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6. Harbor at Thunder Bay, Michigan.--Prior to the commencement of improvements there was a navigable channel from Thunder Bay into the river of 12 feet depth and of a variable width, which at one place was only 50 feet. The original project for the improvement of the harbor was adopted in 1876, and provided for an entrance channel from the bay into the river, of navigable width, and of not less than 13 feet depth, a subsequent modification increasing the proposed depth to 14 feet.

The work was practically completed in 1884, but it was then stated that the improvement was of such a character that it would require at. tention from time to time, and it was recommended that a sufficient appropriation be made to render $10,000 available for use when it should be wanted. · On June 30, 1891, a channel about 150 feet wide and 14 feet deep extended across the bar, and dredging to restore the 14-foot channel in accordance with the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, was still in progress. Work was continued until October 20, 1891, by which time the 14-foot channel was restored for a width of 250 feet entirely across the bar; one dredge cut 16 feet deep and 20 feet wide also extended entirely across the bar, and two adjacent dredge cuts of same depth were partially finished.

In order that the depth of 16 feet obtained in the river may be rendered available, the next appropriation should be expended in deepening the channel across the bar to the full depth of 16 feet for a suitable width. Totalexpenditure to June 30, 1891

$20, 785.81 Expended during fiscal year.

3, 403. 69 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892 .

24, 189.50 July 1, 1891, balance inexpended

5, 372. 50 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

4,518.87 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.....

823. 63 (Amount (estimated) required for completion of combined projects for Thunder Bay River and Harbor...

10, 587.48 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 6.)

7. Thunder Bay River, Michigan.—Before improvements were commenced, Thunder Bay River from its mouth to 1 mile above varied in width from 175 to 100 feet, and had a navigable channel of from 14 to 11 feet deep except at the upper end, where the depth diminished to 5 feet.

The general project for the improvement of the river contemplates a channel 16 feet deep within the dock lines established by the city engineer of Alpena, Mich., in 1888, the width varying from 100 to 50 feet according to locality, and the channel extending from the mouth of the river to a point 1 mile above.

On June 30, 1891, one dredge cut about 25 feet wide and 16 feet deep extended upon the northerly side of the axis of the river from the lighthouse crib at the mouth to the Second Street Swing Bridge in Alpena; a second dredge cut had been made upon the southerly side of the axis for about half this distance, and dredging was still in progress. Work was continued until November 24, 1891, when the contract was closed, and a channel 16 feet deep and from 100 to 50 feet wide extended from

the mouth of the river to a point about seven-eighths of a mile above. At this point bed rock was struck, and the cost of further extending the channel will be too great to be warranted by the possible benefits to be derived from so doing.

In order that the depth of 16 feet obtained in the river may be rendered available, the next appropriation should be expended in deepening the channel across the bar at its mouth to the full depth of 16 feet for a suitable width. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891

$1, 724. 10 Expended during fiscal year

6,996. 20 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892

8, 720.30 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended...

9, 608. 50 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

8, 328.80 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ...

1, 279. 70 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

10,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893. ...,

11, 279. 70 NOTE.— The estimate of the amount required for completion of the combined projects for improving Thunder Bay River and Harbor is given in the money statement for Thunder Bay Harbor, Michigan, page 335.

(See Appendix L L 7.)

8. Harbor at Au Sable, Michigan.-Before the beginning of improvements the mouth of Au Sable River was 150 feet wide, with a depth of 5 feet over the bar. 'Above the mouth for a quarter of a mile 7 to 10 feet of water was found, and above this point only 5 or 6 feet.

The present project for the improvement of the harbor was adopted in 1866 and modified in 1879, the object being to obtain a channel of not less than 10 feet in depth for a width of 100 feet from Lake Huron to the State Road Bridge at Au Sable.

The money heretofore expended on this improvement has given temporary results only, and a permanent channel can not be secured except at so great a cost as to be disproportionate to the benefits to be obtained. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891

$114, 786, 12 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892

114, 786. 12 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

200. 55 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

4.05 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

196.50 (See Appendix L L 8.)

9. Saginaw River, Michigan.-Before the improvements were begun the entrance to Saginaw River was obstructed by a bar in Saginaw Bay about a mile from the shore and a half mile in width between the 10foot curves, with a minimum depth of about 9 feet. Between the mouth of the river and Bay City, a distance of about 5 miles, the depth varied from 15 to 30 feet. Thence to the head of the river, a further distance of about 16 miles, the channel was obstructed by a number of bars having only 7 feet of water upon them, thus limiting the navigable depth to about 7 feet, although the prevailing depth varied between 12 and 20 feet.

The original project for the improvement of the river was adopted in 1866. Various additions were subsequently made to it until 1882, when a board of engineers recommended that a channel be made 200

feet wide, with a depth of 12 feet, thence to the head of the river, a total distance of about 23 miles.

Additions to this project have been made at various times. These provided for the repair, extension, and reconstruction of the revetment confining the Carrollton Channel and for the construction of similar works at the head of Crow Island for the improvement of Zilwaukee Bar.

On June 30, 1891, dredging was in progress on the bar at the mouth of the river and at Zilwaukee Bar. Repairs were being made to the Carrollton revetinent and the wing dam was being extended.

During the fiscal year dredging has been continued at the mouth of the river, and is still in progress. Dredging has also been done at Zil. waukee Bar, in the vicinity of Bristol Street Bridge, Saginaw, and in the channel of the river below Melbourne. The burnt superstructure of the Carrollton revetment has been repaired, as well as the wrecked portion of the lower end of the old wing dam at the head of Crow Island; and the latter was extended downstream, terminating upon the west shore of the island.

Owing to the recent low stage of water, a bar at Essexville, near the mouth of the river, has come into special notice. A channel must be dredged across this bar in order to make available the channel contemplated in the project. The cost of this work was not included in the original estiinate, nor was the amount necessary to complete the West Channel along West Bay City.

The amount of material yet to be removed in order to complete the projected channel is estimated at about 640,000 cubic yards, and the cost at $281,203. But it is perfectly well understood that considerable portions of the work can never be considered as permanently completed, and that more or less dredging will always be required after each spring freshet, at a probable cost of not less than $5,000 per year. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891...

$503, 331. 78 Expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities.

52, 326.00 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892...

555, 657. 78 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

73, 727. 42 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

61, 109. 73 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

12, 617.69 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

$8, 310.45 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts... 3, 352.50

11, 662.95 July 1, 1892, balance available.....

954. 74 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892..

100,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....

100, 954. 74 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 68, 250.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 9.)

10. Harbor of refuge at Sand Beach, Lake Huron, Michigan.--Prior to 1876 vessels, when caught in heavy weather near the dangerous Pointe aux Barques, the southerly headland of the mouth of Saginaw Bay, were compelled to run a distance of 60 miles and find refuge in St. Clair River. After the subsidence of the storm those upward bound had to work their way back again. The project for the construction of a harbor of refuge at Sand Beach

ENG 92-22

was adopted in 1873, and consisted of a breakwater constructed of timber cribs filled with stone, inclosing an area which is to be deepened by dredging where necessary.

The estimate of the probable cost of the improvement was $1,442,500. The sum of $1,155,000 has been appropriated for the work, and it was practically completed in 1885, at a cost of about $975,000. Few improvements have resulted in greater benefit to the lake commerce, as is fully shown by the infrequency of disasters in the vicinity since it became available.

The dredging in progress on June 30, 1891, has been continued throughout the fiscal year, interrupted only by the winter. On June 30, 1892, this work was stopped and the dredge discharged, as the limit of the funds assigned for this purpose under the contract had then been reached. The work done consisted in removing shoals in and around the harbor, the material excavated being composed of hard clay, bowlders, and sandstone bedrock, very similar in character to grindstone. All the dredging contemplated for the fiscal year was completed, except upon a shoal at the main entrance to the harbor, and six additional dredge cuts were made across this.

Repairs to the piers were made by a diver during 1891, prior to October 1. In May, 1892, the diver made a thorough examination of the pier foundations and found the damage done during the winter less than usual. On June 1, 1892, the diver began repairing this damage, and this work was still in progress at the close of the fiscal year.

The original project for the harbor has been practically completed, except the superstructure on the south pier, and the dredging, and it is thought that the former will not prove necessary. The dredging, though practically completed as far as the original project is concerned, may be continued to advantage.

The west pier now appears to be in a less satisfactory condition than the others, and extensive repairs must soon be made to the portion above water. The timbers are badly decayed, and the whole superstructure will have to be rebuilt with timber or replaced by more durable material.

The piers were begun in 1873, and age and decay have injured many of the timbers that are above water. There is no doubt that the superstructure will continue to suffer more and more each succeeding year and that the annual cost of repair will steadily increase.

As is well known, this harbor has but little local importance, but is of incalculable benefit to the general commerce of the lakes. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891...

$1,091, 812. 26 Expended during fiscal year (exclusive of outstanding liabilities).... 14, 256. 34 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892......

1, 106,068.60 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

59, 673.51 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year..

15,511.88 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended.

44, 161. 63 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities.

3,778. 42 July 1, 1892, balance available ....

40, 383. 21 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

150,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....

190, 383. 21 Amount (estimated required for completion of existing project..... 80,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 10.)

11. Black River, Michigan, at Port Huron.-Before improvements were commenced the lower reach of Black River from its mouth to the Grand Trunk Railroad Bridge, a length of nearly 11 miles, varied in width from 120 to 150 feet, and had a navigable channel of from 10 to 14 feet in depth, except at a few points, where it was obstructed by shoals or bars having only 84 feet of water over them.

The original estimate for the improvement of the river to a depth of 15 feet was $55,110. The river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, in appropriating for this improvement required a depth of 16 feet. The estimate had, therefore, to be increased to $75,000. The project upon which this latter estimate was based contemplates excavating a channel 16 feet deep froin the mouth of the river to the Grand Trunk Railroad Bridge, the width varying from 160 to 75 feet, according to locality.

On June 30, 1891, a channel 16 feet deep and 75 feet wide extended from the mouth of the river to Military Street Bridge, and dredging was still in progress. Except for interruption by the winter, work has been continued throughout the fiscal year, and is not yet completed. June 30, 1892, a channel 16 feet deep and 75 feet wide extended from the mouth of the river to Military Street Bridge, a distance of about 1,700 feet. Thence for a further distance of about 4,500 feet there was a channel 50 feet wide and of the same depth. The total length of the improved channel was about 6,200 feet. Total expenditure on project to June 30, 1891....

$2, 399.11 Expended during fiscal year (inclusive of outstanding liabilities). 10, 536, 27 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892

12, 935. 38 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.......

23, 831.23 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

9, 156. 73 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

14, 374.50 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities..

$2, 309.88 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts.. 12, 061. 62

14, 374.50 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

10,000.00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.....

40,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 11.)

12. Mouth of Black River, Michigan.-Black River empties into St. Clair River at Port Huron, Mich. At and below its mouth, extending beyond the middle of St. Clair River, there is a bar or middle ground which was dredged by the Government, under former appropriations, to a clear depth of 15 feet. The main channel of St. Clair River is found between the middle ground and the Canadian shore.

By the deposit of material brought down by the current of Black River, the depth of this bar has been reduced an average of about 6 inches, and in conjunction with a low stage of water has become an impediment to navigation along the front of the city in the vicinity of the mouth of Black River.

The approved project for the improvement of this bar contemplates making a series of dredge cuts of a uniform depth of 16 feet along the dock front of Port Huron, from the 16-foot curve above to the same curve below the mouth of Black River, the first cut at a distance of about 50 feet from the wharves and the others to continue the work outward as far as the available funds will permit.

By June 30, 1891, a channel of 16 feet clear depth extended from the

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