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improved channel fairly free from logs and snags brought in by the winter freshets.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $4,403.88 was expended in snagging operations. There was then a fairly navigable channel from the mouth of the river to Jordan Shoals, a distance of 136 miles, for stages of water 24 feet above low water.
This river and its tributaries pass through the extensive timber lands of south Alabama and Florida, and the value of the lumber annually taken to market by the river is estimated at over $1,500,000.
In order that the business may be carried on safely and profitably the river should be kept free from snags and like obstructions by an efficient snag boat; and a channel 75 feet wide and 84 feet deep should be dredged through the bar at the mouth of river, in order that the large tugs employed in towing the rafts to Pensacola may cross the bar and enter the river for the purpose of reaching the rafts. The rafts are now floated across the bar and fastened to timber stands in the open bay, where they are exposed to sudden storms, and considerable loss both in money and lumber is thus occasioned.
The cost of dredging the bar at the mouth of the river is estimated at $12,000. The annual cost of operating the snag boat is estimated at $6,000, or $12,000 for two years. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$7,052.55 Amount received from settlement by Tbird Auditor of error in account of Capt. R. L. Hoxie, Corps of Engineers
7, 074.96 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
4, 403.88 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
2, 671. 08 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
521.08 July 1, 1892, balance available....
2, 150.00 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
8,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.
10, 150.00 (See Appendix P 8.)
9. Alabama River, Alabama.-Before improvements were begun in 1878, the river was so full of sunken logs and snags, and so obstructed by bars, shoals, and reefs, on many of which the low-water depth was only 2.1 to 31 feet, that navigation was both difficult and dangerous, and many boats were destroyed. At low-water stages boats could only run by daylight, and long detentions at the bars and shoals were frequent. The normal width of the upper river is from 500 to 600 feet, and of the lower river from 700 to 800 feet. In the portions of the river having these widths the low-water depths vary from 8 to 15 feet; but where the river has been widened by the erosion of its banks, bars, shoals, and reefs are found. That portion below the Cut-off, 20 miles in length, was absolutely inaccessible during low water, and all landings situated thereupon have been deprived of steamboat service.
The plan of improvement adopted, pursuant to an examination and partial survey of this river, made under act of Congress approved March 3, 1875, provided for obtaining a channel 200 feet in width and 4 feet in depth, at low water, from the mouth of the river, 44 miles above Mobile, to Wetumpka, Ala., a distance of 323 miles, by the removal of snags, logs, etc., from the channel; cutting overhanging trees from the banks; removing rock and gravel reefs by blasting and dredging; and deepening sand bars by works of contraction and shore protection.
The expenditure of $167,444.22 up to June 30, 1891, had resulted in
clearing the river of dangerous snags and logs and overhanging trees; in maintaining an efficient stern-wheel snag boat, for the removal of the logs and snags brought in by the winter freshets; in the improvement, of eight of the worst bars, by works of contraction, which, however, are now in bad condition and need extensive repairs; in opening the 20 miles of river below the Cut-off; in increased safety to navigation; greater regularity and reduction in time of trips; and in enabling boats to carry larger loads. Boats now run by night as well as by day, at all stages of water.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, $10,541.56 was expended in snagging operations, and in slight repairs to the contraction works.
With the appropriation of $70,000, made by the river and harbor act approved July 13, 1892, it is proposed to provide an efficient working plant for the permanent improvement of the numerous bars which now give trouble at low-water stages.
The contraction works built between 1878 and 1883 gave so satisfactory results that no special difficulty is anticipated in securing lowwater depths of from 4 to 6 feet, on all the bars now having less depths, provided sufficiently large appropriations are made to carry on the work with an efficient plant and a large working force during the low-water season.
It will be economy to make appropriations large enough to complete the improvement in a few seasons. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..
$17, 555, 78 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
10, 541.56 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
7, 014. 22 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
2, 270. 76 July 1, 1892, balance available....
4, 743.46 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
70,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....
74, 743. 46 (See Appendix P 9.)
10. Talla poosa River, Alabama.-When first examined, in 1881, lowwater navigation was entirely impracticable, and high-water navigation was difficult and dangerous on account of the great accumulation of logs and snags in the channel, and of the numerous sand and gravel bars, and a few rock reefs. Where not obstructed, the river presented, generally, long reaches of fine navigable water, with a width of 200 to 300 feet, and a depth of 6 to 12 feet, but where the normal width was exceeded, to any extent, sand bars and gravel or rock reefs were found, with a low-water depth of only 1 to 2 feet.
The project for the improvement of the river,adopted in 1881, provides for obtaining a navigable channel from the junction with the Coosa River, where the two rivers form the Alabama River, to the foot of Tallassee Reefs, 2 miles below the town of Tallassee, a distance of 48 miles, with a least depth of 3 feet, and width of 200 feet in open river, and 60 feet through rock reefs, by the removal of snags and logs from the channel, and overhanging trees from the banks, by cutting through the rock and gravel reefs, and by deepening sand bars by works of contraction and shore protection.
The expenditure of $40,499.28 up to June 30, 1891, had resulted in building, equipping, and keeping in repair a snagboat (without motive power); in building 320 feet of temporary jetty; in removing, to a great extent, the original accumulation of snags and logs from the channel, and in cutting down dangerous overhanging timber between the mouth and Cole Ferry, an estimated distance of 43 miles. At the close of the working season, in November, 1889, that portion of the river was navi. gable for light-draft steamers, but, so far as known, no commercial use was made of it.
During the year ending June 30, 1892, $2,623.69 has been expended in the care and preservation of plant, and in snagging operations. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.....
$3, 518. 72 Amount received from error in settlement of account of Capt. R. L. Hoxie, Corps of Engineers...
3, 570.87 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
2, 623. 69 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..
947.18 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.
61. 43 July 1, 1892, balance available
885. 75 (See Appendix P 10.)
11. Coosa River, Georgia and Alabama.-With headwaters in the mountains of Northwestern Georgia, the Coosa wattee, Oostenaula, Coosa, Alabama, and Mobile rivers form, in fact, one great river; which, when the improvement of the Coosa River is completed, will furnish a continuous route of water transportation, 776 miles in length, through the mineral fields of north Alabama, the agricultural belt of middle Alabama, and the timber region of south Alabama, to tidewater at Mobile Bay.
A distance of 293 miles of this water way, above Lock No. 4 (3 miles above the Georgia Pacific Railroad Bridge), and a distance of 367 miles between Wetumpka and Mobile, is now navigable.
Between Lock No. 4 and Wetumpka, a distance of 116 miles, the Coosa River has a low waterfall of 323 feet, and is obstructed by a series of rock shoals and reefs, separated by stretches of good naviga-, ble water, varying in length from one-half to 8 miles. The low-water discharge of the Coosa River at Wetumpka is 5,800 cubic feet, about the same as that reported for the Mississippi River at St. Paul.
The abundance of water, the stability of the banks and bottom of the river, and the rock foundations for locks and dams, presented in nearly all cases, make the lower portion of the river peculiarly susceptible to permanent improvement by a system of slackwater navigation.
Pursuant to the various examinations and surveys made between 1870 and 1889, a plan of improvement has been adopted, which contemplates the removal of the lesser rock shoals, and sand and gravel bars, by excavation, and by works of contraction; and the construction of locks and dams to overcome the more serious obstructions.
By the various acts makug appropriations for its improvement, the Coosa River has been divided into two sections by the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad Bridge.
In the upper section, between Rome and the bridge (236 miles long), eight locks, with their accessory dams or dikes, will be required, of which three have been completed and opened to navigation, and the fourth is now under construction.
In the lower section, between Wetumpka and the bridge (68 miles long), twenty-three locks, with their accessory dams or dikes, will be required, of which Lock No. 31, at Wetumpka, is now under construction. The first appropriation for this section of the river was made by the act of September 19, 1890.
a. Between Rome, Georgia, and the East Tennessee, Virginia and
Georgia Railroad Bridge.--Before improvement the river was much obstructed by rock shoals and sand and gravel bars between Rome, Ga., and Greensport, Ala., a distance of 162 miles; and below Greensport it was not navigable at all, on account of the many shoals and rapids formed by ledges of rock crossing the river bottom at points where the width of the river was greater than the normal.
The expenditure up to June 30, 1891, of $583,384.92 had resulted in securing a fairly navigable channel from Rome to Greensport by blasting out the rock shoals and by the construction of wing dams to scour out the sand bars.
Below Greensport, at distances respectively of 0.68, 3.86, and 5.24 miles, three masonry locks, each having an available width of 40 feet and length of 175 feet, with their accessory dams or dikes, had been completed and opened to navigation. In consequence of the improvement steamboats made regular trips between Rome and Gadsden and, when business deinands it, extend their trips to a landing 1 mile below Lock No. 3.
During the year ending June 30, 1892, the sum of $84,459.31 has been expended.
Cribs have been placed to mark the channel at the Greensport Reef, and guide cribs added above and below Lock No. 3 to aid boats entering and leaving the lock.
A stone dam parallel to the channel at the foot of Wood Island, a short distance below Lock No. 3, has been built to prevent the bad cross current which previously made this point dangerous for boats.
At the East and West Railroad Bridge, half a mile below Lock No. 3, the channel under the bridge has been improved by the railroad company by the removal of the cofferdams of the piers.
At Lonnergan Reef, about 2 miles below Lock No.3, the channel has been straightened and improved and marked by timber cribs.
Dam No. 4, about 3 miles above Riverside, Ala., on the Georgia Pacific Railroad, has been nearly completed, and, with the work at Lonnergan Reef, makes navigation practicable on a moderate rise in the river as far as the dam. Dam No. 4 is 21 miles below Lock No. 3.
In order to complete this work economically, sufficiently large appro. priations should be made to enable it to be carried on without interruption, with efficient plant and a large working force. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended ..
$90, 315, 08 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
84, 459. 31 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ..
5, 853. 77 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
3, 480.52 July 1, 1892, balance available.....
2, 375. 25 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
132, 375. 23
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....... 960, 133.00 Submitted in com with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. b. Between Wetumpka, Alabama, and the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad Bridge. The first appropriation for the improve ment of this section of the river was made by the act of September 19, 1890.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $8,681.34 was expended in procuring the necessary outfit and in making detailed surveys for the precise location of the locks near Wetumpka and in making a
series of velocity and discharge observations, extending from high to low water.
During the year ending June 30, 1892, the sum of $36,582.60 has been expended.
T'he detailed surveys begun in the previous fiscal year were completed and the precise location of Lock and Dam No. 31 was decided upon. The necessary land in the vicinity of Lock No. 31 was rented, pending the preliminaries to the purchase thereof. The land was filled up and graded, and the workshops, stables, etc., needed in the construction of the lock were built. Two thousand seven hundred and eightysix cubic yards of rock was excavated from the reef above the Wetumpka Bridge, the greater part of which was used in making a temporary breakwater to divert the current from the lock site. Two barges for the transportation of sand were built. A large amount of machinery and plant was procured and put in place. A towboat was purchased. It is proposed to build the lock of Portland cement concrete, faced with granite. A contract for the delivery of 900 cubic yards of granite, cut to dimensions, has been made and the delivery begun. The construction of the cofferdam will be begun in July.
The cost of this work will be very materially increased unless the appropriations made are sufficiently large to enable it to be carried on without interruption, with efficient plaut and with a large working force. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
$141, 318. 66 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
36,582. 60 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
101, 736.06 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
$9, 785.47 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts. 17, 339. 10
27, 124.57 July 1, 1892, balance available...
77, 611.49 Annount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
100,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893
177, 611.49 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 4,813, 074.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix P 11.)
12. Operating and care of canals and other works of navigation on Coosa River, Georgia and Alabama.—The expenses of operating and care of Locks Nos. 1, 2, and 3 during the past fiscal year have been paid in the manner indicated by section 4, act of July 5, 1884.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, was $6,614.28.
(See Appendix P 12.)
13. Cahaba River, Alabama.-The report of the examination of this river from its mouth to Centreville, Ala., in 1874, states that
On thirteen of the shoals there is only 1 foot of water and on two as little as eighttenths of a foot. Besides this there are innumerable snags, the accumolation of years, and also a great quantity of leaning trees, which must be removed owing to the narrowness of the stream even at a stage several feet above low water. The river is spanned by three bridges.
The railroad bridges are only a few inches above high water, while the road bridge is sometimes submerged.
The road bridge mentioned was carried away by the flood of 1881.
Under acts of Congress approved June 23, 1874, and June 17, 1880, examinations and partial surveys were made in 1874 and in 1880, and