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The act of 1890 removed the restriction contained in the act of 1886, and the project was modified to include only the portion of the river below the Baldwin Bridge. Work was commenced in January, 1891, and continued, whenever the stages of water were favorable, until June 18, 1891. The principal work done was between Baldwin and Ivanhoo ferries, a distance of about 20 miles. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$264. 77 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..

16.00 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

248.77 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

4.96 July 1, 1892, balance available

243. 81 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

5,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

5, 243. 81

(See Appendix V 9.)

10. Yazoo River, Mississippi.-Work in this river was begun in 1873, and the project contemplated removing wrecks, snags, logs, leaning timber, etc., obstructing navigation the entire length of the river. New obstructions, caused by floods, sliding and caving banks, etc., are brought into the river every year, and no estimates for permanent improvement are given on this account.

The total amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $201,679.72 (including $23.69 outstanding liabilities on that date), part of which was applied to constructing the snag boat Meigs, the purchase of a pumping dredge, and to the survey of the mouth and lower river. Prior to improvement the river was obstructed by a large number of wrecks, snags, and leaning timber that limited the period of navigation. Nine of the steamboats sunk during the war of the rebellion were removed by contract in 1873–74, and snag boats have operated since whenever funds were available, benefiting low-water navigation greatly, and keeping the river in navigable condition from head to mouth the year around.

In the past fiscal year the snag boat Meigs was employed during the low-water season in removing obstructions from the channel, and did effective work, putting the stream in good navigable condition, but as new snags and tree slides are brought in by every high stage of water operations will have to be continued for many years.

The shifting bar at the month of the river is the most serious obstruction to navigation, and boats that could navigate the principal streams of the Yazoo Valley system (about 800 iniles) without hindrance are prevented at low stages from entering or leaving without lightening, and at times navigation across the bar is closed altogether. The act of 1890 directed that $5,000 of the appropriation for Yazoo River be used in making a survey from the Louisville, New Orleans and Texas Railway bridge to the inouth, to determine in what manner the mouth can be improved to permit free passage of vessels at all seasons of the year, and to include an investigation of the feasibility and advantage of making a new outlet for the river by way of Chickasaw Bayou, or otherwise, with an estimate of cost. This survey was begun in October, 1890, and continued until high water compelled suspension December 6, and the river remained high until September, 1891, when field work was completed. Maps and reports were prepared and submitted February 4, 1892. The report was transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 125, Fifty-second Congress, first session (see also Appendix V 10). The improvement proposed contemplates the formation of a new outlet from the former mouth of Yazoo on Old River, through the deep water in Old River, across the low lands between Long and Barnett lakes to Lake Centennial, around the head of De Soto Island, along the front of Vicksburg, and entering the Mississippi River on the channel side at Kleinston. The total cost of this work is estimated at $1,500,000. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$13, 313. 97 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

10, 263. 40 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

3, 080.57 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

7. 33 July 1, 1892, balance available ....

3, 073. 24 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

20, 000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

23, 073. 24 (See Appendix V 10.)

11. Tchula Lake, Mississippi.- This work commenced in 1881, and the project contemplated removing snags, logs, leaning timber, etc., obstructing navigation, to permit light-draft boats to enter the lake earlier in the season.

The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $11,413.77, resulting in clearing the greater portion of the leaning timber from the banks, and in the removal of the main obstructions from the channel, giving greater safety to the passage of steamboats through the lake.

In the past fiscal year operations consisted of clearing the brush, which had grown so rapidly and to such extent that in many places the clear channel did not exceed 50 feet in width; cutting shore snags and logs, felling and girdling leaning timber on both banks, and removing snags from the channel. This work was carried from the head of the lake down to within 15 miles of the mouth. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$3,586. 23 June 30, 1892, amount expended during tiscal year

3, 556. 82 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

29.41 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

9.00 July 1, 1892, balance available .....

20. 41 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

3,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

3, 020.41 (See Appendix V 11.)

12. Tallahatchee River, Mississippi.-This improvement was begun in 1879, and contemplated removing snags, sunken logs, and leaning timber, obstructing low-water navigation below the mouth of Coldwater River, about 100 miles, and the removal of a wreck in the channel near the mouth. The estimated cost of the work was $10,000, if completed in two seasons.

The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $35,468.98, of which $10,000 was required by law to be expended above the mouth of Coldwater (a part of the river in which there has been no navigation since the war, and which was not included in the project). The work done resulted in great benefit to navigation below Sharkey Landing, a distance of about 65 miles, enabling steamboats to run to that place the year round, while before the improvement commenced there was navigation for only about six months of the year. Little work was done

above Sharkey, because the funds were not sufficient, and because until 1890 the steamboat interest reported that boats would not run above that landing, except to make occasional trips at high stages, when navigation was as good and about as safe as in the lower river. No benefit was derived from the work done in 1880, 1881 and 1882 above the mouth of Coldwater to Batesville, required by the appropriation acts, for the reason that there has been no trade in that part of the stream.

In the past fiscal year a snag boat was employed during the month of October in the lower 50 miles of river. The water was at a low stage and effective work was done. Operations were not resumed to the end of the fiscal year, as there were no funds available.

The original estimates were for completing this work in two seasons at a cost of $40,000, but the aggregate of the appropriations from 1879 to the end of the fiscal year 1892 was only $37,500, of which the law required $10,000 to be expended on a part of the stream not included in the project. New obstructions are brought into the river every year by sliding and caving banks, and the shifting and scouring of the channel exposes others or lodges them upon the bars. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$2, 031. 02 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

2,012.50 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

18.52 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

17.00 July 1, 1892, balance available

1.52 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

5,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

5, 001. 52 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project....... 7,500.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix V 12.)

13. Steele and Washington bayous, Mississippi.The improvement of Steele Bayou was commenced under the act of 1884. Washington Bayou, about 7 miles long, which connects Steele Bayou with Lake Washington, was added by act of 1886. The project contemplates removing snags, stumps; drift, and leaning timber, to improve highwater navigation.

The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $9,020.66, with which Steele Bayou was worked over twice from its source in Swan Lake to its mouth, and the obstructions in Washington Bayou were removed in 1886. This work resulted in greater ease and safety to steamboat navigation at high stages, but was by no means thorough on account of the small amounts appropriated.

In the past fiscal year work was carried from the mouth upstream about 22 miles before the available balance was exhausted.

Steamboat navigation in this stream was not commenced until 1879, and since the construction of a railroad through the country in 1884 it has fallen off until for several years the trade has amounted to little or nothing. The stream is navigable only when the Mississippi is high enough to fill the lower portion with backwater, and owing to the uncertainty of steamboat transportation there is no probability that the trade will revive. In view of the foregoing, no recommendation is made for continuing the work.

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$979. 34 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

966. 67 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

12. 67 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

.31 July 1, 1892, balance available ...

12. 36 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

2,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893....

2,512.36 (See Appendix V 13.)

14. Big Sunflower River, Mississippi.- Work in this river commenced in 1879. The project contemplated building wing dams to scour a channel from 3 feet to 40 inches deep at the bars, and the removal of snags, sunken logs, and leaning timber obstructing navigation.

The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $56,196.07. Operations during the thirteen years extended over the navigable part of the river from Clarksdale to the mouth, though little was done above Faisonia since 1882, for the reason that it would have resulted in no benefit to commerce or navigation to clear the upper river and allow the lower portion to remain obstructed, the amounts appropriated at irregular intervals having been too small to permit work over the whole river. To obtain the greatest benefit with the means available, it has been the endeavor to keep the lower river open the year round, and to extend navigation higher as the work progresses. Steamboat men report that before the improvement commenced the river was navigable for very light boats about six months of the year; now it is navigable to Woodburn the year round, but difficult and dangerous at low stages on account of shoals, snags, and sunken logs. Larger boats are used, and make the round trip from Vicksburg (about 180 miles and return) in five days, while before the improvement it was unusual for a boat to make the trip under eight days. Freight rates are reported to be 50 per cent less. The lands along the river are being cleared and settled rapidly of late years, which is attributed in part to the improved navigation.

In the past fiscal year the small balance available was expended August 18–30 for the operation of a small snag boat, which worked over the river from the mouth up to within half a mile of Faisonia. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...,

$803. 93 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

739.04 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

64.89 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities July 1, 1892, balance available ....

64.60 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

5,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893...

5, 061. 60 (See Appendix V 14.)

15. Big Hatchee River, Tennessee.—This work commenced in 1880. The project contemplated removing logs, snags, leaning timber, etc., to render the river navigable for light-draft boats throughout the year from the mouth to Bolivar, Tenn., about 240 miles.

Before work commenced navigation was virtually suspended by the obstructions. The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $26,999.19, rendering the stream navigable for light boats from 7 to 9 months of the year.

In the past fiscal year a snag boat worked from the mouth upstream about 67 miles, where operations were suspended by high water.

29

July 1, 1891, balance nnexpended..

$5,000.81 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

2, 822.33 Jaly 1, 1892, balance inexpended.

2, 178.48 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

2. 56 July 1, 1892, balance available

2, 175. 92 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

3,500.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

5, 675.92 (See Appendix V 15.)

16. Forked Deer Rirer, Tennessee.- Work in South Fork of this river commenced in 1883. The act of 1888 added North Fork and main river under the general head improving Forked Deer River. The project contemplated removing snags, logs, leaning timber, etc., obstructing navigation in South Fork below Jackson, North Fork below Dyersburg, and the main stream from the forks to the Mississippi.

The amounts expended to June 30, 1891, were $12,500 for South Fork, $4,500 for North Fork, and $2,500 for the main river. With these expenditures the two forks were put in fairly good navigable condition, but no material benefit was gained in the main stream. Navigation of South Fork is carried on by flatboats, and before the improvement commenced about one boat in three was lost on account of the obstructions; now they make the trip in comparative safety and at less cost. The work in North Fork enabled boats to run at a stage 3 feet lower than formerly.

In the past fiscal year a light snag boat worked over the main river and North Fork until the funds were exhausted. This work resulted in a greater depth of clear channel between Dyersburg and the mouth, by the removal of snags and logs, and gave greater ease and safety for the passage of boats. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

$2,500.00 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

2, 496. 25 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

3.75 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

1. 20 July 1, 1892, balance available

2.55 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

3,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893

3, 002.55 (See Appendix V 16.) 17. Water-gauges on Mississippi River and its principal tributaries.These gauges were designed to secure information from continuous records, with a view to protecting alluvial lands against overflow, improving navigation, and giving correct reports of the stages of water, for the benefit of river men and planters, and their establishment and the maintenance of daily observations was enjoined upon the Secretary of War by joint resolution of Congress approved February 21, 1871 (Statutes at Large, vol. 16, page 598).

The amount expended to June 30, 1891, was $86,886.40, with outstanding liabilities amounting to $211.87. Nineteen gauges were established originally, and under the portion of the joint resolution of 1871 authorizing gauges "at such other places as the Secretary of War may deem advisable," the following have been added, viz: At Nashville, Tenn., Cumberland River, in 1873; Shreveport, La., Garland, Ark., and Fulton, Ark., Red River, in 1890; and Donaldsonville, La., Mississippi River, in 1890. The gange at Rock Island, 111., was abandoned in 1879,

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