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July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.
$11, 766. 20 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
45. 33 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
11, 720.87 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities July 1, 1892, balance available .....
11, 720.16 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 106,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix A A 2.)
EXAMINATION, MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH PROVISIONS OF RIVER
AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED SEPTEMBER 19, 1890. The required preliminary examination of Missouri River, Montana, between Great Falls and canyon next below Stubbs Ferry, was made by the local engineer in charge, Capt. Powell, and report thereon submitted through Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Northwest Division. It is the opinion of Capt. Powell and of the di vision engineer, based upon the facts and reasons given, that this locality is worthy of improvement, and this opinion was concurred in by me. No new survey of this reach of Missouri River is necessary at this time; but in order to obtain use of the results of surveys heretofore made, an allotment was made for preparation of maps, and a final report, with plan and estimate for improvement, has been submitted.
The plan of improvement proposed contemplates (1) removal of snags from the reach of river extending up from Great Falls, 51 miles, known as the “long pool,” which now admits 3-foot navigation at low stages, and from a few miles above; (2) construction of 2,000 feet of dams and 3,500 feet of bank protection, so as to extend the 3-foot channel 4 miles farther to the towns of Cascade and St. Clair; and (3) construction of 10,000 feet of dams, removal of bowlders and rock, and marking other bowlders and rock with buoys, on the next reach of 60 or 70 miles up to the cañon next below Stubbs Ferry, so as to provide a channel with a least depth of 2.5 feet at low water.
The cost of this work is estimated as follows: Snagging : .
$200.00 Construction of dams, 12,000 feet
90,000.00 Construction of bank protection, 3,500 feet
17,500.00 Removal of rock and bowlders.
8, 040.00 Placing of ten buoys,
97.50 Total ....
115, 837.50 It is estimated that the inaintenance of this work will cost $4,500 annually.
The reports were transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 114, Fifty-second Congress, first session. (See also Appendix A A 3.)
IMPROVEMENT OF TENNESSEE RIVER ABOVE CHATTANOOGA, TEN
NESSEE, AND BELOW BEE TREE SHOALS, ALABAMA; OF CUMBERLAND RIVER, TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY, AND OF THEIR TRIBUTARIES IN EASTERN TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY.
Officers in charge, Lieut. Col. J. W. Barlow, Corps of Engineers, to October 23, 1891, and Lieut. Col. Henry M. Robert, Corps of Engineers, since that date, with Lieut. John Biddle, Corps of Engineers, under their immediate orders.
1. Tennessee River.—a. Above Chattanooga, Tennessee (188 miles).This section of the river extends from the mouth of the French Broad River to Chattanooga, and is usually navigable during the winter and spring months. Examinations were made in 1830 and 1871. The obstructions were described as “low-water obstructions," consisting of reefs, rock or gravel bars, and snags, etc., brought down by freshets. The depth on these bars varies from 10 to 30 inches at a low-water stage; the current being from 24 to 6 miles per hour.
The original project, under which the work is still carried on, was to blast a channel through the reefs, reduce the gravel and sand bars, and to deepen the water on the bars by the construction of wing dams, thus contracting the water way so as to secure a safe, navigable channel, 3 feet in depth at average low water.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, including outstanding indebt. edness, was $253,891.33, which expenditure has resulted in securing a lengthened season of navigation for steamboats and a safer channel for the passage of rafts and flatboats. Of the forty-three obstructions enumerated in 1830, channel work has been carried on to the extent of improving at least twenty-nine of them. Owing to the character of the banks these improvements are practically permanent.
At White Creek Shoals the longitudinal dam was lengthened and two spur dams built, causing the removal of the sand bar to deep water, The comprehensive survey from Chattanooga, Tenn., to the junction of the Holston and French Broad rivers " provided for by act of September 19, 1890, was begun in May, 1891, under the local charge of First Lieut. John Biddle, Corps of Engineers, and was carried to Concord, about 25 miles, at the close of the fiscal year 1891.
During the present fiscal year this survey was extended to Chattanooga, 188.1 miles from the initial point. The field work was finished October 31, 1891. The preparation of maps of the survey, whereon to base the required estimates and project for improvement are well advanced, and report will he rendered as soon as practicable.
In July the channel at Soddy Shoals was carefully examined and preparations made for drilling and blasting the rock forming the dangerous reefs of this obstruction. Three dams were also repaired. High water and frequent rises during the season greatly hindered the progress of the work, which was entirely suspended in November. Engineer property pertaining to the Tennessee River and the upper tributaries was then moved to Chattanooga for winter moorings as a measure of economy and safety.
Amount expended during the fiscal year, including outstanding indebtedness, was $17,821.80, as follows: General improvement
$7, 077. 03 Survey from Chattanooga to junction of Holston and French Broad rivers. 10, 744. 77 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended ...
19,518. 70 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year
17, 675. 77 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
1, 842.93 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
146.03 July 1, 1892, balance available....
1, 696.90 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892
25,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893...
26, 696.90 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.....
44,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
b. Below Bee Tree Shoals, Alabama (225 miles).--This section of the river is generally navigable during the greater part of the year, though several obstructions render navigation difficult during the low-water season.
No instrumental survey has been made of this section of the river, por estimates and project submitted for its improvement, and it is very necessary that such a survey be made to obtain data whereon to base estimates and a project for the improvement of the Lower Tennessee. The work required to be done is channel excavation and construction of wing dams to widen, straighten, and deepen the channel at the principal obstructions.
The act of September 19, 1890, appropriated $25,000 for the preservation of Livingston Point, Kentucky, which, with two small islands, forms Paducah Harbor, at the mouth of the river. The plan of improvement adopted consisted in covering the wearing slopes of the banks with a revetment of stone and brush and the construction of a pile and stone dike along the crest of the weakest part of the point, where the Ohio cuts through at high stages of the river. Contract was made for building a part of the dike, including necessary shore protection, and work was begun in May, 1891.
The sum of $1,327.21, including outstanding indebtedness, had been expended in dike construction at the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891.
During the present fiscal year the work of dike construction and bank protection was continued under contract until September 23, 1891, when the contract was terminated. The dike on the Ohio side was built for a distance of 660 feet across the washout near the extremity of the point. The bank protection covers a length of 2,330 feet, the average width being 47 feet.
The amount expended during the fiscal year was $21,797.34.
Twenty-five thousand dollars has been allotted for work at Livingston Point from appropriation of July 13, 1892, for improving Tennessee River below Chattanooga, making an available amount for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, of $27,035,70. The amount (estimated) required for completing the existing project is $130,000.
The money statement is included in that for improvement of Tennessee River below Chattanooga, page 275.
(See Appendix B B 1.)
2. Hiawassee River, Tennessee.—This stream rises in the Blue Ridge, in North Carolina and Georgia. It flows in a west-northwesterly direction, and enters the Tennessee River about 36 miles above Chattanooga. On examination made in 1874 the channel was found to be obstructed by rock reefs, gravel bars, snags, and overhanging trees.
The present project consists in narrowing the water way at the shoal places by building wing dams and excavating the reef and gravel bars and removing surface obstructions, so as to secure a channel 40 feet wide and 2 feet deep at ordinary low water from Savannah Ford to the mouth of the river, about 43 miles.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, including outstanding indebtness, was $34,951.53, and has resulted in a partial improvement of the river, securing an increased depth in channel and the removal of sur. face obstructions principally below Charleston.
Channel work was resumed during June, 1892, at Matthew Shoals; 65 overhanging trees were cut down, high water preventing work in channel.
The amount expended during the fiscal year, including outstanding indebtedness, was $425.29.
Work on the dams will be begun as soon as practicable. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$1,586.51 June 30, 1892, amount expended during tiscal year
July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
July 1, 1892, balance available...
1, 161. 22 (See Appendix B B 2.)
3. French Broad River, Tennessee.—This stream rises on the western slopes of the Blue Ridge, in North Carolina, and enters the State of Tennessee at Paint Rock, and after a course of 121 miles in that State joins the Holston about 5 miles above Knoxville, thus forming the Tennessee River.
By examinations made in 1871 and 1875 the river was found to be obstructed by rock reefs, sand and gravel bars, and surface obstructions, such as bowlders, snags, and overhanging trees. It was not deemed practicable to improve the river above Leadvale, but from this point to the mouth, a distance of about 90 miles, it is projected to remove all surface obstructions, and by excavation and the use of wing dams to secure for this distance a channel depth of 24 feet at ordinary low water. Above the mouth of Nolichucky River (Leadvale) to the boundary line of Tennessee and North Carolina a system of locks and dams is the only feasible improvement, but the amount of commerce does not warrant such an expenditure.
The amount expended to June 30, 1891, including outstanding indebtedness, was $41,301.11. This expenditure has resulted in the improvement of ten of the principal obstructions below Dandridge, by deepening and clearing the channel, constructing and modifying wing dams, and revetting the banks where necessary. At Seven Island Shoals the improvements have made upstream navigation possible at lower stages of the river. A general deepening of the channel from 6 to 10 inches has been obtained.
During the present fiscal year work was carried on at Bryant Shoals and Hanging Rock Shoals. At Bryant Shoals the old dam at foot of McCroskey Island was lengthened 50 feet, and two new dams built out from north bank, having a total length of 442 feet, to assist in reducing the gravel bars at foot of the island. A third dam, 306 feet long, was built across the chute south of the island, closing the chute and thus submerging and cutting a channel through the bar at the mouth of Pigeon River. At Hanging Rock Shoals the channel was changed from the north to the south side of Brabson Island without causing detention to boats. Eight dams were built, aggregating a length of 2,694 linear feet; a retaining dam, with two spur dams, at foot of Brabson Island; one dåm, an extension of an existing fish-trap, and two new dams on south shore of island, and two dams from head of island to north bank, closing the old channel. The work has proved effective, but is not completed, additional dams being required. Operations were suspended early in November, the available funds being exhausted.
The amount expended during the fiscal year, including outstanding indebtedness, was $8,129.70.
July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$8, 145. 46 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
7,956.07 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended
189. 39 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.
173. 63 July 1, 1892, balance available
15. 76 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892*
15,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.
15, 015, 76 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 88,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B B 3.)
4. Clinch River, Tennessee.--This stream rises in the Cumberland Mountains in Virginia, and after following a southwesterly course for about 400 miles, empties into the Tennessee River at Kingston, 104 miles above Chattanooga. About 230 miles of the river flows in the State of Tennessee.
An examination was made in 1875, when the channel obstructions were found to be rock reefs, sand and gravel bars, snags, and overhanging trees.
The present project provides for channel excavation, removing surface obstructions, and the construction of wing dams, so as to secure a safe navigable channel of 2 feet at average low water from mouth of river to Clinton, about 70 miles, and of 11 feet from Clinton to Haynes or Walkers Ferry, about 75 miles.
From Haynes to the Tennessee State line, 85 miles, the only work practicable is to remove the loose rock, and reduce the rock ledges, thus to assist flatboat navigation during rain-tides."
The total amount expended to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, was $31,964.09, and has resulted in securing a reduction of the rock reefs, the removal of snags, drift, etc., brought down by the annual floods, and the construction of several heavy riprap dams above and below Haynes; a safe channel was secured at stages of the water from 2 to 3 feet lower than before the improvements were begun. Special advantages have been gained at Cloud Shoals, Hibb Shoals, Black Shoals, and Bletcher Shoals. Above Haynes, improvements were made at Hunter Shoals, Sycamore Shoals, and Hopson Shoals.
The amount expended during the present fiscal year, including outstanding indebtedness, was $3,472.99, which was used principally at Llewellyn Shoals and Youngs Island, in channel excavation and construction of riprap dams. Llewellyn Shoals are now reported as navi. gable at a stage of water 1 foot or 1.1 feet lower than before operations were begun in July of the present fiscal year. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended
$3, 510. 70 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.
3, 399. 15 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..
111.55 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities
73. 84 July 1, 1892, balance available...
37.71 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.
4,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893...
*One thousand dollars of this appropriation is to be used in removing bar in Little Pigeon River,