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16-foot curve above the mouth of the river to the same curve below, and from a line parallel to the wharves and 50 feet outside of them towards the middle of St. Clair River, making the improved channel 550 feet wide, its total length being 2,200 feet. Work was still in progress.

Work was continued until the funds were exhausted on November 14, 1891, when the improved channel had been extended 170 feet farther towards the middle of the St. Clair River, making its total width 720 feet. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891...

$12, 868. 23 Expended during fiscal year (inclusive of outstanding liabilities)

6,939, 05 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892 ...

19, 807. 28 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

9, 259. 47 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

9, 066. 75 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended ....

192.72 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892

10,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893..

10, 192, 72 (See Appendix L L 12.)

13. St. Clair Flats Canal, Michigan.- The present approved project for the improvement of the canal contemplates driving a double row of sleet piling to a depth of 26 feet along the channel face of each dike, dredging the area between the dikes to a depth of 20 feet, continuing the channel above and below the canal to the same depth in river and lake, and rebuilding the decayed portions of the timber superstructure. It is considered sufficient to obtain the depth of 18 feet at present, and to postpone obtaining the depth of 20 feet until the general project for a continuous depth of 20 feet along the entire water route shall have reached a more advanced stage. The estimated cost of obtaining these two depths is as follows: For 18 feet

$365, 000.00 For 20 feet

513, 559.40 On June 30, 1891, a channel 18 feet in clear depth and 150 feet in width extended from the 18-foot curve in St. Clair River, about 900 feet above the canal, down into the canal for a total length of about 3,890 feet, the decayed channel occupying the east half of the northern part of the canal. A little over 3,000 linear feet of sheet piling remained to be done to complete the revetment and work was still in progress.

During the fiscal year dredging has been continued and is still in progress, and revetment construction has been completed.

On June 30, 1892, a channel 18 feet in clear depth extended from the 18-foot curve in St. Clair River, about 900 feet above the canal, for the full width of the canal (about 300 feet) and throughout its whole length, and for a farther distance of 2,400 feet below the canal, where its width was gradually increased to 380 feet. A double row of sheet piling had been driven to a depth of 26 feet along the channel face of each dike.

The general project for a continuous depth of 20 feet along the entire water route is not yet in a sufficiently advanced stage to warrant making this depth at St. Clair Flats Canal at present, but the depth of 18 feet is urgently demanded. All through commerce between Lakes Ontario and Erie and Detroit River, on the one hand, and Lakes Huron, Micbi. gan, and Superior, on the other, must pass through this canal. This commerce is about the same as that through Detroit River, which, for

the season of 1891, consisted of 34,251 vessels, having a registered tonnage of 22,160,000. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891

$696, 179.50 Expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities.

53, 581.40 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892

749, 760.90 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

78,981.21 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year

63, 932. 11 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

15, 019. 10 July 1, 1892, outstanding liabilities..

$7, 940.88 July 1, 1892, amount covered by uncompleted contracts... 3, 264. 17

11, 205.05 July 1, 1892, balance availablo, applicable only to Grosse Pointe Channel. 3, 814.05 Amonnt (estimated) required for completion of existing project.....

196, 250.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 13.)

14. Operating and care of St. Clair Flats Canal, Michigan.—The canal is in immediate charge of a custodian, who reports any violations of canal regulations, and also acts as inspector whenever work is in progress.

During the spring of 1892 repairs were made to the canal revetments at eleven different places, where they had been injured by the striking of vessels. The cost of this work was $571.16.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, the ordinary current expenses of operating and care of the canal, such as salary of custodian, trimming willows, etc., exclusive of the amount named above, was $1,188.67.

The estimated cost of operating and care of the canal for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, is as follows: Salary of custodian...

$1,500 Current repairs and contingencies which can neither be foreseen nor estima

ted for in detail, to include a fair proportion of the expenses of the office of the superintending engineer at Detroit..

3,500 Total.....

5, 000 All of which is provided for by indefinite appropriation (section 4 of the river and harbor act of June 5, 1884). Total expenditures to June 30, 1891

$59, 253. 30 Expended during fiscal year...

1, 888.67 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892.....

61, 141.97 Amount required for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893......

5,000.00 Balance remaining of allotments of preceding year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities..

$3, 308.33 Outstanding liabilities....

625.00

2, 683. 33 Additional allotment required for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893. 2, 316.67

(See Appendix L L 14.)

15. Clinton River, Michigan.-In 1870 the channel over the bar at the entrance to this river afforded a depth of only 3 feet, while the depth in the river for some distance above was 10 feet.

A project for dredging a channel across the bar was approved and carried into effect in 1870. A project for the general improvement of

the river from its mouth to the city of Mount Clemens was submitted in 1880 and renewed and approved in 1889. It contemplates a channel 8 feet deep and of navigable width for the entire distance of about 8! miles from the mouth of the river to Mount Clemens. Involved in this was the closing of a gap opposite Mount Clemens and of Catfish (or

lind) Channel; also closing the main channel at and making a straight cut across Shoemakers Bend, constructing a revetment on the north side of the mouth from the shore to the requisite depth in Lake St. Clair, and dredging wherever necessary to attain the desired depth, the estimated cost of the improvement being $32,926.

By June 30, 1891, the work at Shoemakers Bend had been completed, the gap opposite Mount Clemens had been closed, some dredging had been done at the mouth of the river and at various shoals between there and Mount Clemens, and dredging was still in progress.

Work was continued until the funds were exhausted on October 4, 1891, when a channel 8 feet in depth and 75 feet or more in width extended from the mouth of the river to the bridge at Mount Clemens. Although this channel can not be considered as permanent, no complaint of its deterioration has yet been received.

The good effect of the dredging already done is liable to be destroyed by deposits of material brought down by annual freshets in the river. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891..

$45, 405.06 Expended during fiscal year...

6, 006.54 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892.....

51, 411. 60 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended..

7,971.49 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

7, 869.97 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

101.52 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

8,564.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.

8, 665.52 (See Appendix L L 15.)

16. Grosse Pointe Channel, Michigan.-Between the lower end of St. Clair Flats and the deep water of Detroit River the only known obstruction to navigation is the large shoal off Grosse Pointe, known as Grosse Pointe Flats. At ordinary stages of water vessels drawing 16 feet can cross this obstruction, but when the water is as low as it has been during the last few years vessels drawing more than 15 feet can pass only with great care and difficulty.

The river and harbor act of August 11, 1888, appropriated $75,000 for improving St. Clair Flats Ship Canal,

all or any portion of which may, in the discretion of the engineer, be expended in dredg. ing Grosse Pointe Channel." Five thousand dollars was consequently reserved from this appropriation for the removal of any small and welldefined obstruction that might be found at Grosse Pointe, as well as for making such surveys as might be necessary before making a detinite project. A small shoal was removed in July, 1889, but no more such obstructions have since been found.

As the improvement of other connecting channels of the Great Lakes begins to approach the 20-foot depth, which it is recognized that they should ultimately have, the annoyance to shipping at Grosse Pointe Flats must increase, and the necessity for a channel at this point is urgent. The number of vessels annually crossing these flats is enormous, and to insure a thoroughly satisfactory result a channel 800 feet

*

wide and nearly 54 miles long should be dredged and the full depth of 20 feet should be obtained at whatever cost. The approximate estimate for this work is $956,825.76.

The commerce which passes this point already exceeds 20,000,000 tons annually, and steps can not be taken too soon for its accommodation. July 1, 1891, balance unexpended .

$3, 844. 05 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended

3, 844.05 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 956, 825.76 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 16.)

17. Rouge River, Michigan.- Before improvements were begun Rouge River had a channel of 11 feet over the bar at its mouth, and from 10 to 17 feet thence to the bridge of the St. Louis and Wabash Railroad, a distance of nearly 15,000 feet. In earlier days vessels bad ascended it to Dearborn, a distance of about 15 miles.

The approved project for improvement contemplates dredging the river to a depth of 16 feet and width of 240 feet at the mouth, gradually narrowing to 100 feet at a distance of about 1,150 feet above, and then continuing this width to the bridge of the St. Louis and Wabash Railroad.

On June 30, 1891, the dredged channel was 16 feet deep, 240 feet wide at the mouth, gradually narrowing to 100 feet at a distance of 1,150 feet above; thence to the Michigan Central Railroad Bridge, an additional distance of about 11,500 feet, it averaged 70 feet in width, being wider at the curves. The total length of the dredged channel was about 12,650 feet.

No funds were available during any part of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, for which reason no work was done, and some shoaling has taken place in portions of the channel already dredged. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891

$20,483. 28 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892

20,483. 28 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended.

133. 17 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended..

133. 17 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

11, 690.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....

11, 823. 17 (See Appendix L L 17.)

18. Detroit River, Michigan.Originally the channel at Lime Kiln Crossing, Detroit River, could not be depended upon for more than 13 feet of water, the ordinary depth being much affected by the direction of the wind. As originally projected in 1874, the improvement at this point was to consist of a curved channel 300 feet wide, with a uniform depth of 20 feet, and the original estimate was based upon this project.

In 1883 it was wisely determined to so modify the project as to secure a straight channel, the least width of which should be 300 feet, with a somewhat greater width at each end, utilizing the work already done.

In 1886 this was further modified to the end that the width of the channel should be increased to 400 feet by removing an additional 100 feet from the western (American) side; and in 1888 a further additional width of 40 feet on the western side was authorized, as the lowest bid

under the final appropriation was so low that the money in hand would pay for the increased excavation.

This 440-foot channel was completed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, at a cost of but little more than half the estimate for the 400-foot channel, and the only work done during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, has been the preparation of a map of the river front of Detroit, and the reading of water gauges.

The project for Lime Kiln Crossing having been completed, no further estimate is submitted for work at that point. Owing to the low water of the last few years, however, vessels have struck on a number of shoals in different parts of the river, and, in view of the magnitude of the commerce affected, all such shoals should be removed as soon as possible. Total expenditure to June 30, 1891

-$702, 122.04 Expended during fiscal year

64.48 Total expenditure to June 30, 1892.

702, 186. 52 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended .......

988. 37 June 30, 1892, amount expended during fiscal year.

64. 48 July 1, 1892, balance unexpended....

923. 89 Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892.

30,000.00 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893.....

30,923. 89 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 20,000.00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 18.)

19. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation.— Wreck of scow Hannah Moore.—The unladen wooden scow Hannah Moore became water-logged and sunk in St. Clair River on July 3, 1891. When it became apparent that her owner did not propose to remove her, the thirty days' notice required by law was pubÎished and specifications for her removal were issued.

In due course a contract for her removal was entered into on September 28, 1891, with the lowest bidder, Mr. Chauncey E. Mitchell, for the lump sum of $880. By November 9 the wreck was completely rem and on November 16 the contract was closed. The total cost to the Government, including superintendence, printing, advertising, etc., was $902.10. No articles of value were recovered.

(See Appendix L L 19.)

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS ON LAKE ERIE WEST OF

ERIE, PENNSYLVANIA.

Officers in charge, Maj. L. Cooper Overman, Corps of Engineers, to December 1, 1891, and Lieut. Col. Jared A. Smith, Corps of Engineers, since December 12, 1891, with Lieut. William V. Judson, Corps of Engi. neers, under their immediate orders; Lieut. William V. Judson, Corps of Engineers, in temporary charge from December 1 to 12, 1891.

1. Monroe Harbor, Michigan. The original project for the improvement of this harbor was adopted in 1835, when Monroe was a town of considerable importance, and when the navigable waters of the River Raisin were separated from the waters of Lake Erie by extensive shoals. It provided for cutting a canal through River Raisin Point, between the

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