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pany, which has since used it on the river below Albany. There are no indications that any use will be made of the river above Albany in the near future. For this reason no measures have been yet taken to require the owners of the two bridges, which now obstruct navigation, at distances of 16 and 41 miles respectively above Albany, to provide their bridges with draw openings.
Between Albany and Bainbridge a considerable river trade has been developed in consequence of the improvements already effected. The business will be much increased as low-water navigation is facilitated by further work.
Between Bainbridge and the mouth of the river the many steamboats plying on the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers run regularly and do a large business. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended ..
$16, 809.17 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
12, 080. 74 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
4,728.43 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
794, 81 July 1, 1892, balance available...
3, 933. 62 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
15,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
18. 933. 62 (See Appendix P 3.)
4. Chattahoochee River, Georgia and Alabama.-The river was originally much obstructed by logs, snags, and overhanging trees, and by a number of rock and marl shoals and sand bars, so that navigation was difficult and dangerous. Steamboats could only run by daylight, and not unfrequently lay on sand bars for weeks at a time, waiting for a rise in the river. Very many were lost by striking logs and snags.
The present plan of improvement, adopted in 1873 and modified in 1882, contemplates a low-water channel 4 feet in depth and 100 feet in width from Columbus, Ga., to Chattahoochee, Fla., a distance of 224 iniles, by the removal of snags and other obstructions from the channel and overhanging trees from the banks; by the excavation of rock shoals, and by works of contraction and shore protection.
Previous to the act of June 18, 1878, $70,000 was appropriated for the “Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, of which $52,000 was expended on the Chattahoochee River.
The expenditure of $251,941.23, up to June 30, 1891, has resulted in securing and maintaining a fair navigable channel between Chattahoochee, Fla., and Eufaula, Ala., at all seasons of the year, and between Eufaula, Ala., and Columbus, Ga., at all times except during low water.
Steamboats now make regular trips, with but fow detentions, running by night as well as by day.
The limited annual appropriations for this improvement have not been sufficient to maintain properly the works of contraction already constructed, nor to extend nor modify them as required.
During the year ending June 30, 1892, $9,601,64 has been expended in maintaining the existing improvement, excavating rock shoals, and in making a partial improvement at Mound Bar, by contraction and shore protection works. The most serious obstructions are now at the Mound and Woolfolks bars, between Eufaula and Columbus, Ga. At both these places the banks are caving badly, and navigation is yearly becoming more difficult and dangerous. At low stages boats have to be warped over the bars. Trouble is also experienced at Francis Bend, above Eufaula, and Kings Rock, about 200 miles below Columbus.
If sufficiently large appropriations were made to permanently improve these localities, it is believed that thereafter the navigation of the river could be maintained in good condition throughout the year, by annual appropriations of $10,000, for the repair and maintenance of the plant and improvements, and for the removal of the annual accumulation of logs and snags brought in by the winter freshets.
The hull of the snag boat Chattahoochee is nearly worn out, and is not worth repairing further. The snag boat will have to be practically rebuilt, at an estimated cost of $10,000.
Regular lines of steamboats do a large passenger and freight business on this river, which affords the only practicable means of transportation to a considerable section of country. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$11, 076.98 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
9, 604.61 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
1, 472. 34 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
373. 29 July 1, 1892, balance available.....
1, 099.05 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
25,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
26, 099.05 (See Appendix P 4.)
5. La Grange Bayou and Holmes Rirer, Florida.-La Grange Bayou is situated on the north side and near the head of Choctawhatchee Bay, and into it flows Cedar Creek, a deep stream from 90 to 160 feet wide, on which is situated the town of Freeport, 1} miles above the bayou.
The channel though the bayou was originally narrow and shoal, and obstructed by logs and drift.
An examination of the bayou was made under the act of Congress approved March 3, 1881, and an estimate submitted for dredging the channel, so as to admit the passage of vessels drawing 4.1 feet at mean low water, at a cost of $19,994,30.
In 1883 the sum of $2,000, allotted from the appropriation of $20,000, made by the act of August 2, 1882, for the improvement of Choctawhatchee River, Florida, was expended on La Grange Bayou, mainly in removing snags and drift, and in dredging a small amount of mud from the shoalest part of the channel. Since then no work has been done.
The act of August 5, 1886, appropriated $2,000 for this improvement. So small a sum could not be profitably expended, and it was decided to withhold it until an additional appropriation was made for the work.
The act of August 11, 1888, appropriated $3,000 for completing the improvement of La Grange Bayou, including Holmes River, up to the town of Vernon.
An examination and partial survey, made in 1889, showed that the amount of $5,000, then available for the improvement, was not sufticient to complete it as required by the act, and the Secretary of War therefore directed that no further expenditures should be made.
Before the completion of the Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad the town of Freeport was the center of trade for a large section of country surrounding it. This trade was mainly carried on in vessels plying between Pensacola and Freeport.
Since the completion of the railroad, however, the commerce of Freeport and La Grange Bayou has diminished to such an extent that in 1889 there was only one store in Freeport, and but one schooner made occasional trips between that point and Pensacola.
No necessity now appears to exist for the further improvement of La Grange Bayou, Florida.
The act of September 19, 1890, appropriated $3,000 for "improving La Grange Bayou, continuing improvement of Holmes River, Florida."
Holines River is an affluent of the Choctawhatchee River. It is a deep stream, but was much obstructed by snags, logs, and overhanging trees.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, the sum of $3,000 was expended in removing these obstructions. For this purpose the log boat belonging to the Choctawhatchee River was used.
The river is now in good navigable condition, but there is very little trade carried on. The improvement made will probably render the navigation of the river safe for several years to come. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$1,839. 20 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
4,839. 20 (See Appendix P 5.)
6. Choctawhatchee River, Florida and Alabama.-When work on the improvement was begun in 1874, the river, although having an average width of 300 feet, was almost totally obstructed by the accumulation of logs and snags, and navigation was only possible by flatboats of light draft. The channel, if a channel existed at all, was exceedingly dangerous to navigation, particularly during the lower stages of water.
The project for improvement, adopted in 1880, provided for obtaining a low-water navigable channel from its mouth to Geneva, Ala., an estimated distance of 125 miles, and a navigable high-water channel from Geneva to Newton, Ala., an estimated distance of 37 miles.
In 1890 the project was amended to provide for securing a low-water channel from Geneva to Newton.
The improvement consists in the removal of logs and snags from the channel and overhanging trees from the banks, in deepening sand bars by works of contraction and shore protection, and in excavating a channel through the rock and marl shoals.
The expenditure, up to June 30, 1891, of $97,429.60, had resulted in sufficiently removing the obstructions from the river between its mouth and Caryville to ineet the requirements of the present commerce on that section of the river, and in giving a fairly navigable channel, except at extreme low water, from the crossing of the Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad, at Caryville, Fla., to Geneva, Ala., a distance of 25 miles, and a partially improved channel from Geneva to Pate Landing, 25 miles above.
Steamboats now run with considerable regularity from Geneva, Ala., to the railroad at Caryville.
During the year ending June 30, 1892, $6,748.68 was expended in snagging operations between Geneva and Caryville, and in providing motive power for the snag boat.
Geneva is a thriving town, the trading and shipping center for a rich agricultural region surrounding it. The river affords the only practicable means of transportation to this district. During recent years the work has, therefore, mainly been directed to improving this section of the river, and has resulted in clearing out a large number of the accu. mulated logs and snags. Low-water navigation is impeded by several sand bars, which can be readily deepened by works of contraction and shore protection if sufficient funds are appropriated for the purpose.
When freight offers steamboats occasionally run to Pate Landing at favorable stages of water.
Since the completion of the Alabama Midland Railroad, from Montgomery, Ala., to Bainbridge, Ga., which passes through Newton, the urgent necessity for improving the upper portion of the river no longer exists, and it is doubtful of this section of the river would now be much used, even if the improvements were completed.
The plan, therefore, contemplates completing the improvement between Geneva and Caryville, and then between Geneva and Pate Landing, before beginning any work upon the marl shoals which now obstruct navigation between Newton and Pate Landing.
With larger appropriations, the improvement could be completed between Caryville and Pate Landing in a few working seasons, and thereafter only an annual expenditure of about $6,000 would be required for maintaining a snag hoat for the removal of the logs and snags brought in by the winter freshets, and for the repair of works of contraction, unless it should be then decided to continue the improvement to Newton. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$12, 070, 40 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..
6, 748.68 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.
5, 321. 72 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.
829.99 July 1, 1892, balance available....
4, 491. 73 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
12, 500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
16,991. 73 (See Appendix P 6.)
7. Harbor at Pensacola, Florida.-In 1878 the channel was much obstructed by wrecks, aud a survey made in 1879 showed that the inner bar had shoaled to a depth of 194 feet at mean low water. This depth was not sufficient to accommodate a large number of vessels seeking entrance to the port. The western shore of the entrance to the harbor, which is the site of old Fort McRee, was fast washing away, and a large portion of the fort had disappeared. Corresponding changes in the direction of the channel and of the tidal currents had occurred, and to this was partly attributed the shoaling of the inner bar. The removal of the wrecks was begun in 1878.
The plan of improvement adopted in 1881, in accordance with the report of the Board of Engineers, contemplated dredging a channel 300 feet wide and 24 feet deep at mean low water across the inner bar, for the temporary relief of the navigation of the harbor, and protecting the shore line near Fort McRee from further abrasion, with the view of preventing further injurious changes in the tidal currents, and retaining this position for defensive purposes.
The expenditure up to June 30, 1891, of $249,430.04 had resulted in obtaining, temporarily, a channel across the inner bar reported to be 120 feet wide and 24 feet deep, at mean low water, at the conclusion of dredging operations in 1886.
This channel had shoaled to a depth of 19 feet in June, 1891. The further abrasion of the western shore line near Fort McRee was stopped by the construction of two groins, north of the fort, and nearly at right angles to the shore, having lengths of 360 and 220 feet respectively. The groins were built of stone and concrete, and were completed in April, 1890.
During the year ending June 30, 1892, $11,380.52 was expended in
the care and preservation of the property belonging to the improvement, in continuing the tests of cements used in the construction of the groins, and in dredging on the inner bar.
In June, 1891, the continued shoaling of the inner bar was causing such serious detriment to the commercial interests of the port-many loaded vessels being unable to leave the harbor—that the hiring of the suction dredge Bayley, from the Mississippi River Jetty Company, was authorized. . The dredge began work ou June 28, 1891, and continued pumping, when the weather permitted, until July 16, 1891, when the shaft was broken. The owners of the dredge then refused to go on with the work. It is estimated that 14,151 cubic yards of material was removed from the bar, giving an available increase of depth on the bar of about one foot and a half which has not, however, been preserved.
On January 17, 1891, a Board of Engineers was appointed to assemble at Pensacola, Fla., for the purpose of considering and reporting upon the improvement of the harbor. The report of the Board, dated July 16, 1891, is printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1891, page 1723. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended ..
$25, 569. 96 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
11, 380.52 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ..
14, 189. 44 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
325.50 July 1, 1892, balance available ....
13,863. 94 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
75, 000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893...
88, 863. 94 (See Appendix P 7.)
8. Escambia and Conecuh rivers, Florida and Alabama.-These rivers are actually one river; that portion of the river from its head waters in south Alabama to the Florida and Alabama State line being called the Conecuh River, and the portion in Florida, 61 miles long, being called the Escambia River. It empties into the Escambia Bay, which is itself an indentation from Pensacola Bay. Fully 50 per cent of the immense quantity of timber shipped from Pensacola Harbor is cut on lands tributary to this river and floated down in rafts to Pensacola Harbor.
The river originally was much obstructed by snags, sunken logs, and rock shoals, and by a very shoal bar at the mouth. Steamboat navigation was not attempted, and rafts had great difficulty in passing down the river.
The plan of improvement for this river, adopted pursuant to examinations and surveys made in 1878, contemplates the removal of snags, sunken logs, and other obstructions from the channel; cutting through rock shoals; and deepening sand bars, by works of contraction and shore protection, from the mouth of the river, in Pensacola Bay, to the mouth of Indian Creek, an estimated distance of 293 miles, for the purpose of facilitating the movement of timber down the river, affording at the same time facilities for steamboat navigation.
The amount expended up to June 30, 1891, $59,592.75, had resulted in providing, maintaining, and renewing the necessary plant; in twice dredging the channel through the bar at the mouth of the river to permit the passage of tugboats drawing not over 5 feet of water; in the removal of a large number of the accumulated logs and snags from its mouth to Thompson Cut-off, a distance of 133 miles; and in keeping the