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maintained over this bar which, ander any circumstances, will certainly form at each high water of the Atchafalaya.

The dams are in fair condition, but the older ones will require extensive repairs in another year.

The success of the dams so far built appears to warrant their maintenance, and the permanent closure of the remaining runout bayous. There seems to be sufficient water in the bayou to wash out the bar at its mouth, formed by the back water of the Atchafalaya, if it can be held within the banks which the closure of the runout bayous by dams appears to effect. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$2,825. 13 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

2, 406.83 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...

418.30 (See Appendix S 7.)

8. Bayou Teche, Louisiana.Prior to the project for improvement this bayou was obstructed by snags, logs, and impending trees, but money having been appropriated the stream was thoroughly cleared of such obstructions from Port Barre down. The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1891, was $49,578.16.

Since the completion of this work in 1886 some further obstructions had found their way into the bayou, and in 1890 Congress appropriated $5,000 with which to accomplish their removal.

Work under this appropriation was commenced by hired plant October 12, 1891, and continued until December 10 of the same year. The extent of the improvement made during this time covers a distance of about 59 miles from St. Martinsville down, and has given much relief and satisfaction to the commerce of the bayou. The amount expended on this work during the year was $4,771.

The improvement of the Teche can not be considered as permanent, since sunken logs, fallen trees, and wrecks of coal boats are constantly forming obstructions which will require removal. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended......

$5, 421, 84 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

4, 771.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...

650. 84 (See Appendix S 8.)

9. Mouth and passes of Calcasieu River, Louisiana.—Previous to any improvement there was but 3 feet depth in the Calcasieu Passes.

In 1874, 1883, and 1888 channels were dredged through the bars in Calcasieu Lake, or at what is known as the passes of Calcasien River. As no permanent system of revetment was employed the dredged channels were soon obliterated.

In 1888 an appropriation of $10,000 for continuing this improvement was made, but as at least $150,000 will be required to give anything like a permanent channel through the bars, the money has been held for future consideration.

In 1890 $75,000 was appropriated for the improvement of the mouth of the Calcasieu River, but as the work of jetty construction proposed was in an exposed locality the amount was not deemed sufficient with which to commence operations economically, and it has consequently been held for future increase.

The early construction of a secure channel through the bars in Cal. casieu Lake is urgently needed, as it will give water transportation for the products of the mills on Calcasicu River, and result in a saving to the consumers of about $40,000 annually on this item alone. The im

provement of the mouth of the river will afford a harbor of refuge and be an extension of the foregoing improvement.

Up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, there had been expended $19,245.31 on this stream. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$84, 935. 40 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

81, 935.40 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

100,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

184, 935. 40 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 425, 000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix S 9.)

10. Harbor at Sabine Pass, Texas.-Originally the bar obstructing the entrance to the harbor of Sabine Pass had not 6 feet of water upon it. In 1878 and 1880 channels from 12 to 16 feet were dredged through it, but they soon filled up. In 1882 a project was approved for the improvement of the entrance by constructing jetties and dredging, if necessary. The estimated cost of the improvement was $3,177,606.50.

Since the approval of this project there has been appropriated $1,098,750. A total of $1,120,422.44 had been expended to June 30, 1891, of which sum $800,422.44 was expended under the present project.

The east jetty has a total length of 17,100 feet; the outer 450 feet is foundation work only. A section of this jetty at the outer end, 240 feet long, was given a width of 112 feet at the foundation, and was capped with rock weighing from 1 to 3 tons. Its crest was 44 feet above mean low water.

The west jetty is 9,500 feet long. Its outer end lacks about 4,000 feet of being abreast of the outer end of the east jetty; 2,500 feet of this jetty is, properly speaking, but foundation work.

The work of raising the jetties to 2 feet above mean high water wascommenced in August, 1891, under contract approved May 27, 1891, and has been continued up to date. The east jetty has been raised to this height, with the exception of about 3,215 feet, and the west jetty with the exception of 4,374 feet.

Without any disturbance of the bottom, so as to assist the eroding action of the current, a very favorable improvement in the deepening of the pass has occurred, notwithstanding the incomplete state of the work. A vessel drawing 14.1 feet entered the pass safely. The results so far obtained are very encouraging.

The amount expended on this work during the year ending June 30, 1892, was $199,426.04. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended ..

$298, 327.56 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

199, 426.04 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

98, 901.52 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

$13, 847.59 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts.... 39, 009.97

82, 857.56 July 1, 1892, balance available..

16, 043.96 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

350,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 ......

366, 043.96 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 1,728, 856.50 Submitted in compliance with requirements of soctions 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix S 10.)

11. Sabine River, Texas.-When the improvement of the river was commenced there was a depth of 3 feet on the bar at its mouth, and also above the town of Orange. Logs, snags, etc., above here interfered with navigation. To June 30, 1889, there had been appropriated for this work $34,700, of which $30,700.39 had been expended.

In 1880 a channel 6 feet deep an from 70 to 100 feet wide was dredged through the bar. In 1881 several small cuts, to avoid bends obstructed with logs, were made above Orange.

An examination above Orange showed many snags in parts of the channel, and a project was prepared and contract entered into for the expenditure of the remaining balance in closing both branches of Old River at the head of the Narrows with pile, brush, and earth dams, to throw all the water into the useful channel, and removing the obstructions, such as snags, overhanging trees, etc.

The smaller Old River channel was closed, and most of the piles driven for the larger dam, when a sudden rise in the river washed out many of the piles in the latter. The river remaining so high that satisfactory work could not be done, the contract was extended to the next low-water season.

Work was resumed in September, 1890, and the dams finished, as projected, in December following, completing the project.

The dredged chaunel over the bar at the mouth is somewhat obstructed by snags, logs, etc., but the depth is now sufficient for the present demands of commerce.

The amount expended on the improvement of this river to June 30, 1891, was $34,613.12.

After the obstructions in the river between its mouth and Sudduths Bluff are removed, about $2,000 will be required each year to keep the river in navigable condition. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$86.88 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

86. 88 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

5,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893...

5, 086. 88 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project... 5,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix S 11.)

12. Neches River, Teras.-Before this river was improved the bar at its mouth had only 3 feet of water over it, and navigation was obstructed between Yellow Bluff and Bevilport by snags and fallen trees.

The project adopted for the improvement of this river called for the dredging of a channel over the bar at its mouth and the removal of obstructions from the river between Yellow Bluff and Bevilport. To June 30, 1891, $33,000 had been appropriated for this work, of which $28,812.16 bad been expended.

In 1880 a channel was dredged through the bar at the mouth of the. river 5 feet deep and 30 to 60 feet in width. In 1882 the river between Yellow Bluff and Bevilport was cleared of obstructions.

The bar at the mouth had again shoaled, so that at extreme low water there was only a navigable depth of about 3 feet. The channel was again dredged to a depth of 5 feet by the Government dredge, which had been at work at Calcasieu Pass, and the work was completed in April, 1889, since which time no work has been done.

The improvement will uot be permanent, as the bar will re-form.

July 1, 1891, balance inexpenderi.

$4, 157.84 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

4, 157. 84 (See Appendix S 12.)

13. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation.The removal of the wreck of the British bark Bruce, sunk in Ship Island Harbor, Mississippi, in December, 1890, was commenced, under contract with the Alabama Dredging and Jetty Company for the sum of $1,490, ou June 19, 1891.

The removal was completed on August 1, 1891.

The wreck was blown to pieces with dynamite, and it is believed that, through inexperience, the contractors lost something like $1,000 in carrying out the work. Nothing of value was recovered from the wreck.

The total cost of removing this wreck was $1,764.83, of which the sum of $1,666.38 was expended during the year just closed.

Sunken coal barge in Bayou Teche, Louisiana.-On March 5, 1892, it was reported that a coal barge had sunk in Bayou Teche, near Franklin, La., and formed an obstruction to the navigation of this stream.

Its removal was authorized March 28, 1892, but owing to high water nothing further has been done.

(See Appendix S 13.)

EXAMINATION, MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER

AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.

The required preliminary examination of Sabine River, Teras, from where said river empties into Sabine Lake, to Sudduths Bluff, on said Sabine River, was made by local engineer in charge, Maj. Quinn, and report thereon submitted through Col. C. B. Comstock, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Southwest Division. It is the opinion of Maj. Quinn, and of the division engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that this locality is worthy of improvement. The report of the preliminary examination containing sufficient information to indicate to Congress the probable cost of the work required, no further survey appears to be necessary at this time. The work proposed contemplates the removal of snags between Sabine Lake and Sudduths Bluff, at an estimated cost of $10,000. After the snags are removed $2,000 will be required annually to keep the river in good condition. The report wis transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc No. 20, Fiftysecond Congress, first session. (See also Appendix S 14.)

SECURING MOUTH OF BAYOU PLAQUEMINE, LOUISIANA, FROM FURTIIER

CAVING, AND REMOVING SUNKEN VESSELS OR CRAFT OBSTRUCTING OR ENDANGERING NAVIGATION IN MISSISSIPPI RIVER BELOW NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA.

Officer in charge, Capt. John Millis, Corps of Engineers; Division Engineer, Col. C. B. Comstock, Corps of Engineers.

1. Securing mouth of Bayou Plaquemine, Louisiana, from further caving.–Bayou Plaquemine was formerly an outflowing branch of the Mississippi River, but on account of its tendency to enlarge and because of apprehensions that the channel of the main river might be deteriorated thereby, the levee system on the west bank of the Mississippi was carried across the head of the bayou in 1865. It is now proposed to improve and deepen the bayou and establish navigable connection between it and the Mississippi by a system of locks at the head of the bayou.

The west bank of the Mississippi at the entrance of this bayou was formerly subject to rapid caving, threatening the site of the proposed locks. The project adopted for the prevention of this caving along the west bank of the Mississippi contemplates the construction of a system of submerged spur dikes, built of timber, brush, and stone. They run out at right angles to the general direction of the bank line and are placed at intervals of about 900 feet.

Up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, there had been expended $49,699.26 on this work. Two of the dikes had been finished and the caving had been stopped in the vicinity of the completed work.

During the past year necessary repairs were made to dike No. 1, and three more dikes, Nos. 3, 4, and 5, were completed. The completed work of protection now extends to a distance of 2,500 feet above, and 1,500 feet below the site of the proposed locks, and within this distance the caving of the bank has been arrested.

During the fiscal year the net sum of $52,929.93 was expended on this work, leaving an available balance July 1, 1892, from funds allotted to this improvement, of $31,117.81. The money statement is consolidated with that for improvement of Bayou Plaquemine, Louisiana,

page 219.

(See Appendix T 1.)

2. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering narigation in Vlississippi River, below New Orleans, Louisiana.-The wreck of an old dry dock lying in Mississippi River off Point Celeste, about 42 miles below New Orleans, was blown up with dynamite on hand, without extra expense, and no longer obstructs navigation.

(See Appendix T 2.)

IMPROVEMENT OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN TEXAS.

Officer in charge, Maj. Charles J. Allen, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. William C. Langfitt, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders; Division Engineer, Col. C. B. Comstock, Corps of Engineers.

1. Entrance to Galveston Harbor, Texas.The obstructions to deepwater navigation at this harbor have been the outer and inner bars. On the former the natural depth was 12 feet and on the latter about 13 feet, both at mean low tide.

The present project for improvement at this locality was adopted in 1874, modified in 1880, and again modified in 1886, the object being to deepen the channels so as to admit sea-going vessels of the deepest draft. The projects prior to 1874 related to dredging operations on a small scale.

The projects of 1874 and 1880 contemplated construction of jetties to deepen the channels on the bars; the former with a view to a depth of 18 feet. The modification of 1886 was with a view to a possible depth of 30 feet by means of jetties, to be supplemented, if need be, by dredging. These jetties to be of rock and to be built to a height of 5 feet above mean low tide. The cost of the modification of 1886 (the present project) was estimated as $7,000,000.

The total amount expended under the foregoing plans to include June 30, 1891, was $2,273,920.90, in addition to which there was expended $100,000, subscribed by the city of Galveston, in 1883. It has resulted in a depth of 131 feet in the channel on the outer bar at mean low tide, and a depth of 21 feet where the inner bar was.

The amount expended during the past fiscal year was $438,922.63.

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