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4. Operating and care of Des Moines Rapids Canal and Dry Dock.-During the past year the Des Moines Rapids Canal was opened for navigation 234 days, during which time there passed through it 577 steamboats and 191 barges, carrying 10,260 passengers, 12,228 tons of merchandise, and 63,210 bushels of grain. There also passed through 140,654,084 feet, B. M., of lumber, 24,514,000 feet of logs, 61,141,137 shingles, and 39,476,926 lath. The expenses of the year have been $51,550.17 and the estimates for the coming year amount to $72,581.25.

The cost of operating and care of the canal is provided for by an indefinite appropriation made by act of March 3, 1881. July 1, 1891, balance on hand

$1.80 June 30, 1892, amount drawn from Treasury under indefinite appropriation


44, 001. 80 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

43, 968.92 June 30, 1892, balance on hand

32. 88 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities...

7,581.25 (See Appendix Y 4.)

5. Mississippi River between Minneapolis and Des Moines Rapids.Prior to August 11, 1888, this work was carried on under appropriations for improving Mississippi River from St. Paul to Des Moines Rapids." The act of August 11, 1888, extended the upper limits of the district from St. Paul to Washington Avenue Bridge, Minneapolis.

Under this appropriation is carried on the improvement of through navigation. Work has been in progress under approved projects since 1878, and very favorable results have been secured, showing that with a continuance of the work under liberal appropriations, the low-water channel of the Mississippi River between St. Paul and the Des Moines Rapids can be made comparatively safe, convenient, and permanent. The interests for which the improvement is being made are very large and important. The amount of freight carried during 1891, including the logs and lumber floated in the river, aggregated, approximately, 4,200,000 tons.

The original condition of the channel between the Des Moines Rapids and St. Paul was such that in low stages the larger boats were unable to proceed farther up the river than La Crosse or Winona; and, in many seasons, at points much farther down, their progress was checked or seriously interfered with. In all such cases through freight was reshipped on small and light-draft boats or barges. The originally adopted project for the improvement, which has not been materially changed, proposed the contraction of the channel or water way by means of wing and closing dams to such an extent as, by means of the scour thereby caused, to afford a channel of sufficient width, and of a depth of 4.5 feet at low water, to be eventually increased to 6 feet. There was expended on the permanent improvement of through navi. gation to June 30, 1891, the sum of $2,203,632.11, or $4,279 per mile. At that date, and for several years previous, the condition of the channel was such as to permit

the passage of the largest boats at the lowest stages through to St. Paul.

Between Minneapolis and St. Paul (Omaha Bridge), there was expended to June 30, 1891, the sum of $6,147.99, or $559 per mile.

During the past year work has been carried on by days' labor and use of Government plant between Minneapolis and St. Paul, between St. Paul and Prescott, between Prescott and Lake Pepin, between Minneiska and La Crosse, in vicinity of La Crosse, Crooked Slough, and Clinton, at Rock Island Rapids and Montrose Harbor, and between Keithsburg and Montrose; by contract, between Reads and Minneiska, at Prairie du Chien, and between Bellevue and Savanna; and, by informal agreement, between Minneapolis and St. Paul, between St. Paul and Prescott, in Cassville Slough, and at Port Byron Harbor. At several localities temporary and permanent channels were deepened by dredging. The work of the year has resulted in increased width and depth of channel at all the points mentioned. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...

- $411, 390. 86 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

274, 936. 79 July 1, 1892, balance inexpended..

136, 454.07 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

$302.72 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 14,956. 76

15, 259. 48 July 1, 1892, balance available.....

121, 194.59 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892*

600,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

721, 194.59

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1894+ 866, 666. 67 Subunitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix Y 5.)



Officer in charge, Maj. W. A. Jones, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. Hiram M. Chittenden, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders; Division Engineer, Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers.

1. Mississippi River abore Falls of St. Anthony, Minnesota.—The present project, adopted in 1880, consists in the improvement of the river between Aitkin and Grand Rapids, a distance of 1304 miles, by removal of snags, bowlders, bars, and leaning trees from the channels and construction of wing dams where necessary to afford 3 feet depth at lowwater stage, the cost being estimated at $54,127. In 1889 the estimate was increased to $63,000. Under the appropriations of 1880, 1881, and 1882, the river between the points named was well cleared of large numbers of obstructions. But between 1884 and 1888, and during the flood of the latter year, large numbers of snags and overhanging trees were formed.

The appropriation of $10,000 made by act of August 11, 1888, was applied to removal of obstructions between Grand Rapids and a point about half way to Aitkin, and in addition a number of bowlders were removed to within 20 miles of the latter point.

Before improvement commenced in 1880, the stream between Aitkin and Grand Rapids was so obstructed that navigation was diflicult and at times almost impossible for steamers of lightest draft.

* This appropriation was made for improving Mississippi River between Minueapolis and mouth of Missouri River.

For continuing work between Minneapolis and mouth of Missouri River,

Total expended under present project to June 30, 1891, including outstanding liabilities, $55,439.35.

There was then a general depth in the improved channels of 3 feet at low water. A few snags and leaning trees offered some obstruction, but did not seriously interfere with navigation.

During July, August, and September, 1891, work was carried on in removing snags and leaning trees between Grand Rapids and Aitken.

For a number of years previous to the present season several steamers have navigated this portion of the Mississippi, carrying passengers and freight to the settlements and supplies for lumber camps.

The opening, during the winter of 1889–90, of the Duluth and Winnipeg Railroad, from Duluth to the Mississippi River, resulted in one steamer being withdrawn from the freight and passenger business, though at the beginning of the season of 1891 she was again put into commission, July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

$7, 592. 27 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

5, 749.21 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

1, 813, 06 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

20.92 July 1, 1892, balance available...

1, 822. 14 (See Appendix Z 1.)

2. Reservoirs at headwaters of Mississippi River.—The object of the reservoirs is to collect surplus water, principally from the precipitation of winter, spring, and early summer, to be systematically released so as to benefit navigation upon the Mississippi River below the dams. The reservoir project is the outcome of surveys and examinations made in 1869, 1874, 1878, and 1879. From the results of these examinations and further examinations made in 1880 the first cost of constructing reservoir dams in Minnesota and Wisconsin was placed at $1,809,083. The cost of land and other damages to result from construction and operation of the proposed dams was not included in that estimate, as they could not be predicted with any approach to accuracy.

The present project consists in constructing reservoir dams at the head waters of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, that locality having been selected for commencing the work, in consequence of an appropri. ation made by the river and harbor act approved June 14, 1880, for construction of a reservoir dam at Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, and for other reasons, given in Appendix Y to the Annual Report for 1886. By 1886 four of the reservoirs had been created. During May and June, 1891, men and materials were assembled for the construction of a fifth reservoir at Sandy Lake.

Total expended on this work to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, including examinations at proposed dam sites, land damages, amounts paid to commissioners in attempted settlement of awards to Indians, and care and maintenance of the works, $619,850.20.

During the past year the operations have been: Operating completed reservoir, continuing construction of Sandy Lake Dam, and acquiring title to lands, by condemnation proceedings, that will be subject to overflow by the Sandy Lake Dam.

The reservoirs were operated 1885-91, during the seasons of low water, to the benefit of navigation on more than 165 miles of the Mississippi River, viz, between Grand Rapids and Aitkin, 1304 miles, and from St. Paul to some distance below the confluence of the Missisippi and St. Croix rivers. ENG 92



The officer in charge recommends appropriations for the operation and maintenance of the five reservoirs and for hydrological and meteorological observations, to determine the effect of the reservoir water. The latter purpose is specially worthy of consideration, for the result of the observations extending over a period of several years would determine the true effectiveness of the reservoirs. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

*$95, 690.28 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

55, 908. 67 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

39, 781. 61 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities

9, 323. 81 July 1, 1892, balance available.....

30, 457. 77 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

60,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

90, 457. 77 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 1,034, 683.50 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix Z 2.)

3. Chippewa River, including Yellow Banks, Wisconsin.—The plan for improvement of the Chippewa River consists in revetment of caving bends and construction of dams and jetties from Eau Claire to the confluence of the Chippewa and Mississippi, a distance of 57 miles, to confine the low-water volume to a channel of nearly uniform width and depth. The general plan was adopted in 1877, and the work has been carried on in accordance with it, varying, however, more or less as to location and extent of dams, jetties, etc. The protection of the Yellow Banks consists in a revetment of piling and fascines, the latter to be crowned with rock. The object of the Yellow Banks protection is to prevent their erosion, and thus to relieve the channels of the Chippewa River and of the Mississippi below the junction of the two streams from the masses of sand contributed by those banks. The plan for protecting the banks was adopted in 1883. The improvement of the river and the protection of the Yellow Banks were regarded as separate and distinct works until the act of August 11, 1888. Estimated cost of the consolidated improvement, including all the expenses from the commencement, $272,487.72.

Before the improvement commenced the depth on the bars at low water seldom exceeded 18 inches, and the crossing at the mouth of river was extremely difficult at that stage, owing to the volume of the river joining the Mississippi through a number of chamels of insufficient depth. These latter-named channels were contracted into one of good depth by means of long parallel jetties. Generally, wherever works for improvement were constructed by the Government, the low-water depths were increased from 18 inches to 3 to 4 feet, and the general improvement not only greatly facilitated the passage of steamers and rafts, but also greatly reduced the expense of rafting manufactured lumber.

Localities remaining to be improved have a least depth in the channel of about 2 feet.

No work, except slight repair, has been done at the Yellow Banks since 1883, when 4,978 linear feet of bank revetment had been completed and the piling for 3,275 feet had been driven ready for the backing of brush and stone.

* In Annual Report, 1891, amount unexpended July 1891, was stated as $80,027.11. In February, 1892, the amount of $15,663.17 was transferred back to the appropria. tion from amounts set aside in 1882 for payment of awards to Indians.

Total expended from commencement of operations in 1877 to June 30, 1891, including outstanding liabilities, $157,407.66.

During the past fiscal year there has been constructed a sheer boom at Dead Lake Cut-off; a dam of brush and stone, 1,000 feet in length, and 500 feet of foundation (3 courses) for another dam, at Plumn Island Flats. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

$9, 435.87 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..

7, 721.89 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

1, 713.98 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

538. 76 July 1, 1892, balance available

1, 175.22 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892


Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 .

6, 175. 22

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project ....... 100, 737.72 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix Z 3.)

4. St. Croix Rirer, Wisconsin and Minnesota.--The original project for improvement, adopted in 1878, was based upon a survey made in 1874, when the river was at a high stage of water and but comparatively few obstructions to be seen. It contemplated removal of snags, bowlders, sand bars, etc., and contraction of the low-water channels from Taylor Falls to the confluence of the river with the Mississippi into one of nearly uniform width. Estimated cost, $21,758. At low water, however, the channel had in many places but 2 feet depth, and steamers and barges made their way as best they could amongst the obstructions; at times it was impossible for them to get over the shoal places. The present project, adopted in 1880, and modified as to cost in 1882, and again in 1889, is based upon a low-water survey made in 1879, and differs from that originally adopted only in amount of work to be done. Estimated cost, $108,700.

Expended under present project to June 30, 1891, including outstanding liabilities, $80,717.94.

Total expended under original and present projects to June 30, 1891, including outstanding liabilities, $98,717.94.

The effect of the work of improvement has been to secure a least depth of 3 feet on the improved bars above Stillwater and 4 to 5 feet on the bars below that place. Generally it may be said of this improvement that at many points navigation has been rendered permanent where formerly it was uncertain, and that in other places it has been made practicable where before improvement it was impossible.

In the improved parts of the river above Stillwater there is a lowwater depth in the channel of 2 feet; below Stillwater there is a good channel with a least depth of 4 feet.

The work of improvement during the last year has consisted in widening the channel over the Hudson Bar by dredging, in removing snags and sunken logs, and making minor repairs to Log House Dam. The work at Hudson enabled the raft boats, with their large tows, to more easily make the run over the bar.

Expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, including outstanding liabilities, $1,743.08.

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