropriated for this harbor, with the provision that a portion could be expended at Derrick Island Gap on the inside channel from Suwanee River. The project for this portion of the improvement is to obtain a channel 5 feet deep at mean low water from the harbor of Cedar Keys to the Suwanee Basin.

The work was done with the United States steam snag and dredge boat Suvanee. When operations ceased, owing to the exhaustion of the appropriation, a channel had been dredged in the vicinity of Derrick Island Gap 1,196 feet long, 37feet wide, and 6 feet deep. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$2, 147.08 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

1, 941.17 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ..

205.91 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project ...... 44,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix O 12.)

13. Suvanee River, Florida.-The length of river under improvement is 130 miles. From the Derrick Gap entrance to Branford, a distance of 80 miles, the width of the river varies from 250 to 300 feet, and its original low-water depth from 3 to 30 feet. It was but little obstructed, excepting at the mouth. Between Branford and Ellaville the general width is 325 feet. It was obstructed by many dangerous rock shoals, crossed by crooked channels, which had a low-water depth of from 1.5 to 3 feet, as well as by snags and overhanging trees.

A project for this improvement was adopted in 1880. It contemplates the formation of a channel 150 feet wide and 5 feet deep from the gulf (through the bars at the passes) as far up the river as New

Branford (Roland Bluff). From there to Ellaville the channel is to be 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep.

Up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $39,677.07 had been expended on this improvement. A long cut, now partly obliterated, had been made through the shoals between the mouth and deep water of the Gulf of Mexico, and a practicable but not safe channel had been opened as far as Hudson.

During the past fiscal year operations have been carried on by the United States snag boat Suwanee, and the channel between Branford and Luraville has been widened and deepened so that a channel safe during medium and high stages, and fairly safe and 3 feet deep at the lowest stages, now exists as far as Hudson, 15 miles below Ellaville. The channel across the Suwanee Basin was partially opened and was marked with palmetto piles. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...

$1, 322.93 August 10, 1891, amount refunded by land-grant railroad.

.55

1, 323.48 1,085. 15

238.33 3,000.00

June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix 0 13.)

3, 238. 33

21, 158.00

IMPROVEMENT OF

CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN GEORGIA,
FLORIDA, AND ALABAMA.

Officer in charge, Capt. Philip M. Price, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. William E. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, under his immédiate orders; Division Engineer, Col. C. B. Comstock, Corps of Engineers.

1. Apalachicola Bay, Florida.-In 1879 there was a minimum depth of 31 feet in the channel over the bar at the mouth of the Apalachicola River.

The bar begins about one-half mile below the town of Apalachicola, Fla., and is about 7,300 feet wide.

In 1879 a plan of improvement was adopted which contemplated dredging through the bar a straight channel 11 feet deep and 100 feet wide, to be afterwards increased to 200 feet wide should the first cut produce results to warrant it.

In 1891 this project was amended to include dredging a straight channel through Bulkhead Shoal 9 feet deep and not less than 100 feet wide.

Up to June 30, 1891, the sum of $88,539.01 had been expended on this improvement in dredging a straight channel through the bar at the mouth of the river, whenever funds were available, between the years 1881 and 1890. On account of inadequate appropriations the dredged cut has never exceeded 90 feet in width and 9 feet in depth, and has gradually filled up, partly by the deposit of silt from the river and partly by the washing in of material from the sides of the cut by the currents produced by the tides and the prevailing easterly winds.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $18,412.31 has been expended. Under the contract with the Alabama Dredging and Jetty

Company, approved August 3, 1891, 54,458 cubic yards of material was dredged on Bulkhead Shoal, between October 26, 1891, and February 6, 1892, at 25 cents per cubic yard. A straight cut was made about 4,000 feet long, 9 feet deep and 120 feet wide. Between February 6 and 27, 1892, 11,461 cubic yards of material was dredged from the shoalest places in the straight channel over the bar at the mouth of the Apalachicola River, when further operations were suspended on account of exhaustion of funds.

It is anticipated that the cut through Bulkhead Shoal may be reasonably permanent. Experience has shown that the channel through the bar at the mouth of the river will require redredging at least once in two years, unless the cut is made deeper and wider than has been hitherto possible with the funds available. It is probable that a deeper and wider cut may be more lasting. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...

$18, 461.24 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

18, 412.31 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

48.93 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

13.50 July 1, 1892, balance available......

35. 43 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

20,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

20, 035. 13 (See Appendix P 1.)

2. Apalachicola River, Florida.-The examination and survey of the Apalachicola River, finished in 1873, showed that the river, througlıout its length of 105 miles, had a natural channel not less than 6 feet deep. The channel was, however, much obstructed by the accumulation of logs and snags brought into it by the freshets in the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. At Moccasin Slough the river had been obstructed by piles, driven by Confederate authorities during the war. Drift logs had accumulated against these piles, and formed a dam across the river, and forced a narrow and very crooked channel through its banks into the river Styx. Navigation was difficult at the Upper and Lower Elbows on account of the abrupt bends and narrow channel.

The original project for the improvement of the river provided for securing a channel, 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep, by the removal of snags and overhanging trees, and widening and straightening the channel at Moccasin Slough and the Elbows, at an estimated cost of $80,333.

In conformity with the act of September 19, 1890, this project was in that year modified by adding thereto the securing of a channel 60 feet wide and 5 feet deep, through the Cut-Off, Lee Slough, and the Lower Chipola River, at an estimated cost of $7,500.

The expenditure, from 1874 to June 30, 1891, of $43,811.43, had resulted in clearing out the great accumulation of logs and snags and overhanging trees, and in annually removing the logs and snags brought down by the freshets in the rivers above.

A partial improvement had also been effected at Moccasin Slough and the Elbows, but navigation at these points was still difficult.

A little work had been done on the Cut-Off and Lower Chipola River, in order to enable steamboats to reach the landings above and below Lee Slough, but the funds available had not been sufficient to do any work on Lee Slough itself.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, the sum of $754.47 has been expended in removing the snags, sunken logs, and overhanging

ENG 92-13

trees from the Apalachicola River, and from the Cut Off and Lower Chipola River, which lead to Lee Slough. The country bordering on Lee Slough is now attracting the attention of settlers, and would be rapidly developed if the Cut-Off and Lee Slough and Lower Chipola River were so cleared of obstructions that the river steamboats could get through them on their regular trips. The river aftords the only practicable means of transportation for the products of this country. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

$754. 47 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

754.47 Amonnt appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

5,000.00 (See Appendix P 2.)

3. Flint River, Georgia.-Before the improvement was begun the river was only navigable at low water from its mouth up to Bainbridge, and the channel over this portion was narrow, crooked, and much obstructed by logs, snags, and overhanging trees.

The present project for the improvement of this river was adopted in 1873 and modified in 1879, the object of the original project being to afford a channel 100 feet wide and 3 feet deep at low water from its mouth up to Albany, Ga., an estimated distance of 105 miles; and of the modification, to provide a navigable channel for light-draft steamers, at moderate stages of water, from Albany to Montezuma, an estimated distance of 77 miles.

Previous to the act of June 18, 1878, $70,000 was appropriated for the 66 Chattahoochee and Flint rivers,” of which $18,000 was expended on the Flint River.

The expenditure up to June 30, 1891, of $140,220.84, had resulted in obtaining a navigable channel, having a low-water depth of 3 feet, from the mouth of the river to Albany. Above Albany the river had been partially cleared of logs and snags, and, to a limited extent, of loose rock, between Albany and Montezuma.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $12,080.74 was expended in the care and preservation of plant and in continuing work under the approved project.

Between the mouth of the river and Bainbridge, Ga., the river is in a fairly navigable condition, and only requires the annual clearing out of snags brought in by the winter freshets.

Between Bainbridge and Albany, Ga., a channel having a low-water depth of 3 feet and a minimum width of 50 feet has been secured, but in many places this channel is too narrow and tortuous for safe navi. gation, and will be improved as funds are available. The work will consist in drilling, blasting, and removing rock from the marl and rock shoals. When completed the improvement will be comparatively permanent; but, for the preservation of the improvement, it will be neces. sary to maintain a snag boat on the river, at an annual cost of $6,000.

Between Albany and Warwick, 38 miles above, low-water navigation is prevented by a series of rock shoals, on which the depth of water varies from 6 to 18 inches. The loose bowlders have been partially removed from the channel on this portion of the river.

Between Warwick and Montezuma the improvement consists mainly in the removal of logs and snags and overhanging trees, and has been sufficiently accomplished to permit navigation at moderate stages of water. Fresh logs and snags will, however, be brought in by each winter's freshets. So far as known no commercial use has been made of the river above Albany since July, 1890, when the Montezuma Steamboat Company sold their small steamer to the Albany Navigation Com.

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